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Homework answers / question archive / PRACTICE  MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS FOR      ENVS 1000 FINAL EXAM      Read the following questions carefully

PRACTICE  MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS FOR      ENVS 1000 FINAL EXAM      Read the following questions carefully

Economics

PRACTICE  MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS FOR     

ENVS 1000 FINAL EXAM 

 

 

Read the following questions carefully.  Choose the one best answer for each of the following questions.

 1)The greatest general problem with suburbs is ________.

 

  1. high population density 
  2. lack of resources 
  3. that they spread environmental impact over a larger area 
  4. decreased water quality 
  5. lack of nearby shopping   

 

2.   Any consideration of the true costs of sprawl must include ________. 

 

  1. the restoration of natural areas to inner cities  
  2. the problems of decreased water and energy consumption  
  3. increasing use of pesticides  
  4. crumbling inner cities with deteriorating facilities, increased use of fossil fuels   E.    more time for families to be together  

 

3.   Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring primarily focuses on the environmental problems associated with ________.  

 

  1. aquifer depletion  
  2. pesticide toxicity  
  3. loss of biodiversity  
  4. overpopulation  
  5. deforestation

 

4.  The book Our Stolen Future was important because it ________.  

 

  1. was the first book that discussed water pollution problems in Lake Apopka  
  2. was the first book that discussed environmental problems with DDT  
  3. focused on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on humans   D.     was the first book to dispute claims in Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring   

                E.      is credited with starting the environmental movement in the U.S.

 

 

 

             5.      Bisphenol-A is ________.  

 

  1. an estrogen mimic that is used in plastic manufacturing  
  2. produced when fossil fuels are burned  
  3. released from aerosol spray cans  
  4. a currently used herbicide  
  5. a banned insecticide  

 

6.   Data indicate that the present rate of freshwater consumption in most developed countries is  _____.  

 

  1. sustainable for the foreseeable future  
  2. unsustainable   
  3. irrelevant, as water is not currently limiting  
  4. only a problem in areas not on the coast  
  5. increasing groundwater storage and decreasing surface water storage

 

7.  As of 2007, the saga of the Colorado River's water resource allocation is being complicated by ________.  

 

  1. several years of drought coupled with the rapid growth of Las Vegas  
  2. large numbers of people moving out of Nevada  
  3. sinkhole collapses in Arizona and southern California  
  4. rapid growth of vegetable farms in souther Arizona  
  5. saltwater intrusion into the Colorado estuary near San Diego  

 

8.     You want to maintain a healthy pond at your school site. Last year another pond became eutrophic; to avoid that, you want to ________.  

 

  1. increase the carbon-based fertilizers in the littoral zone  
  2. provide nitrogen for good nutrient mixing in the benthic zone  
  3. increase the ozone in the littoral zone  
  4. avoid increasing phosphorus in the limnetic zone   
  5. decrease the calcium available in the profundal zone

 

             9.      Which of the following is true of eutrophication in marine systems?  

 

  1. It can lead to algal blooms that kill fish.  
  2. It can aid corals by killing parasites.  
  3. It is rare and occurs only in bad weather.  
  4. It provides needed limiting nutrients.  
  5. It does not occur.

 

 

    1. Currently, the greatest ecological crisis facing marine systems is ________.  

 

    1. radiation  
    2. oil spills  
    3. plastic dumping  
    4. overharvesting  
    5. abandoned fishing nets

 

    1. Most marine protected areas ________.  

 

    1. are in the open oceans  
    2. have been established without the consent of the United States  
    3. prohibit the installation if oil pipelines and fiber?optic cable lines within them  
    4. are along the coastlines of developed nations  
    5. ban fishing and extractive activities

 

    1. The largest portion of atmospheric gases by weight is ________.  

 

    1. oxygen  
    2. nitrogen  
    3. sulfur  
    4. ozone  
    5. argon

 

    1. Natural sources of air pollution come from ________.  

 

    1. internal combustion engines  
    2. coal-fired electrical plants  
    3. salt from sea spray, cattle, soil dust, volvanic dust  
    4. evaloration of solvents  
    5. birds

 

    1. Earth's climate ________.  

 

    1. has been stable over the history of the planet  
    2. is changing as a result of natural and human processes  
    3. will stabilize over the next century, according to the predictions of most scientists  
    4. has been documented to have changed once due to the evolution of green photosynthesizing

plants  

    1. history is undeterminable because there is no method of studying climatic history of the planet  

 

 

 

15.  Carbon dioxide is ________.  

 

  1. the most potent (per molecule of gas) of the greenhouse gases  
  2. the most abundant greenhouse gas  
  3. more potent (per molecule of gas) than methane  
  4. the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas produced in the United States   E.    the only greenhouse gas presently increasing in the atmosphere  

 

16.    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ________.  

 

  1. constructed the Kyoto Protocol  
  2. performed the research included in the climate change findings  
  3. is an international panel that concluded that climate change has influenced biomes and economies  
  4. fines companies that pollute  
  5. could not achieve its objectives because of lack of popular support  

 

17.   Biomass energy ________.  

 

  1. can be created by microbial action or burned directly as wood or dung  
  2. requires fossil fuel input to produce  
  3. produces no greenhouse gases when burned  
  4. could not supply an alternative fuel to gasoline  
  5. is a form of fossil fuel

 

18.    Before mining techniques improved in the 1700s, the resource that provided the greatest amount of energy for heating and cooking was ________.  

 

  1. dung  
  2. wood  
  3. coal  
  4. oil  
  5. water

 

19.   Coal continues to be the main fuel used to generate electricity in the United States. This is partially because ________.  

 

  1. the country has such large reserves of coal  
  2. the quality of coal in the United States is very consistent from deposit to deposit  
  3. coal causes almost no air pollution when burned  
  4. coal deposits in the United States lie very close to the surface and are easily extracted  
  5. coal contains very few impurities (e.g. sulfur), which cause problems in petroleum and natural gas  

20.  Of the available policy options regarding eventual conversion to renewable energy sources,     environmentalists would probably prefer that ________.  

 

  1. we pass laws immediately banning the use of fossil fuels  
  2. we pass laws immediately banning the exploration and development of further fossil fuel resources  
  3. we encourage, with subsidies, tax rebates, and grants, the rapid development and widespread use of renewable alternative energy resources  
  4. we prepare for a gradual changeover by slowly increasing funding and putting alternative energy resources into place over the next 100 years  
  5. we plan for the switch to renewable energy sources, but not implement any plans until all fossil fuels have been depleted  

 

21.   Which of the following are documented negative impacts of dams?  

 

  1. flooding, habitat destruction, alteration of river sediment deposition  
  2. alteration of river salinity  
  3. acid deposition  
  4. increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and CFCs  
  5. increased carbon monoxide emissions, decreased rainfall  

 

22.   Currently, the fastest?growing source of electricity generation using new renewable sources is ________.   

 

  1. solar  
  2. wind  
  3. hydro  
  4. natural gas  
  5. coal

 

23.  A major disadvantage of solar power is ________.  

 

  1. its cost?effectiveness compared to other types of power  
  2. its efficiency level compared to other types of power  
  3. the variation in sunshine around the world  
  4. that there is a lack of knowledge on long?term economic impacts   E.            that solar systems decentralize control over electrical energy

 

 

 

 

 

24. Mary Ann is looking at alternate energy sources for her home in the country, particularly wind and solar.  She needs to consider ________.  

 

  1. impact of air pollution on the community  
  2. the amount of year?round sunshine where she lives, wind speeds, startup costs  
  3. the mean temperature where she lives  
  4. the amount of year?round rain where she lives  
  5. the elevation above seal level

 

25.  The term sustainability refers to ________.  

 

  1. maintaining resource use at current or higher levels  
  2. keeping the natural environment and human society in a happy, healthy, functional state  
  3. holding or increasing the current quality of human life  
  4. always focusing on fulfilling short?term needs  
  5. opposing change from current policies

 

26.   Producing responsible and constructive technology that can achieve sustainable solutions requires ________.  

 

  1. funding for scientific research and elimination of damaging and inefficient technology  
  2. increase of technology developed through self?interest of large companies   
  3. having citizens be cognizant of the need for politicians to work with "big business"  
  4. public pressure to put limits on environmental protection  
  5. importing inferior technology to developing countries while developed countries invest in green technology   

 

27.   It is imperative that developed countries assist developing countries in economic advancement for sustainability because ________.  

 

  1. there is a direct connection between poverty and those who suffer the most from environmental degradation  
  2. it is less expensive for developing countries to manufacture the consumer goods needed by developed countries  
  3. it is easier and less expensive to exploit resources in developing countries  
  4. it is easier and less expensive to create physical and governmental infrastructure to support heavy industry in developing countries  
  5. all people in developing countries welcome the influx of foreign corporations for economic assistance  

 

 

 

 

28.  The high levels of pesticides found in birds of prey is an example of 

 

  1. eutrophication. 
  2. predation. 
  3. biological magnification. 
  4. the green world hypothesis. 
  5. chemical cycling through an ecosystem. 

 

29.   The main cause of the increase in the amount of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere over the past 150 years is 

 

  1. increased worldwide primary production. 
  2. increased worldwide standing crop. 
  3. an increase in the amount of infrared radiation absorbed by the atmosphere. 
  4. the burning of larger amounts of wood and fossil fuels. 
  5. additional respiration by the rapidly growing human population. 

 

30.   Some global warming models predict that, if permafrost in the tundra regions in the northern hemisphere melts, atmospheric CO2 levels will increase. Which of the following statements best explains this prediction? 

 

  1. The heat released by the melting of the ice on such a vast scale will cause atmospheric CO2 saturation levels to increase. 
  2. All of the tundra producers will die if the permafrost melts, and because the tundra regions are vast in the northern hemisphere the tundra plants will not take part in photosynthetic removal of atmospheric CO2. 
  3. CO2 tied up in the permafrost ice will be released during a thaw. 
  4. All of the undecayed organic material would be subject to decomposition following a thaw, which would lead to incredible increase in global cellular respiration, and add to atmospheric CO2. 
  5. All of the permafrost ice would become runoff, and this volume of water will cause sea levels to rise globally, flooding some of the most important photosynthetic CO2 sink regions on the planet. 

 

31.  Kyoto is to carbon dioxide as Montreal is to ________.  

 

  1. nitrous oxide  
  2. ozone  
  3. methane  
  4. chlorofluorocarbons  
  5. carbon monoxide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             32.   Biofuels and nuclear power may prove useful as  

 

  1. pollution-free sustainable energies  
  2. replacement fuels for motor vehicles  
  3. stages in the development of fusion generators  
  4. inexpensive technologies for developing nations
  5. energies to bridge the time between fossil fuel depletion and new renewables  

 

33.  The term sustainability refers to ________.  

 

  1. focusing on fulfilling short?term needs  
  2. maintaining resource use at current or higher levels  
  3. keeping the natural environment and human society in a functional state  
  4. holding or increasing the current quality of human life  
  5. opposing change from current policies

 

34.  Secondary extraction of petroleum ________.  

 

  1. occurs immediately after primary extraction  
  2. is less expensive than primary extraction  
  3. uses solvents, water, or steam  
  4. allows the oil to be extracted to the last drop  
  5. causes less environmental damage than tertiary extraction  

 

35.  Which of the following describes carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor re-reflecting infrared radiation back toward Earth? 

 

  1. depletion of atmospheric ozone 
  2. turnover 
  3. biological magnification 
  4. greenhouse effect 
  5. eutrophication

 

36.  Dead zones result from the depletion of _______.

 

  1. carbon
  2. oxygen
  3. sulfur dioxide
  4. ozone
  5. nitrogen

 

 

 

 

 

 

             37.   Windmill towers are generally more productive if they are ________.  

 

  1. higher, to minimize turbulence and maximize wind speed  
  2. lower, to minimize turbulence and maximize wind speed  
  3. higher, to minimize the number of birds that interfere with blade turning  
  4. lower, to increase heat convection from the ground  
  5. higher, to increase heat convection from the ground

 

38.  The greatest damage to the environment caused by oil extraction is from ________.  

 

  1. the drilling  
  2. road construction and infrastructure development  
  3. the development of the market in a new country  
  4. the remediation and relocation  
  5. the initial logging

 

39.  What is the most significant source of indoor air pollution in developed countries?  

 

  1. plastic products
  2. carbon monoxide  
  3. cooking  
  4. carpets and furniture  
  5. washing dishes

 

40.  Where is the ozone layer located?

 

  1. In the stratosphere where it  absorbs many biologically damaging short-wavelength radiation.
  2. In the stratosphere where it absorbs many biologically damaging long-wavelength radiation.
  3. In the troposphere where it absorbs many biologically damaging short-wavelength radiation.
  4. In the troposphere where it absorbs many biologically damaging long-wavelength radiation.
  5. In between the stratosphere and the troposphere.

 

41.  What is the world's most abundant fossil fuel? 

 

  1. biodiesel  
  2. coal  
  3. oil  
  4. natural gas  
  5. methane

 

 

 

 

 

             42.   Which of the following are potential energy sources from the oceans?  

 

  1. chemoluminescent bacteria  
  2. motion of currents, waves and tides
  3. solar reflection  
  4. lightning strikes in salt water  
  5. magnetic field generators

 

43.  Carbon-based fuels from lithospheric reservoirs ________.  

 

  1. have formed slowly over many millions of years  
  2. is readily lost from Earth's surface in the absence of humans  
  3. is formed from the deposition, partial decay, and compression of inorganic matter  
  4. cannot be lost to the atmosphere by human processes once stabilized on Earth's surface   E. will be lost before the end of the decade  

 

44.  The lesson of Easter Island was that   

 

  1. economics is an important facilitator of sustainable societies  
  2. conservation of resources is necessary for sustainable societies  
  3. we never comprehend resource issues until the resources are gone  
  4. grassroots organizations must be involved to ensure sustainable societies  
  5. political and governmental support are required to ensure sustainable societies

 

45.  Why is the entire pool of oil not extracted from a well?  

 

  1. It is too destructive to the environment  
  2. It is not cost?effective  
  3. In some areas it is too liquid to extract  
  4. Only a strip mine could fully extract it   
  5. This is not correct; we often are able to extract the entire pool

 

Read the following Scenario and answer Questions 46 to 50:  

 

Thousands of young families moved "over the hills" and into the San Fernando Valley, a suburb of Los Angeles, after World War II.  New neighborhoods were springing up, replacing orange groves and open space.  Roads and highways were built to accommodate the growing use of automobiles and the development of a ‘commuter communities.  Schools quickly sprang into existence, trying to keep pace with the rapid population growth.  Ringed by beautiful mountains, the entire Los Angeles basin looked like a new, green, sun-filled paradise to the families seeking a fresh start.  In the early 1950s, one of the common family chores in Los Angeles was to carry the trash out to the stone incinerator behind the garage where each family burned all of their dry trash.  "Wet" garbage was collected and taken to a city dump, where it was burned by the city.  Everyone throughout the city either used an incinerator or burned things in an open trash pile; there were over 400,000 backyard trash incinerators.  On warm afternoons, eyes would sometimes sting and burn.  People would stop, close their eyes, and let the cleansing tears refresh irritated eyes. They accepted this as a normal part of life in sunny California.

             46.  Part of the reason that people's eyes would sting was ________.  

 

  1. the lead emissions from the burning trash  
  2. the carbon monoxide from the burning trash  
  3. the smoke and particulates from the burning trash  
  4. the excess water vapor from the burning trash  
  5. the plastics and chemicals in the burning trash  

 

47.  In the 1950s, Los Angeles became famous for its smog.  One part of the problem was 

 

  1. the increase in the number of automobiles  
  2. heavy industry along the coastline  
  3. natural gas leaks from wells  
  4. pollution from the dams on the Colorado River  
  5. dust from inland farms  

 

48.  The Los Angeles smog problem is made much worse by 

 

  1. the foggy climate, which leads to acidic deposition  
  2. nearby mountains and the warm sunshine, which cause inversion layers  
  3. the convection cells, which bring pollutants from other cities  
  4. the high cloud levels, which deplete the local ozone layer  
  5. the onshore breezes, which prevent pollution from dispersing  

 

49. In the mid-1950s, a researcher in Los Angeles was able to create smog by setting up a large, clear chamber and using it to expose auto exhaust to sunlight. He was demonstrating 

 

  1. the cause of acidic deposition  
  2. point source pollution  
  3. non-point source pollution  
  4. the cause of ozone depletion  
  5. photochemical reactions  

 

50.   In 1958 trash collection programs were established, and backyard incinerators were banned in the hope of reducing smog. However, it was estimated that massive amounts of gasoline were evaporating from storage tanks, fuel pump nozzles, and delivery trucks.  This was also considered a serious contributor to smog, and over the next 20 years several new rules, and several new devices, were put in place to alleviate it.  There was still a great deal of smog, now identified as photo chemical smog, despite the changes.  The major remaining problem was 

 

  1. indoor pollution from new houses, with new furniture  
  2. the influx of new manufacturing, with new chemicals  
  3. too many coal-fired power plants along the coast  
  4. the large distances traveled daily by solitary commuters  
  5. insufficient city funding to improve waste dumps  

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