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Homework answers / question archive / Which are two principles of scientific thinking? a) analyze the claims being made according to 2 of the above 6 principles of scientific thinking

Which are two principles of scientific thinking? a) analyze the claims being made according to 2 of the above 6 principles of scientific thinking

Psychology

Which are two principles of scientific thinking? a) analyze the claims being made according to 2 of the above 6 principles of scientific thinking. It may be the case that the research does a good job of following some of these 6 scientific principles, but does not good job of following others. If you think the research does a good job of following one of the principles that you have chosen to about (e.g. you think it does a good job in ruling our rival hypotheses), provide a detailed response as to why you think that. If you think the research does not good job of following one of the principles (e.g. it fails to consider rival hypotheses), please provide a comprehensive answer and say what would need to be done to make sure the research follows the principle (e.g. what the rival hypotheses might be and how they might be ruled out). You will probably find that you have more interesting material if you try to look for the ways that the research fails to follow a scientific principle, than if you look for the ways it succeeds. In other words, try to find what the researcher did wrong rather than what they did right. The research description has been specially created so that it fails to abide by some - but not all - of these scientific principles. The six guiding principles are: 1) Ruling out rival hypotheses: Findings consistent with several different hypotheses need additional research to decide which hypothesis is best supported. When looking at a pattern of results that has been reported, it is important to ask "are there any alternative hypotheses that could explain this pattern of data?" The rival hypotheses that are most important to rule out are those that could also explain the specific results that have been described. It is useful to consider how we could attempt to rule out these alternative hypotheses. 2) Correlation vs. causation: An association between two things does not imply a cause and effect relationship. If a pattern of results was produced simply by measuring two different things and comparing them, we cannot say anything definitive about whether one of these things caused the other. It's always important to ask whether the causal connection that is claimed or implied (e.g. A causes B) could be reversed (i.e. B causes A) or whether a third variable could explain the relationship (i.e. C causes A and B to go together). 3) Falsifiability: Claims must be capable of being disproved. In other words, we should be able to think of a way to test whether or not a claim is true. If the claim is made in such a way that there's no good way to test it, the claim is not really scientific. 4) Replicability: Findings must be capable of being duplicated following the same methodology. In addition, the most reliable claims are those that have converging evidence for them. We can only really be confident in a claim if it has been tested in multiple different ways and all of them point to the same effect. 5) Extraordinary claims: Science is, for the most part, a cumulative process, where new claims represent small advances over older ones. A claim that contradicts what we already know, or that seems to promise radical new benefits, must have a lot of evidence to back it up. The bigger the claim, the more evidence must be provided. 6) Parsimony (a.k.a. Occam’s razor): if two hypotheses explain a phenomenon equally well, select the simple one. The simpler one is not necessarily correct, but we shouldn’t make our explanations more complicated than necessary. SCENARIO Catching Fire: How to improve your Instagram picture It's Saturday night and you decide to upload a new picture on Instagram. After spending an hour deciding on which selfie to post, you select one that is clearly superior to the rest of the fifty or so selfies that you had taken. You post the picture thinking that you will get over a hundred likes at least from your Instagram followers in the next half hour, but you are soon proven wrong when your picture only receives a measly 15 likes. Did I post the wrong picture? How could I possibly know which selfie would result in me getting the most likes? A recent study done by researchers at Ohio University have determined a procedure that will ensure that whatever selfie you post, you will receive the maximum number of likes! Dr. Haymitch Abernathy conducted an experiment and stated: "Ensuring the maximum number of likes and comments on a picture simply comes down to perception. If you increase the specificity of photons hitting your viewers' retinas, you can increase the likelihood of getting a like! This is done by manipulating the photons in the picture, which leads to the release of oxytocin by the hypothalamus, therefore increasing your Instagram followers' positive feelings towards your photo." This unique procedure has originated from Dr. Abernathy's laboratory, where his research team has spent the last six months fine-tuning a filter that will increase the specificity of photons, which he calls a "scattered-light filter." The researchers conducted an experiment to determine what type of selfie led to the most number of likes. Dr. Abernathy recruited 30 females from his Introductory Psychology class who were between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants in the study were brought into the lab at Ohio University, and they had their photos taken using a scattered-light filter on a high-quality, digital camera. They were then asked to post their picture whenever they wanted on their Instagram account for a 24 hour period and keep track of how many likes and comments they received in that time. Participants were also asked to report how quickly - in comparison to other pictures they posted - they received likes and comments on their photo. The findings were astounding! The pictures taken using the scattered-light filter on the digital camera resulted in almost twice the number of comments and likes than each of the participants' last uploaded selfie. Dr. Abernathy explains that this result can be explained by the fact that when light waves have been scattered, they have deeper penetration into a viewer's eyeball, and stimulate the retina more specifically. This increase in specificity results in an increase in positive perception, and an increased likelihood of liking a picture. Sarah, one of the participants in the study, stated that "I've never received so many likes and comments on a picture, and so rapidly as well! I'm definitely going to purchase one of these filters to use from now on!Dr. Abernathy says that this study proves that by manipulating the photon specificity of the light being projected by your picture, you can ensure that you receive the maximum number of likes and comments on your Instagram photos.

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