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Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide


Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. Psychoanalysis is a quite popular theory, created by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud, which contains a lot of psychological and psychotherapeutic techniques of mental disorders treatment. Psychoanalysis is usually a long-term lasting therapy that requires multiple different activities like hypnosis, therapeutic conversations, experiments with associations, etc. (Fancher 1998). The original psychoanalysis theory formed by Freud is based on the theory of the complicated structure of human consciousness which includes three levels of personality. Freud’s Topographic theory divides the human mental apparatus into three systems Conscious, Pre-conscious, and Unconscious and later the three levels of personality were called the id, the ego, and the super-ego (Freud 1911). The Id part of personality contains human’s basic inherent instincts that in some way control people’s reactions to different stimuli and determine their behavior. When a person grows up the instincts are pushed out to the deepest levels of consciousness so that person can’t realize their influence anymore. The super-ego is the part of the personality that is on the surface of consciousness (Freud 1921). Super-ego works with the interaction of an individual and society and controls the person’s behavior according to social norms by using morality and conscience. The ego level is the core of psychoanalysis as the theory mostly works with this mental level which is responsible for human executive functions, as the ego is a mediator between the inside world (the id) and outside interactions of the super-ego. The ego contains all the memories from early childhood which, according to Freud’s theory, are basics for mental traumas and disorders. That’s why the role of psychoanalysis is to find out the deep stimuli (mostly sexual traumas and complexes) both from id and ego levels and to work with the basic traumas and neuroses that affect a person’s behavior patterns (Elliott 2002).

Therefore, the methodology of psychoanalysis is based on techniques that are aimed to reveal childhood memories and analyze them. The therapy gets through the following stages. Firstly, a therapist collects information about a patient’s personal features and mental disorders by using either hypnosis or association-based activities and collecting the data of the patient’s dreams. Most of the activities deal with symbolism, as it is the only way the human ego demonstrates itself evidently (Petocz 1999).

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