Fill This Form To Receive Instant Help

Help in Homework
trustpilot ratings
google ratings

Homework answers / question archive / CHAPTER 12 1)Personality disorders are defined as a

CHAPTER 12 1)Personality disorders are defined as a



1)Personality disorders are defined as

a. maladaptive behaviors that consistently violate the rights of others.

b. inflexible patterns of behavior which impair social and occupational functioning.

c. any psychological disorder having an onset before age 12 and recurring at least three times during adult life.

d. a chronic pattern of extreme instability in relationships, mood, and self-image.



2. Compared to normal personality styles, personality disorders are more


a. bizarre and out of control.

b. dangerous and immoral.

c. inborn and physiological.

d. pervasive and inflexible.


3. How are personality disorders different from normal personality styles? 


a. They are more long-lasting.

b. They have more of an effect on others.

c. They are more extreme.

d. They are accompanied by Axis I disorders.



4. People diagnosed with a personality disorder


a. cannot be diagnosed with an Axis I disorder.

b. are rarely diagnosed with an Axis I disorder.

c. are frequently diagnosed with an Axis I disorder..

d. must also be diagnosed with an Axis I disorder as well.



5. Personality disorders and Axis I disorders are related in that


a. they cannot both be diagnosed in the same person.

b. if both exist, the Axis I disorder is more serious.

c. if both exist, the personality disorder is more serious.

d. the personality disorder provides a context for the Axis I disorder.



6. The reliability of diagnosing personality disorders has improved by


a. strengthening the theoretical basis for each personality disorder.

b. showing an interrelationship with Axis I disorders.

c. developing clear diagnostic criteria.

d. paying closer attention to their possible presence.



7. Recent research on diagnosing personality disorders indicates that their reliability is


a. totally inadequate.

b. improved if specialized, structured interviews are used.

c. acceptable for antisocial personality disorder, but inadequate for most others.

d. better than most diagnostic categories.



8. Low reliability for a personality disorder suggests


a. people with the disorder did not, in fact, have problems functioning normally in daily life.

b. clinicians diagnosing patients had difficulty agreeing on whether a patient had the disorder or not.

c. people with the disorder at one point in time had recovered by the follow-up assessment.

d. people with the disorder often had other personality disorders as well.



9. Most people who have been diagnosed as having a personality disorder


a. would be better described using one of the Axis I disorders.

b. have a pervasive developmental disorder as well.

c. have more than one personality disorder.

d. have only one personality disorder.



10. Compared to normal people, the personalities of people with personality disorders are


a. remarkably similar.

b. out of touch with reality.

c. categorically different but not out of touch with reality.

d. more extreme.



11. Some people propose replacing DSM's personality disorder labels with a dimensional classification approach because the present labels


a. are difficult to distinguish from each other.

b. appear to be extremes of continuous traits.

c. have few implications for daily functioning.

d. are difficult to treat.



12. The dimensional approach to personality disorders


a. places people into distinct categories of personality style.

b. explains personality disorders as extremes of normal personality traits.

c. views personality disorders as learned evolutionary behaviors.

d. identifies personality disorders according to four key dimensions.



13. Which of the following is not one of the factors used in the dimensional approach to personality disorders?


a.  Agreeableness

b. Openness to experience

c. Extroversion

d. Depressiveness



14. The five-factor model of personality disorders is more            than DSM.


a. comprehensive

b. treatment -oriented

c. dimensional

d. behavioral



15. Studies suggest that most personality disorders are characterized by


a. depressive symptoms.

b. high neuroticism.

c. low neuroticism.

d. high extraversion.


16. The dimensional approach to personality disorders 


a. clearly distinguishes normal from disordered personality.

b. has been shown to be a comprehensive theory for identifying the personalities of the DSM.

c. eliminates the problem of comorbidity among personality disorders.

d. None of the above choices are correct.


17. Problems with accurately diagnosing personality disorders are due to 


a. personality changes over time.

b. spontaneous recovery.

c. a lack of research on personality disorders.

d. All of the above choices are correct.


18. Which of the following personality disorders falls in the odd/eccentric cluster?


a. paranoid

b. borderline

c. avoidant

d. histrionic


19. Tom is highly suspicious and believes that others are looking to exploit him. Which of the following personality disorders is the best diagnosis for Tom?


a. paranoid

b. borderline

c. schizoid

d. schizotypal



20. Compared to a person with paranoid schizophrenia, a person diagnosed as having paranoid personality disorder is


a. less likely to experience social and occupational dysfunction.

b. more disturbed.

c. suffering from a more chronic and severe mental illness.

d. more likely to respond to medication.


21. Paranoid personality disorder differs from paranoid schizophrenia in that


a. paranoid personality is not associated with unreasonable paranoia.

b. paranoid personality is more greatly associated with different delusions than schizophrenia.

c. paranoid personality is not associated with hallucinations.

d. paranoid personality is not likely to be present with depression.



22. Which personality disorder is most appropriate for Joe? He lives alone in a cabin in the woods where he does the minimum to get by.  When approached, he responds appropriately but is not interested in conversation or making friends.


a. avoidant

b. schizoid

c. histrionic

d. borderline



23. Schizoid personality disorder has most in common with


a. histrionic personality disorder.

b. schizotypal personality disorder.

c. dissociative identity disorder.

d. bipolar I disorder.



24. One of the problems with the diagnosis of schizotypal personality disorder is


a. lack of reliability in making the diagnosis.

b. difficulty distinguishing it from schizophrenia.

c. it is so rare that it is not clear whether the disorder should be listed.

d. overlap with other personality disorder diagnoses.


25. Schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders may be distinguished only by the presence of which of the following symptoms in schizotypal persons?


a. indifference to others.

b. visual hallucinations.

c. flat affect, little overt emotion.

d. overtly odd behaviors.


26. Schizotypal, but not schizoid, personality disorder involves


a. odd, eccentric beliefs and behaviors.

b. interpersonal problems, few friends.

c. flat affect, emotional indifference

d. social anxiety, fear of others.



27. The personality disorders in the odd/eccentric cluster have been genetically linked to


a. bipolar disorder.

b. major depression.

c. schizophrenia.

d. dissociative identity disorder.



28. The _________________ paradigm has been used the most in describing the odd/eccentric personality disorders.


a. biological/genetic

b. psychoanalytic

c. cognitive-behavioral

d. labeling theory



29. Family studies 


a. support the role of genetics in the odd/eccentric cluster.

b. show a very limited role of genetics in the odd/eccentric cluster.

c. have been inconclusive when examining the relationship between schizophrenia and the odd/eccentric cluster.

d. have shown there to be a stronger genetic component to schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder than paranoid personality disorder.



30. Yolanda vacillates between feeling extremely positive feelings for her friend, to having extreme negative feelings for her, often for no apparent reason.  When these changes in her disposition occur, she also experiences deep depression and sometimes engages in self-injurious behavior. On the basis of this information, Yolanda most likely has ______________ personality disorder.


a. borderline

b. schizoid

c. obsessive-compulsive

d. paranoid



31. Ken may act sad one minute and happy the next.  He seems to have no idea what he wants out of life. He says he cannot stand being alone, yet he gets into violent fights with his friends over minor matters.  When his marriage broke up due to his drastic mood shifts and impulsive gambling, Ken attempted suicide.  Which of the following diagnoses best fits Ken's symptoms?


a. bipolar I disorder

b. dissociative identity disorder

c. schizotypal personality disorder

d. borderline personality disorder



32. People with borderline personality disorder are often


a. unstable and impulsive.

b. uninhibited and promiscuous.

c. demanding and angry.

d. shy and withdrawn.



33. A person with which of the following diagnoses is most likely to also have post-traumatic stress disorder or a mood disorder?


a. borderline personality

b. obsessive-compulsive personality

c. paranoid personality

d. avoidant personality



34. Which neurotransmitter system has been implicated in anger control and has been used for borderline personality?


a. norepinephrine

b. serotonin


d. dopamine



35. Given that people with borderline personality disorder are impulsive, we would expect them to do poorly on tests that measure functioning of the


a. frontal lobe.

b. parietal lobe.

c. occipital lobe.

d. temporal lobe.



36. Which of the following characterizes borderline personality disorder?


a. emotional dysregulation

b. low extraversion

c. bland, dull affect

d. panic attacks



37. A major feature of object relations theory is


a. the manner of self-representation.

b. ego-functioning.

c. id control.

d. introjection of values during childhood.



38. In object relations theory, 'splitting' refers to the tendency of people with borderline personality disorders to


a. separate themselves from society.

b. forget unpleasant events.

c. see people as all good or all bad.

d. think illogically.


39. The research literature that supports the link between borderline personality disorder and troubled childhood has found that


a. most studies were conducted only on women.

b. patients with BPD are more likely to report a history of parental separation and abuse than other Axis II patients are.

c. family conflict is difficult to measure accurately.

d. most studies were conducted on families that had concurrent alcohol abuse present in the home.



40. Two primary features of Linehan's diathesis-stress theory of borderline personality disorder are


a. ego functioning and transference.

b. object representation and cognitive style.

c. cognitive bias and attribution error.

d. dysregulation and invalidation.



41. Which of the following personality disorders is the best diagnosis for Claude? Claude goes to great lengths to be the center of attention. He announces his views and feelings with great drama; however one soon suspects it is only for effect, and he seems willing to say or do almost anything to get others to pay attention to and like him.


a. histrionic

b. schizotypal

c. schizoid

d. paranoid



42. A primary characteristic of histrionic personality disorder is


a. avoidance of others.

b. multiple, vague physical complaints.

c. inability to make realistic life plans.

d. overly dramatic and attention seeking behavior.



43. The psychoanalytic theory of histrionic personality disorder focuses on a preoccupation with


a. childhood health problems.

b. sex.

c. cleanliness.

d. oneself.



44. Veronica imagines that she will one day have great success in business, although she now is working as a waitress. She has difficulty getting along at work because she envies her boss' position of authority (feeling she is more intelligent than him) and expects special favors such as not having to clean the stove like the other waitresses. Which of the following personality disorders best fits Veronica?


a. narcissistic

b. borderline

c. histrionic

d. avoidant



45. Narcissistic personality is primarily characterized by


a. avoidance of others.

b. a lack of self-confidence.

c. multiple, vague physical complaints.

d. self-centeredness with fantasies of success.



46. Narcissism, as proposed by Kohut, develops when children are


a. abused.

b. treated by their parents as if they are special, one-of-a-kind people.

c. not getting enough approval from their parents.

d. only children or first children.



47. Theories of the etiology of narcissistic personality disorder suggest such people actually have


a. distorted perceptions.

b. no conscience.

c. weak egos.

d. low self-esteem.



48. According to the social cognitive model of narcissistic personality disorder, people with this disorder place a high value on interpersonal interactions because


a. they yearn for interpersonal closeness and warmth.

b. interpersonal interactions are central for reinforcing their self-esteem.

c. they have such high self-esteems.

d. they are very concerned about the quality of their friendships.



49. According to the social cognitive model of narcissistic personality disorder, individuals with this disorder


a. have vulnerable self-esteems.

b. have extremely high self-esteems.

c. are socially aloof.

d. are afraid to brag or bolster themselves.



50. A precursor to antisocial personality disorder is


a. conduct disorder.

b. oppositional disorder.

c. antisocial disorder of childhood or adolescence.

d. pervasive developmental disorder.



51. According to the DSM-IV diagnosis, adults with antisocial personality disorder must have shown problems such as running away, truancy, and theft prior to age


a. 12.

b. 15.

c. 18.

d. 7.



52. Convicted felons are most likely to have which of the following disorders?


a. borderline personality disorder

b. sadistic personality disorder

c. psychopathy

d. antisocial personality disorder



53. A problem with diagnosing antisocial personality is


a. many antisocial personality individuals do not exhibit anti-social behavior as children.

b. the diagnosis is associated with schizophrenia.

c. the validity of the diagnosis varies widely across cultures.

d. not all antisocial personality individuals score high on measures that are intended to measure antisocial behavior.



54. Which of the following is a characteristic of psychopathy but NOT of antisocial personality disorder?


a. law breaking

b. disregard for others

c. lack of emotions

d. impulsivity



55. Behavior-genetics research on antisocial personality disorder


a. indicates a significant role of heritability.

b. has shown the role of heritability to be negligible.

c. indicates no environmental effects.

d. has been inconclusive.



56. A major family variable that contributes to later psychopathy in children is


a. high number of siblings.

b. working mothers.

c. inconsistent discipline.

d. overprotection.



57. It has been found that in avoidance learning tasks, the reason psychopaths had difficulty learning to avoid shock was because


a. they were unaware that it was a possibility.

b. they experience very little anxiety.

c. they have a learning disability.

d. the experience of the shock was a positive sensation.



58. Compared to individuals who are not psychopaths the skin conductance of psychopaths is __________________ when they are confronted with an intense or aversive stimulus.


a. less reactive

b. more reactive

c. equally reactive

d. more reactive only in those who are criminals



59. In research on psychopathy, the startle response is used to measure


a. empathy.

b. fear.

c. attention.

d. impulsivity.


60. Lykken's (1957) research provided support for the hypothesis that psychopaths experience _______________ than controls.


a. more anxiety

b. less anxiety

c. more depression

d. less depression



61. Studies examining the eye-blink component of the startle response have consistently found psychopaths to be ____reactive as normal controls when presented with negative stimuli.


a. as

b. more 

c. less

d. None of the above; findings have been inconsistent.



62. When comparing the startle response of psychopaths and nonpsychopaths (both groups were jail inmates), researchers found that psychopaths


a. were more easily startled due to hyperarousal.

b. were less responsive to the aversive stimuli.

c. were more likely to try to frighten their victims.

d. did not demonstrate any startle response.



63. In contrast to research on reduced anxiety and inhibition, recent research on psychopathy has focused upon


a. empathy among psychopaths.

b. the psychopaths' ability to learn under different conditions.

c. distress among psychopaths.

d. suicidal ideas among psychopaths.


64. The effect of punishment on psychopaths


a. is greater, although in the long term they tend to forget the consequences.

b. is minimal.

c. is associated with lower efforts to commit antisocial acts.

d. usually results in greater psychopathic behavior.



65. In experimental tasks, if there is a delay between the information presented and an opportunity to respond, psychopaths


a. perform poorly.

b. showed less impulsivity and improved performance.

c. demonstrate frustration and anger.

d. usually give up.



66. In research on response modulation and psychopathy, psychopaths won or lost money depending on what playing cards appeared.  In this research, the impulsivity of psychopaths was studied by


a. making them wait before deciding to continue the game.

b. having them estimate the amount of money they had won.

c. ratings of their verbal statements during the game.

d. All of the above are correct.


67. In one research study, psychopaths' impulsivity was examined using a card guessing task. Impulsivity was shown by participants’ responses to having to wait before


a. the experiment began.

b. the next trial.

c. receiving feedback.

d. making a guess.



68. What diagnosis would be most appropriate for Tonya? She says she would like to meet people but is too afraid of saying something foolish to speak to them.  She describes herself as the ultimate social klutz because she never knows what to say or do. As a result, she keeps to herself except for interacting with a few friends she has known since childhood.

a. schizoid personality disorder

b. schizotypal personality disorder

c. avoidant personality disorder

d. dependent personality disorder



69. Social phobia is most similar to which personality disorder?


a. schizoid

b. dependent

c. antisocial

d. avoidant



70. Karl relies on his wife to make every decision, from what kind of suits he should buy to which people at work he should get to know better. He feels that he must rely heavily on his wife because he feels he is not competent to carry out these tasks. Which of the following personality disorders would fit Karl?


a. schizoid

b. avoidant

c. dependent

d. borderline



71. Peter not only works 70 hours a week, but he spends his off hours planning a schedule for his family.  He dictates what time his wife will be home, when dinner will be served, and when they will go to bed. He is such a perfectionist that he actually finds it difficult to get work done efficiently, despite the amount of time he spends trying.  Which of the following personality disorders best fits Peter?


a. dependent

b. narcissistic

c. schizoid

d. obsessive-compulsive



72. Which of the following is characteristic of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder?


a. The person is filled with fears that things were not done right.

b. The person is bothered by recurring, uncontrollable thoughts.

c. The person engages in elaborate, senseless rituals.

d. The person is preoccupied with details, rules, and schedules.



73. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder 


a. are the terms from DSM-II and DSM-IV for the same basic disorder.

b. are genetically linked.

c. are actually quite different from one another.

d. have similar symptoms but a different etiology.



74. Dependent personality disorder has been hypothesized to develop when children


a. are sexually abused.

b. have parents who have anxiety disorders.

c. are made to care for elderly or sick parents at a young age.

d. have attachment problems.



75. Dependent personality disorder has been hypothesized to develop from parental


a. anxiety.

b. modeling.

c. overprotectiveness. 

d. abuse.



76. Attachment problems in childhood have been suggested as a cause of            personality disorder.


a. avoidant

b. dependent

c. obsessive-compulsive

d. paranoid



77. Which model has been hypothesized to explain avoidant personality disorder?


a. cognitive distortions

b. modeling

c. cognitive dissonance

d. oral fixation



78. Contemporary psychodynamic theory suggests that obsessive-compulsive personality is a result of


a. oral fixation.

b. dysfunctional object relations.

c. fear of loss of control.

d. anal fixation.



79. Johanna seeks psychotherapy and has been diagnosed with (Axis I) generalized anxiety disorder and (Axis II) dependent personality disorder. It is reasonable to expect that


a. therapy will focus primarily on the personality disorder.

b. therapy will take longer, and Johanna will most likely not improve as much as someone with only an Axis I disorder.

c. choosing one of the problems and focusing on it will improve both of them.

d. biological factors will require drug treatment.



80. Which therapy approach seeks to break down personality disorders into sets of separate, concrete problems?


a. cognitive-behavioral

b. cognitive

c. psychodynamic

d. interpersonal



81. Avoidant personality disorder would most likely be treated with which type of psychiatric medication?


a. anti-anxiety medications

b. antidepressants

c. neuroleptics

d. None of the above choices are correct; medication has not been found effective in treating personality disorders.



82. Why might a nondirective approach be most effective with a patient with dependent personality disorder?


a. Such patients are difficult to build rapport with, and a nondirective approach works better for that purpose.

b. It would reduce the countertransference reaction of the therapist.

c. Such patients usually resist active directions from the therapist.

d. It would encourage the patient to think independently and take responsibility for decisions.



83. Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder are difficult to treat because


a. their intellectual functioning is too low for them to reach true insights.

b. they do not feel distressed, despite being so distressing to others.

c. they have extreme difficulties trusting others, including a therapist.

d. All of the above choices are correct.



84. Individuals with borderline personality disorder are especially difficult because they


a. require intensive, long-term psychodynamic therapy.

b. rarely seek or accept therapy.

c. never learn from their experiences.

d. act erratically toward the therapist.



85. Often, borderline personality disorder naturally engenders which of the following emotional reactions by the therapist?


a. empathy

b. anger and frustration

c. pride

d. suicidal feelings


86. Drug treatment for borderline personality disorder


a. has been shown to be ineffective for treating the symptoms of the disorder.

b. must be conducted with weekly consultations from a neurologist.

c. must be done with care as people with the disorder often abuse drugs.

d. has been researched too little to make any general statements.



87. One goal of Kernberg's object relations psychotherapy for borderline personalities is to overcome the patient's defense of


a. seeing others as all powerful and all good.

b. splitting the world into black and white terms.

c. marginalizing their involvement with others.

d. denying impulses toward self-actualization.



88. The primary outcome (or goal) in Kernberg's therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder is


a. achieving insight by probing childhood conflicts.

b. helping clients learn to solve problems more effectively.

c. strengthening their weak ego so the client will stop splitting.

d. correcting dysfunctional ways of thinking.



89. A primary focus of object-relations therapy for borderline personality disorders is to


a. strengthen patient's ability to tolerate intensive psychoanalysis.

b. improve patients support network by teaching social skills. 

c. minimize patient's tendency to see others in black-or-white terms.

d. provide direct advice to minimize potential legal problems.


90. Dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder combines 


a. social skills training and free-association.

b. ego analysis and more directive behavioral techniques.

c. cognitive-behavioral problem-solving, social skills training and client-centered empathy.

d. Gestalt techniques and relaxation training.



91. One of the primary goals in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder is


a. achieving effective ego-boundaries.

b. learning contingencies associated with reward and punishment.

c. effective modulations of extreme emotional states.

d. avoidance of distress.



92. Which of the following is emphasized in Linehan's Dialectical Behavior Therapy for borderline personality disorder?


a. systematic assessment before therapy begins

b. calm acceptance of contradictions and acting out

c. focusing on fears of vulnerability in a dangerous, unpredictable world

d. setting appropriate limits clearly from the beginning



93. Studies comparing Linehan’s dialectical behavior therapy and treatment as usual for people with borderline personality disorder have found


a. superiority of dialectical behavior therapy across all targeted areas.

b. superiority of dialectical behavior therapy in decreasing intentional self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts.

c. superiority of dialectical behavior therapy in decreasing feelings of hopelessness.

d. None of the above; no differences were found.



94. In working with patients with borderline personality disorder, Linehan advocates acceptance


a. as a way of helping patients see the world in more black and white terms.

b. as a primary means of preventing suicide attempts.

c. as a way to help patients gradually change.

d. regardless of whether or not the patient changes.



95. In working with borderline personalities, Beck, Kernberg, and Linehan all agree that these patients


a. need to develop and work through transference and counter transference reactions for therapy to be successful.

b. have great difficulty establishing trust in their therapist.

c. need paradoxical interventions because of their oppositional style.

d. have problems based on dysfunctional cognitions.



96. According to a recent meta-analysis, psychological treatment of psychopaths can be successful if


a. conducted in a controlled setting.

b. the patient is older.

c. family members are involved.

d. it is intensive and long-term.



97. Psychotherapy for psychopaths


a. must be intensive to be effective.

b. is more beneficial for younger psychopaths than older psychopaths.

c. must be examined for ‘faking good’ by those treated.

d. All of the above choices are correct.



Option 1

Low Cost Option
Download this past answer in few clicks

17.87 USD


Already member?

Option 2

Custom new solution created by our subject matter experts