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Homework answers / question archive / Chapter 11 Intermolecular Attractions and the Properties of Liquids and Solids   Multiple Choice  1)The term, London forces, is a synonym for    ion–ion forces

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Attractions and the Properties of Liquids and Solids   Multiple Choice  1)The term, London forces, is a synonym for    ion–ion forces

Chemistry

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Attractions and the Properties of Liquids and Solids

  Multiple Choice

 1)The term, London forces, is a synonym for 

 

          1. ion–ion forces.
          2. permanent dipole-permanent dipole interactions.
          3. hydrogen bonding.
          4. instantaneous dipole–instantaneous dipole interactions.                         e. instantaneous dipole–induced dipole interactions.

 

 

  1. Which molecule is most polarizable and subject to significant instantaneous dipole–induced dipole forces?

 

          1. H3C—Br
          2. H3C—Cl
          3. H3C—F
          4. H3C—H

                  e.  H3C—I

 

 

  1. For small molecules of comparable molecular weight, which one of the following choices lists the intermolecular forces in the order of increasing strength?

 

          1. hydrogen bonds < dipole–dipole forces < London forces
          2. dipole–dipole forces < hydrogen bonds < London forces
          3. London forces < hydrogen bonds < dipole–dipole forces
          4. hydrogen bonds < London forces < dipole–dipole forces                      e. London forces < dipole–dipole forces < hydrogen bonds

 

 

  1. What compound will not exhibit hydrogen bonding in the liquid state?

 

                   a. CH3?CH2?Br

          1. CH3?CH2?NH2
          2. CH3?CH2?CH2?OH
          3. CH3?NH?CH3
          4. NH2?O?H

 

 

  1. Which covalent compound will exhibit hydrogen bonding in the liquid state?

 

   a. CH2F2 b. Cl2NH    c. H2PCl

          1. HBr
          2. NCl3

 

 

  1. Which covalent compound will exhibit hydrogen bonding in the liquid state?

 

          1. CCl2F2
          2. H2PCl
          3. HCl d. NH2OH    e. NF3

 

 

  1. Which compound will have the strongest intermolecular forces?

 

   a. CH3?CH2?H b. CH3?CH2?O?H    c. CH3?CH2?PH2

          1. CH3?CH2?S?H
          2. CH3?CH2?Se?H

 

 

  1. Which compound will have the weakest intermolecular forces?

 

                   a. CH3?CH2?H

          1. CH3?CH2?O?H
          2. CH3?CH2?PH2
          3. CH3?CH2?S?H
          4. CH3?CH2?Se?H

 

 

  1. It is thought that the strongest intermolecular forces between molecules of HCl are

 

                    a. covalent bonds.

b. dipole-dipole interactions.    c. ionic bonds.

          1. hydrogen bonds.
          2. London forces.

 

 

  1. Which compound is expected to exhibit hydrogen bonding?

 

   a. CH3?CH2?H b. CH3?CH2?O?H    c. CH3?CH2?PH2

          1. CH3?CH2?S?H
          2. CH3?CH2?Se?H

 

 

  1. At 1.0 atm pressure, ice (solid H2O) floats in water instead of sinking.  The reason for this is

 

                  a. when water freezes, it expands instead of contracting.

          1. the fusion process is endothermic, therefore the solid will float.
          2. the triple point has a lower temperature than the freezing point for water.
          3. the critical temperature has a higher temperature than the normal boiling point.
          4. the triple point corresponds to a pressure below 1 standard atmosphere.

 

 

  1. The property that measures or describes the magnitude of resistance to flow in a liquid is called

 

          1. London forces
          2. malleability
          3. surface tension
          4. vapor pressure

                  e. viscosity

 

 

  1. Which is not a property or phenomenon associated with the liquid state?

 

          1. fluidity
          2. meniscus c. sublimation
          1. surface tension
          2. viscosity

 

 

  1. Which is not a property or phenomenon associated with the liquid state?

 

          1. fluidity
          2. meniscus
          3. surface tension d. malleability    e. viscosity 
  1. When a liquid undergoes a phase change to a gas, the process is called

 

          1. condensation.
          2. deposition.
          3. fusion.
          4. sublimation. e. evaporation.

 

 

  1. A liquid which is at room temperature is in equilibrium with its vapor, because there is a cover on the container.  If the cover is removed, what is the immediate result?

 

          1. The average kinetic energy increases.
          2. The evaporation rate decreases.
          3. The evaporation rate increases.                       d. The condensation rate decreases.                         e. The condensation rate increases.

 

 

  1. Which compound should have the lowest vapor pressure at a temperature at which all these substances are in the liquid state?

 

          1. CH3?CH2?F
          2. CH3?CH2?CH3
          3. CH3?CH2?CH2?CH3 d. CH3?CH2?O?H    e. CH3?O?CH3

 

 

  1. Which compound should have the lowest vapor pressure at a temperature at which all these substances are in the liquid state?

 

          1. CH3?Br
          2. CH3?Cl
          3. CH3?F
          4. CH3?H

                   e. CH3?I

 

 

  1. Which compound should have the highest vapor pressure at a temperature at which all these substances are in the liquid state?

 

a. CH3?CH2?H    b. CH3?O?CH3

          1. CH3?CH2?CH2?CH3
          2. CH3?CH2?CH3
          3. CH3?CH2?S?H

 

 

  1. Which compound should have the highest vapor pressure at a temperature at which all these substances are in the liquid state?

 

          1. CH3?Br
          2. CH3?Cl
          3. CH3?F d. CH3?H    e. CH3?I

 

 

  1. Which compound should have the highest vapor pressure at a given temperature?

 

   a. CH3?Hg?CH3 b. CH3?O?CH3    c. CH3?S?CH3

          1. CH3?Se?CH3
          2. CH3?Te?CH3

 

 

  1. The vapor pressure of a liquid increases with increasing temperature.  The temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the prevailing outside atmospheric pressure is

 

a. the boiling point.    b. the flash point.

          1. the vaporization point.
          2. 100 °C.
          3. the normal boiling point.

 

 

  1. The vapor pressure of a liquid increases with increasing temperature.  The temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to 760 torr or 101,325 Pa is

 

          1. the boiling point.
          2. the flash point.
          3. the vaporization point.
          4. 100 °C.

                  e. the normal boiling point.

 

 

  1. Which compound should have the lowest boiling point?

 

          1. CH3?Br
          2. CH3?Cl
          3. CH3?F d. CH3?H    e. CH3?
  1. Which compound should have the lowest boiling point?

 

   a. CH3?Hg?CH3 b. CH3?O?CH3    c. CH3?S?CH3

          1. CH3?Se?CH3
          2. CH3?Te?CH3

 

 

  1. Which compound should have the highest boiling point?

 

          1. CH3?Br
          2. CH3?Cl
          3. CH3?F
          4. CH3?H

                   e. CH3?I

 

 

  1. Which compound should have the highest boiling point?

 

          1. CH3?Hg?CH3
          2. CH3?O?CH3
          3. CH3?S?CH3
          4. CH3?Se?CH3 e. CH3?Te?CH3

 

 

  1. Which factor has an effect on the value of the normal boiling point of a liquid?

 

          1. atmospheric pressure
          2. rate of condensation
          3. rate of evaporation

                        d. strength of the intermolecular forces                                   e. rate of temperature increase

 

 

  1. In order to boil water, we need to supply heat. This is in order to

 

          1. increase the kinetic energy of the molecules.
          2. disrupt dipole-dipole interactions.                    c. disrupt hydrogen bonding.
          1. decrease the potential energy of the molecules.
          2. All of the above.

 

 

  1. Given the following substances and their normal boiling points, in °C:  

C: 43.8 °C      D: 93.7 °C      M: 56.7 °C      T: 83.5 °C      R: 63.6 °C

        Which ranking correctly lists some of these substances in order of decreasing vapor pressure at 

        20 °C?

 

                        a. C > R > D                           b. D > T > R

          1. R > M > D
          2. C > D > M
          3. D > R > M

 

 

  1. Given the following substances and their normal boiling points, in °C:  

C: 43.8 °C      D: 93.7 °C      M: 56.7 °C      T: 83.5 °C      R: 63.6 °C

        Which ranking correctly lists some of these substances in order of increasing vapor pressure at 

        20 °C?

 

                    a. C < R < D

                  b. T < R < C

          1. R < T < D
          2. C < D < M
          3. D < M < R

 

 

  1. Given the following substances and their normal boiling points, in °C: 

C: 43.8 °C      D: 93.7 °C      M: 56.7 °C      T: 83.5 °C      R: 63.6 °C

           Which ranking correctly lists some of these liquids in order of decreasing intermolecular forces at

         20 °C?

 

          1. C > R > D
          2. D > C > R
          3. R > T > D
          4. C > D > M                       e. D > R > M

 

 

  1. Given the following substances and their normal boiling points, in °C: 

C: 43.8 °C      D: 93.7 °C      M: 56.7 °C      T: 83.5 °C      R: 63.6 °C

         Which ranking correctly lists some of these liquids in order of increasing intermolecular forces at

         20 °C?

 

                        a. C < R < D                           b. D < T < R

          1. R < T < C
          2. C < D < M
          3. D < R < M

 

 

  1. Dioxane, C4H8O2, has an enthalpy of fusion of 145.8 J g-1 and its melting point temperature is 

        11.0  °C.  How much heat is required to transform 142 g of solid dioxane at 11.0 °C into liquid dioxane, also at 11.0 °C?  

 

          1. 1.60 kJ
          2. 2.59 kJ  c. 20.7 kJ     d. 22.8 kJ

                     e. 40.3 kJ

 

 

  1. Benzene, C6H8, has an enthalpy of fusion of 127.4 J g-1 and its melting point temperature is 5.53 °C.  How much heat is required to transform 80.0 g of solid benzene at 5.53  °C into liquid benzene, also at 5.53 °C?  

 

    a. 705 J  b. 10.2 kJ     c. 14.4 kJ

          1. 19.3 kJ
          2. 22.3 kJ

 

 

  1. p-Xylene, C8H10, has an enthalpy of fusion of 158.3 J g-1 and its melting point temperature is 

        13.2 °C.  How much heat is required to transform 115 g of solid p-xylene at 13.2 °C into liquid pxylene, also at 13.2 °C?  

 

          1. 1.52 kJ
          2. 2.09 kJ  c. 18.2 kJ     d. 32.9 kJ

                     e. 41.8 kJ

 

  1. Benzophenone, C13H10O, has an enthalpy of fusion of 98.45 J g-1 and its melting point temperature is 47.85 °C.  How much heat is required to transform 126 g of solid benzophenone at 47.85 °C into liquid benzophenone, also at 47.85 °C?  

 

          1. 4.71 kJ
          2. 6.03 kJ  c. 12.4 kJ     d. 31.6 kJ

                     e. 40.4 kJ

 

 

  1. Substance A has a normal melting point of -25.0 °C, an enthalpy of fusion of 1200 J g-1;  specific heats for the solid and the liquid are 3.00 and 6.20 J g-1 °C -1, respectively.  To change 150 grams of A from a solid at –40.0 °C to a liquid at +70.0 °

 

          1. will require 1.52 x 105 joules.
          2. will require 1.81 x 105 joules.
          3. will require 2.21 x 103 joules.
          4. will require 2.29 x 105 joules.                  e. will require 2.75 x 105 joules.

 

 

  1. A substance, B, has a normal boiling point of +89.3 °C, and its enthalpy of vaporization of 260 J g-1.  To change 150 grams of B from a liquid at 89.3 °C to a gas at 89.3 °

 

                                    a. will require 5.15 x 102 joules.                          b. will require 3.90 x 104 joules.

          1. will require 4.37 x 105 joules.
          2. will require 1.08 x 105 joules.
          3. will require 1.55 x 105 joules.

 

 

  1. If 34.0 g of a solid with a molecular weight of 174.0 g/mol, which is already at its melting point,  requires 21.3 kJ of heat to melt it, what is the molar enthalpy of fusion, in kJ mol-1?

 

          1. 3.60 x 10-3 kJ mol-1   
          2. 4.16 kJ mol-1
          3. 2.40 x 10-1 kJ mol-1

                  d. 109 kJ mol-1

                     e. 1.26 x 105 kJ mol-1

 

  1. If 18.6 g of a solid with a molecular weight of 148.0 g/mol, which is already at its melting point,  requires 4.838 kJ of heat to melt it, what is the molar enthalpy of fusion, in kJ mol-1?

 

          1. 1.33 x 104 kJ mol-1   
          2. 0.608 kJ mol-1
          3. 569 kJ mol-1
          4. 0.0260 kJ mol-1

                   e. 38.4 kJ mol-1

 

 

  1. If 22.4 g of a solid with a molecular weight of 148.0 g/mol, which is already at its melting point,  requires 5.358 kJ of heat to melt it, what is the molar enthalpy of fusion, in kJ mol-1?

 

          1. 1.23 x 104 kJ mol-1   
          2. 0.811 kJ mol-1

                   c. 35.4 kJ mol-1

          1. 0.0282 kJ mol-1
          2. 1.78 x 104 kJ mol-1

 

 

  1. Given the phase changes: condensation, freezing, fusion, sublimation, vaporization.  Which (set) of these phase changes is (are) endothermic?

 

          1. condensation and freezing only
          2. fusion only
          3. fusion and vaporization only
          4. fusion and sublimation only

                   e. sublimation, fusion, and vaporization only

 

 

  1. Supercooling is defined as 

 

          1. the extremely rapid cooling of a vapor to form a liquid.
          2. the use of extremely cold refrigerants to achieve smaller crystal size when liquids are frozen.
          3. the extremely rapid cooling of a liquid to form a softer crystalline solid.

                        d. the cooling of a liquid to a temperature below its melting point without solidification.                           e. the cooling of a substance to absolute zero.

 

 

  1. Evaporation

 

          1. is an endothermic process.
          2. is an exothermic process. 
          3. involves breaking intermolecular forces. 
          4. leads to lower temperatures on the surface where it occurs.

                 e. a, c, and d

 

 

 

  1. The number of cubic unit cells which crystals can form is

 

          1. 1
          2. 2  c. 3     d. 4

                    e. 5

 

 

  1. The cubic unit cells which crystals can form are

 

          1. simple cubic and body centered cubic, only
          2. simple cubic and face centered cubic, only

                        c. simple cubic, face centered cubic and body centered cubic, only                                      d. simple cubic, face centered cubic and edge centered cubic, only

                    e. body centered cubic, face centered cubic and edge centered cubic, only

             

 

  1. The closest-packed structures of crystals fall into classes called

 

          1. simple cubic close packed and face centered cubic close packed
          2. simple cubic close packed and hexagonal cubic close packed                      c. cubic closest packing and hexagonal closest packing                                 d. cubic close packed and tetrahedral close packed

                     e. hexagonal close packed and tetrahedral close packed

 

 

  1. The repeating unit of a crystal structure is called the

 

                  a. unit cell.

          1. primitive cell.
          2. primitive lattice.
          3. crystal lattice.
          4. square lattice.

 

 

 

  1. A technique used for determining the structure of a crystalline substance and obtaining information from which the unit cell data can be derived is

 

          1. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
          2. microwave spectroscopy.
          3. infrared spectroscopy.
          4. ultraviolet laser scattering.

                  e. x-ray diffraction.

 

 

  1. How many lattice points are required to fully define a body-centered cubic unit cell?

 

          1. 2
          2. 4
          3. 8 d. 9

                    e. 14

 

 

  1. How many lattice points are required to fully define a face-centered cubic unit cell?

 

          1. 2
          2. 4
          3. 8
          4. 9

                  e. 14

 

 

  1. How many atoms are contained in one unit cell of metallic tungsten if it forms a face centered cubic unit cell?

 

   a. 2 b. 4    c. 8

          1. 9
          2. 14

 

 

  1. How many atoms are contained in one unit cell of metallic lanthanum if it forms a body-centered cubic unit cell?

 

a. 2    b. 4

          1. 8
          2. 9
          3. 14

 

 

  1. Crystals tend to have flat surfaces of particles that meet at angles characteristic of the substance. The particles may be

 

          1. atoms only.
          2. molecules or atoms, only.
          3. atoms or ions, only.
          4. molecules or ions, only.

                   e. molecules, atoms or ions.

 

 

  1. A new compound, boganium sulfide, has been discovered.  X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that it has a cubic unit cell with a sulfide ion at each of the corner lattice points, a sulfide ion at the geometric center of the unit cell, and a boganium ion in the center of each of the cube faces in the unit cell.  Based on this structure, the formula for the compound should be 

 

   a. Bo3S   b. Bo3S2      c. BoS  

          1. Bo2S3  
          2. BoS3  

 

 

  1. A new compound, voronium oxide, has been discovered.  X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that it has a cubic unit cell with a voronium ion at each of the corner lattice points and an oxide ion in the geometric center of the unit cell.  Based on this structure, the formula for the compound should be 

 

          1. Vr8O  
          2. Vr4O   
          3. Vr2O  

                  d. VrO  

                    e. VrO2  

 

 

  1. A new compound, vitellium oxide, has been discovered.  X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that it has a cubic unit cell with a vitellium ion at each of the corner lattice points, a vitellium ion at the geometric center of the unit cell, and an oxide ion in the center of each of the cube faces in the unit cell.  Based on this structure, the correct formula should be 

 

          1. Vi3O  
          2. Vi3O2  
          3. ViO   d. Vi2O3      e. ViO3   
  1. A unit cell of sodium chloride (face centered cubic) was chosen so that the face-centered cube was formed from sodium ions.  How many chloride ions lie on the faces of this unit cell?  

 

a. 0    b. 4

          1. 6
          2. 8
          3. 12

 

 

  1. A unit cell of sodium chloride (face centered cubic) was chosen so that the face-centered cube was formed from sodium ions.  How many chloride ions lie entirely within any unit cell?  

 

   a. 0 b. 1    c. 6

          1. 8
          2. 12

 

 

  1. A unit cell of sodium chloride (face centered cubic) was chosen so that the face-centered cube was formed from sodium ions.  A certain number of sodium ion lattice points and a certain number of chloride ion lattice points are required.  How many chloride ion lattice points are in the unit cell as described above?  

 

          1. 1
          2. 4
          3. 9
          4. 12 e. 13

 

 

  1. A unit cell of sodium chloride (face centered cubic) was chosen so that the face-centered cube was formed from sodium ions.  A certain number of sodium ion lattice points and a certain number of chloride ion lattice points are required.  How many lattice points in the unit cell as described above are occupied by sodium ions?  

 

          1. 4
          2. 9
          3. 12
          4. 13 e. 14

 

 

  1. A unit cell of sodium chloride (face centered cubic) was chosen so that the face centered cube was formed from sodium ions.  What lies in the geometric center of this cube?  

 

                     a. a sodium ion

                  b. a chloride ion

          1. a sodium atom
          2. a chlorine atom
          3. no atoms or ions lie in the geometric center of this unit cell

 

 

  1. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that Ag crystallizes in a face centered cubic lattice in which the unit cell edge length is 408.6 picometers.  Calculate the atomic radius of the Ag atoms in this crystal, based on the usual assumption that the atoms are tightly packed in the unit cell.

 

   a. 102.2 pm b. 144.5 pm    c. 192.6 pm

          1. 204.3 pm
          2. 288.9 pm

 

 

  1. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that α-Fe crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice in which the unit cell edge length is 286.6 picometers.  Calculate the atomic radius of the Fe atoms in this crystal, based on the usual assumption that the atoms are tightly packed in the unit cell.

 

          1. 71.7   pm
          2. 101.3 pm c. 124.1 pm    d. 143.3 pm

                     e. 248.2 pm

 

 

  1. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that Cu crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice in which the unit cell edge length is 361.5 picometers.  Calculate the atomic radius of the Cu atoms in this crystal, based on the usual assumption that the atoms are tightly packed in the unit cell.

 

   a. 90.4   pm b. 127.8 pm    c. 156.5 pm

          1. 170.4 pm
          2. 180.8 pm

 

 

  1. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that Ni crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice in which the unit cell edge length is 352.4 picometers.  Calculate the atomic radius of the Ni atoms in this crystal, based on the usual assumption that the atoms are tightly packed in the unit cell.

 

   a. 88.1   pm b. 124.6 pm    c. 152.6 pm

          1. 166.1 pm
          2. 176.2 pm

 

 

  1. X-ray diffraction measurements on a newly discovered crystalline form of element X revealed that X crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice in which the unit cell edge length is 304.6 picometers.  Calculate the atomic radius of the X atoms in this crystal, based on the usual assumption that the atoms are tightly packed in the unit cell.

 

          1. 76.2   pm
          2. 107.7 pm c. 131.9 pm    d. 175.9 pm

                     e. 215.4 pm

 

 

  1. X-ray diffraction measurements on a newly discovered crystalline form of Eu revealed that Eu crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice in which the unit cell edge length is 458.3 picometers.  Calculate the atomic radius of the Eu atoms in this crystal, based on the usual assumption that the atoms are tightly packed in the unit cell.

 

          1. 114.6 pm
          2. 162.0 pm c. 198.4 pm    d. 229.2 pm

                     e. 264.6 pm

 

 

  1. X-ray diffraction measurements on a newly discovered crystalline form of La revealed that La crystallizes in a body centered cubic lattice in which the unit cell edge length is 426.3 picometers.  Calculate the atomic radius of the La atoms in this crystal, based on the usual assumption that the atoms are tightly packed in the unit cell.

 

          1. 107 pm
          2. 151 pm c. 184.6 pm    d. 213 pm

                     e. 246 pm

 

 

  1. Gold crystallizes in a face centered cubic lattice.  How many unit cells are there in a gold sample whose mass is 1.50 grams?  The atomic weight of gold is 196.97 g mol-1.

 

                        a. 1.15 x 1021 unit cells                                      b. 2.29 x 1021 unit cells

          1. 3.28 x 1020 unit cells
          2. 3.86 x 1021 unit cells
          3. 9.17 x 1021 unit cells

 

 

  1. How many grams would a sample of silver which has 5.00 x 1022 unit cells weigh, if it crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice?

 

          1. 8.96 g
          2. 14.2 g c. 35.8 g    d. 71.6 g

                    e. 128.8 g

 

  1. Which set of properties below is associated with ionic crystalline substances?

 

                    a. broad range of melting points, soft to hard, conductors in liquid and solid states

                  b. high melting point, brittle, nonconductor

          1. high melting point, hard, not brittle, nonconductor
          2. low melting point, soft, nonconductor
          3. low melting point, soft, conductor in liquid and solid states

 

 

  1. Which set of properties below is associated with metallic substances?

 

                        a. broad range of melting points, soft to hard, conductors in liquid and solid states                                      b. high melting point, brittle, nonconductor

          1. high melting point, hard, not brittle, nonconductor
          2. low melting point, soft, nonconductor
          3. low melting point, soft, conductor in liquid and solid states

 

 

  1. Which set of properties below is associated with molecular crystalline substances?

 

          1. broad range of melting points, soft to hard, conductors in liquid and solid states
          2. high melting point, brittle, non-conductor
          3. high melting point, hard, not brittle, non-conductor

                  d. low melting point, soft, non-conductor

                    e. low melting point, soft, conductor in liquid and solid states

 

 

  1. Paradichlorobenzene is a white crystalline solid which is very soft, has a low melting point, and is a nonconductor of electricity.  Which category of substance does it most likely fit under?

 

                    a. ionic

b. molecular    c. metallic

          1. covalent (network)
          2. amorphous

 

 

 

  1. 1,3,6,8-tetramethylnaphthlene is a white crystalline solid which is very soft, has a low melting point, and is a non-conductor of electricity.  Which category of substance does it most likely fit under?

a. ionic

b. molecular    c. metallic

          1. covalent (network)
          2. amorphous

 

  1. Which one of the type of substance shows poorly defined fusion point temperatures?

 

          1. ionic
          2. molecular
          3. metallic
          4. covalent (network)

                  e. amorphous

 

 

  1. Which one of the following substances is most likely composed of ions rather than distinct molecules when it is in the solid state?

 

                        a. Al2O3, m.p. 2000 °C, hard substance                                   b. CrO3, m.p. 196 °C, soft substance

          1. Mn2O7, m.p. 5.9 °C, soft in solid state
          2. OsO4, m.p. 40 °C, soft substance
          3. SeO3, m.p. 118 °C, relatively soft

 

 

  1. Which one of the following substances is most likely composed of ions rather than distinct molecules when it is in the solid state?

 

                        a. CaCl2, m.p. +772 °C                                      b. SnCl4, m.p. -33 °C

          1. SbCl5, m.p. +2.8 °C
          2. TiCl4, m.p. -25 °C
          3. VCl4, m.p. -28 °C

 

 

  1. A particular solid crystalline substance has a high melting point and is very hard.  It is a non- conductor of electricity, even in the molten state.  What type of solid is this substance most likely?

 

          1. an ionic crystal
          2. an amorphous crystal
          3. a molecular crystal d. a covalent crystal    e. a metallic crystal

 

 

  1. Silicon carbide, which has the empirical formula: SiC, melts at 2830 °C and is nearly as hard as boron nitride and diamond.  Which category of substance does it most likely fit under?
          1. ionic
          2. molecular
          3. metallic d. covalent 

                     e. amorphous

 

  1. Boron nitride, which has the empirical formula: BN, melts at 2967 °C and is nearly as hard as diamond.  Which category of substance does it most likely fit under?

 

          1. ionic
          2. molecular
          3. metallic d. covalent 

                     e. amorphous

 

 

 

  1. An isobar is a line of constant pressure which runs parallel to the temperature axis on the phase diagram for a substance.  As we vary temperature along an isobar which lies below the triple point, which process would never be observed to occur?

 

          1. decrease in volume
          2. deposition
          3. expansion

                  d. fusion

                     e. sublimation

 

 

 

  1. The critical temperature of a substance is

 

                   a. always higher than the triple point temperature.

          1. the temperature below which it cannot exist in the liquid state.
          2. the temperature which is always higher than the Kelvin point.
          3. the temperature below which it cannot be liquefied by increasing the pressure.
          4. the temperature below which it cannot be supercooled.

 

 

  1. Which one of the following noble gas elements will have the lowest critical point temperature?

 

   a. Ar b. He    c. Kr

          1. Ne
          2. Xe  

 

 

 

  1. The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which

 

                     a. all three physical states cease to exist.

                        b. sublimation, fusion, and condensation are taking place simultaneously.                             c. the solid will always float on the liquid for all substances.

          1. the vapor pressure of the liquid is higher than the vapor pressure of the solid.
          2. the vapor pressure of the solid is higher than the vapor pressure of the liquid.

 

Questions 88 through 91 refer to the phase diagram below

 

                      

                                             P                                                    a

                                                                             d                                                              e                                                     b

 

                                                                       c    

                                                                       T 

 

  1. At the temperature and pressure of point d, which statement below is true?

 

          1. The substance will sublime.  
          2. There will be an equilibrium between the solid phase and the gaseous phase.  
          3. Vaporization and deposition will take place simultaneously.                         d. Condensation and evaporation will take place simultaneously.                               e. The substance will be a supercritical fluid. 

 

 

  1. At the temperature and pressure of point e, which statement below is true?            

 

          1. The substance will sublime.  
          2. There will be an equilibrium between the solid phase and the gaseous phase.  
          3. Vaporization and deposition will take place simultaneously.                  d. Fusion and freezing will take place simultaneously.  

                     e. Fusion and vaporization will take place simultaneously.  

 

 

  1. Starting at the temperature and pressure of b, if the temperature is increased at constant pressure, ultimately

 

                  a. the substance will sublime.

          1. the substance will undergo fusion. 
          2. the substance will undergo deposition. 
          3. the substance will freeze.
          4. the substance will be a supercritical fluid. 

 

 

  1. Starting at the temperature and pressure of c, if the pressure is increased at constant pressure, ultimately

 

          1. the substance will sublime.
          2. the substance will undergo fusion. 
          3. the substance will undergo deposition. 
          4. the substance will freeze.

                  e. the substance will undergo condensation. 

 

 

  1. Which compound cannot be liquefied by compression at temperature of 25.0 °C?

 

                   a. C2H4, critical point: 9.9 °C, 50.5 atm

          1. CH3Cl, critical point: 144.0 °C, 66.0 atm
          2. C2H2, critical point: 35.5 °C, 61.6 atm
          3. C2H6, critical point: 32.2 °C, 48.2 atm
          4. SO2, critical point: 158.0 °C, 78.0 atm

 

 

  1. Some temperatures and the vapor pressures for water are:  

               20.0 °C, 17.4 torr       25.0 °C, 23.8 torr       30.0 °C, 31.6 torr       35 °C, 42.2 torr  

 If the temperature is 35.0 °C and the relative humidity is 41.0% (41.0% of the saturation value), estimate the dew point temperature (temperature below which the moisture would begin to condense).

 

a. 20.0 °C    b. 22.5 °C

          1. 25.0 °C
          2. 27.5 °C
          3. 30.5 °C

 

 

 

  1. Which compound cannot be liquefied by compression at temperature of 25.0 °C?

 

          1. CH3Cl, critical point: 144.0 °C, 66.0 atm
          2. C2H2, critical point: 35.5 °C, 61.6 atm
          3. C2H6, critical point: 32.2 °C, 48.2 atm                 d. SiF4, critical point: -14.1 °C, 36.7 atm

                     e. SO2, critical point: 158.0 °C, 78.0 atm

 

Fill in the Blanks

 

 

  1. Arrange these compounds in order of increasing intermolecular attractive forces:  CCl4, GeCl4, SiCl4, SnCl4.  

 

 

 

  1. Arrange these compounds in order of increasing intermolecular attractive forces: CBr4, CCl4, CF4, CH4, CI4.

 

 

 

  1. In terms of kinetic theory, why would the coffee purchased in a container at the fast food takeout shop remain hot much longer than the coffee you pour into your ceramic cup at home? 

 

 

 

  1. Why does CH3—CH2—O—H have a higher boiling point than CH3— O—CH3 even though they have the same formula, C2H6O?  _________________________________________________

 

 

 

  1. Arrange these compounds in order of increasing vapor pressure at 20 °C: CCl4, GeCl4, SiCl4, SnCl4.  

 

 

 

  1. Arrange these compounds in order of increasing vapor pressure at 20 °C: CBr4, CCl4, CF4, CH4, CI4.

 

 

 

  1. A solid chemical substance whose triple point pressure is 4.60 atmospheres will normally ______ when it is heated to a sufficiently high temperature in the open laboratory.

 

 

 

  1. A liquid which is kept in a pressure container at a temperature above its critical temperature is called a ____________

 

 

 

  1. The pressure below which the liquid state of matter does not exist regardless of the temperature is called ___________ 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The temperature above which only a solid state and a non-solid exists for a substance is called the _______________

 

 

 

  1. Solid carbon dioxide never forms a liquid at a pressure of one atmosphere, instead it always sublimes when left out in the open.  Why? 

                                                                      

 

 

True and False

 

 

  1. If a substance decomposes before it vaporizes, it is an indication that the intermolecular bonds between the molecules are stronger than the covalent bonds within the molecule.  ___

 

 

  1. A liquid can be described as a compressible fluid.  ___

 

 

  1. The resistance to flow that liquids exhibit is a chemical property which is based on intermolecular attractive forces.  ___ 

 

 

  1. The usefulness of surfactants present in detergents is due to their ability to drastically lower the viscosity of water.  ___

 

 

  1. A cylinder contains a liquid which is in equilibrium with its vapor at 45.0 °C.  If the piston is moved down to constrict the volume of the cylinder without changing the temperature, the equilibrium Vapor pressure of the liquid will increase.  ___ 

 

 

Critical Thinking Questions

 

 

  1. A substance has a melting point of -25.0 °C, an enthalpy of fusion of 1200 J g-1;  specific heats for the solid and the liquid are 3.00 and 6.20 J g-1 °C -1, respectively.  To change 150 grams of the substance from a solid at –40.0 °C to a liquid at +70.0 °C will require 

 

        1. 1.52 x 105 joules.
        2. 1.81 x 105 joules.
        3. 2.21 x 103 joules.
        4. 2.29 x 105 joules.               e. 2.75 x 105 joules.

 

 

  1. A substance has a melting point of +25.0 °C, an enthalpy of fusion of 1200 J g-1;  specific heats for the solid and the liquid are 3.00 and 6.20 J g-1 °C -1, respectively.  To change 150 grams of the substance from a solid at –40.0 °C to a liquid at +70.0 °C will require 

 

        1. 2.27 x 105 joules.
        2. 2.29 x 105 joules.           c. 2.51 x 105 joules.
        1. 2.75 x 105 joules.
        2. 2.83 x 105 joules.

 

 

  1. A substance has a normal boiling point of +89.3 °C, an enthalpy of vaporization of 2600 J g-1; specific heats for the liquid and the gas are 6.20 and 3.20 J g-1 °C -1, respectively.  To change 150 grams of the substance from a liquid at –10.0 °C to a gas at +129.0 °C will require

 

                                    a. 4.83 x 105 joules               b. 5.01 x 105 joules                   c. 5.49 x 105 joules

        1. 5.58 x 105 joules
        2. 6.81 x 105 joules

 

  1. A liquid has a normal boiling point of 78.0 °C and its vapor pressure is 400 torr at 50.0 °C.  To calculate the molar enthalpy of vaporization, one needs, in addition:

 

                   a. nothing; enough information is given

        1. the molecular weight of the substance
        2. the specific heat of the substance
        3. the vapor pressure at another temperature below the boiling point
        4. the enthalpy of fusion

 

  1. The normal boiling point of acetic acid, HC2H3O2, is 117.9 °C, and its molar enthalpy of vaporization is 39,690 J mol-1.  What is its vapor pressure, at 100.0 °C?

 

   a. 423.2 torr    b. 479.7 torr

        1. 586.6 torr
        2. 616.2 torr
        3. 694.4 torr

 

  1. The normal boiling point of 2,3,4-trimethypentane, C8H18, is 113.47 °C, and its molar enthalpy of vaporization is 37,600 J mol-1.  What is its vapor pressure, at 105.5 °C?

 

        1. 479.7 torr
        2. 586.6 torr    c. 594.1 torr
        1. 616.2 torr
        2. 694.4 torr

 

  1. Find the normal boiling point temperature of an isomer of octane, C8H18, if its enthalpy of vaporization is 38,210 J mol-1 and its vapor pressure at 110.0 °C is 638.43 torr.

 

        1. 111.52 °C
        2. 113.22 °C
        3. 115.00 °C    d. 115.65 °C    e. 118.30 °C

 

  1. Some temperatures and the vapor pressures for water are:  

               20.0 °C, 17.4 torr       25.0 °C, 23.8 torr       30.0 °C, 31.6 torr       35 °C, 42.2 torr  

        If the temperature is 35.0 oC and the relative humidity is 50.0% (50.0% of the saturation value), estimate the dew point temperature (temperature below which the moisture would begin to condense).

 

   a. 20.0 °C  b. 22.5 °C    c. 25.0 °C

        1. 27.5 °C
        2. 30.0 °C

 

 

Critical Thinking Questions, Level 3

 

119. Brian has an equation which gives the relation between the air pressure at sea level, p0, and the air pressure, p, at a height, h, above sea level:

p0

                                                                                                 h= 4405ln   

p

 

Short answers

 

  1. What are the characteristics which distinguish solids, liquids, and gasses? 

 

 

  1. Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing viscosity: methylene chloride (CH2Cl2); glycerin (C3H5(OH)3); 1,1-ethandiol (C2H4(OH)2); and acetone (C3H6O). Explain your reasoning. 

 

 

  1. Draw the unit cell for the following two-dimensional lattice. 

 

 

 

  1. Using Le Chatelier's Principle, explain how a person coming out of a swimming pool in Arizona on a 90 °F day can become cold in very short amount of time. 

 

 

  1. Describe the difference between molecular crystals and covalent crystals. 

 

 

  1. Describe the essential features that make up a hydrogen bond. 

 

 

 

 

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