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Homework answers / question archive / 1)Insulin is not a cure for diabetes; it is a life saving medication [What happened to diabetics before Best and Banting discovered insulin in the early 20th century?]

1)Insulin is not a cure for diabetes; it is a life saving medication [What happened to diabetics before Best and Banting discovered insulin in the early 20th century?]

Health Science

1)Insulin is not a cure for diabetes; it is a life saving medication [What happened to diabetics before Best and Banting discovered insulin in the early 20th century?].  Given regular exercise, a healthy diet and insulin, diabetics may lead a normal life.  The alleles which predispose individuals to develop diabetes ____.

    1. Have been decreasing since insulin became available
    2. Have undergone a lot of intragenic recombination and produced pseudogenes
    3. Have been increasing in frequency since insulin became available.
    4. Have managed to find a stable equilibrium frequency
    5. Have stopped mutating
  1. Natural selection is one of the cornerstones of modern biology.  The term was introduced by Charles Darwin in his groundbreaking 1859 book On the Origin of Species  in which natural selection was described by human breeders are systematically favored for reproduction.  The concept of natural selection was originally developed in the absence of a valid theory of heredity; at the time of Darwin’s writing, nothing was known of modern genetics.  The union of traditional Darwinian evolution with subsequent discoveries in classical and molecular genetics is termed the modern evolutionary synthesis.  Natural selection remains the primary explanation for adaptive evolution.  As a mechanism of evolution, natural selection serves to alter the ____ in order to maximize adaptations and allow for increased fitness.
    1. Phenotype
    2. Genotype
    3. Genome
    4. Trasncriptome
    5. Satellome
  2. Sex is all about ____.
    1. Hormones
    2. Natural selection
    3. genetic variation
    4. Heritability
    5. Female choice
  3. Evolution by means of natural selection is, by most, viewed as a struggle between individuals for reproductive superiority; so that their alleles are overrepresented in the next generation.  This view makes the explanation of kindness to others at cost to the individual (altruism) difficult to explain, but altruism is a fact of life.  Some people (suckers) do good and noble deeds.  This is usually explained as the result of kin selection where our altruistic acts are directed to relatives commensurate with the degree of gene sharing.  Haldane said that he would give his life for two siblings or four cousins.  Why did he pick these numbers?
    1. The average family size in the early twentieth century was approximately 5 children
    2. We share half of our DNA with siblings and one quarter with cousins
    3. Usually we have twice as many cousins as brothers and sisters
    4. Parents and their children share half of their DNA
    5. He was joking
  4. Mathematical models and computer simulations may provide guidance in terms of the expectations for particular explanations of systems.  The computer simulations of intra and intergroup interactions described led to ____.
    1. Altruistic behavior in almost all cases
    2. Debilitating xenophobia in all cases
    3. Selfish and peaceful or altruistic and warlike behavior
    4. Friendly with neighbors, aggressive behavior at home
    5. Completely aggressive behavior in all settings
  5. A good guess for the life span of an average species is ___.
    1. 10 thousand years
    2. 4 million years
    3. 4 billion years
    4. 500 thousand years
    5. 500 billion years
  6. Survivors of the Permo Triassic mass extinction included ____ and ____.
    1. Dinosaurs & mammals
    2. Reptiles & humans
    3. Rabbits & rats
    4. Hadrosaurs & Pterodactyls
    5. Novicheks and Andersons
  7. An ____, 65 million years ago, initiated the KT event eliminating the dinosaurs and the opportunistic expansion of the mammals.
    1. Tsunami
    2. Tornado
    3. Volcanic eruption
    4. Asteroid
    5. Hemorrhoid
  8. ____ have ____ the rate of extinction for many organisms.
    1. Rivers              :           blocked
    2. Humans           :           accelerated
    3. Primates          :           decelerated
    4. Bacteria          :           accelerated
    5. Faculty             :           blocked
  9. HIVs enter specific cells by binding to CD4 and CCR5 ____ on the surface.
    1. Nucleotides
    2. Facets
    3. Gloxisomes
    4. Receptors
    5. Fatty acids
  10. One bound to the cell surface HIV are internalized including reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, and ____.
    1. Permease
    2. RNA genomes
    3. CD4
    4. Α saline
    5. AZT
  11.   In the 1970’s Temin and Mizutani found ____ in Rosus Sarcoma Virus David Baltimore isolated it from leukemia cells.  These workers provided the key piece of evidence to explain retroviral “life” cycles, and they modified the Central Dogma of molecular biology.
    1. Leptin
    2. siRNA
    3. reverse transcriptase
    4. ribosomes
    5. Golgi
  12.   Strong evidentiary support for the evolutionary hypothesis that HIV resistance to AZT is based on incorporation of a mutant which alters the active site in reverse transcriptase is ____.
    1. The need for increase AZT dosages to effect the same clinical improvement
    2. The need for additional phosphorylation of AZT as treatment proceeds
    3. The efficacy of cocktail treatments
    4. The profound antibiotic resistance seen in AIDS patients
    5. The lack of change in T-cell survival over years of AZT treatment
  13.   Gene duplication may occur through ploidy increases or tandem duplications.  One theory used to explain the evolution of new functions argues that the presence of two gene copies frees one copy to evolve.  Of course mutations in this free-to-evolve copy may make it into a nonfunctional copy.  These are called ____.
    1. Pseudogenes
    2. Plastids
    3. Cosmids
    4. Gene conversions
    5. siRNAs
  14. Cats are resistant to FIV, because an ancient FIV epidemic decimated cat populations around the world leaving only ____ cats as ancestors of modern cats.
    1. Infected
    2. Dead
    3. Resistant
    4. Mammalian
    5. Fish-eating
  15. ____ is the source of all inherited variation.
    1. Selection
    2. Random mating
    3. Migration
    4. Translation
    5. Mutation
  16. Lahdenpera and colleagues reported date in the 11 March 2004 issues of Nature magazine that sheds light on the fact that women often survive well beyond their reproductive years.  This may be the result of generous care for our elders in human societies HO.  Alternatively it may be that grandmothers contribute to their own reproductive fitness by caring for grandchildren H A.  The Canadian and Finnish data reviewed supports the ____.
    1. Alternate hypothesis that grandmothers increase their own reproductive fitness by caring for their children, grandchildren and great grandchildren.
    2. Null hypothesis that women live long past their reproductive life, because we are a warm, nurturing species which cares for our elderly
  17. The idea that sex is an adaptation allowing sexual species to CHANGE and slow down the ability of pathogens to override the species’ defenses is known as the ____ hypothesis.  It is important to note that Sarah Otto and her students challenged this notion on theoretical grounds.
    1. Gene conversion
    2. Oops
    3. Vrienjhook
    4. Ace
    5. Red queen
  18. In songbirds up to ____% of chicks in a nest are not the progeny of the male who is helping to raise them.  This is true when in the face of the fact that males who catch their mate in an infidelity will leave.
    1. 40
    2. 2
    3. 5
    4. 10
    5. 95
  19. Until 1966 evolutionary geneticists could not ask oh my, what percentage of the genes are polymorphic and what percentage are monomorphic?  The reason was simple.  Mendelian genetics REQUIRES allelic variation to make crosses which produce progeny in different and testable ratios.  Then Harris studying humans and Jack Hubby and Dick Lewontion studying Drosophila pseudoobscura used protein electrophoresis to ask the question.  They found that approximately ____.
    1. 15-20% of the loci studied were heterozygous
    2. Polymorphism sis not exist at the protein level
    3. 97% of all loci studied were monomorphic
    4. The question was still unanswered
    5. Asexual species reproduce better with the lights off
  20. The delta-32 allele of the CCR5 cell surface receptor in humans does not match the HIV coat proteins and blocks entry into the host T cells; delta-32 homozygotes immune to HIV infection.  They should have a fitness advantage, and this advantage should be, sexual more assumed to be equivalent, ____ where HIV infection is ____.
    1. Better              :           worse
    2. Lower              :           higher
    3. Higher             :           lower
    4. Higher             :           higher
    5. Irrelevant        :           100%
  21. The violation of the assumption of infinite population size means that allele and genotype frequencies will change as a result of random sampling.  The direction of this change is ____.
    1. Genotpically determined
    2. Undetermined
    3. Allelically determined
    4. Epsistatic
    5. Fixed by Lod scores
  22. The study of evolution is ____.
    1. Restricted to museum studies of fossilized bones and shells
    2. Based on an agnostic assumption that there is no god
    3. Contradicted by modern epidemiology
    4. Likely to shed light on almost and area of science
    5. Irrelevant to the practical considerations of breeding Purdue chickens with bigger breasts
  23. Science is a collection of facts, a community of scientists and a method.  The method is based in observation, hypothesis, prediction, experimentation, analysis of data and conclusion.  At this level it is basically a deductive process; we go from predictions based on the prevailing theories or conclusions.  When the conclusions consistently support the prevailing theories we become convinced that the theories are correct and they become LAWS or THEORIEs.  Of course science progresses when laws or theories are shown to be false.  Sir Karl Popper called the process conjectures and refutation; that is science is a process of guessing the correct answer and refuting wrong answers.  Refutation is clear, but acceptance is based on accumulation of evidence and subject to future refutation.  The process is deductive [general to particular] at the experimental level and inductive [particular to general] in the formulation of theories that are broadly explanatory.  Belief systems, on the other hand are entirely inductive.  A body of information is revealed and specifics are generated from this revealed information.  Scientific tests of the revealed information are impossible, because causes outside the area of science are invoked.  Miracles are a good example.  Often experiments produce unexpected results.  Which of the following is not a good scientific explanation of unexpected results?
    1. The buffer concentrations were incorrect
    2. The experimental animals show seasonal changes in metabolism
    3. The ___meter was incorrectly calibrated
    4. The experimental animals were possessed
    5. The experimental animals were overly stressed by the experiment
  24. HIV is a retrovirus with a relatively high mutation rate.  This fact means that attempts to eliminate the virus or block its transmission will be countered by the virus, because viral genetic variability is constantly being replenished.  Which of the following is not a likely target for HIV immunization or therapy?
    1. Viral reverse transcriptase
    2. Human reverse transcriptase
    3. viral ligase
    4. Viral integrase
    5. Viral protease
  25. In the 1970s Temin and Mizutani found RSV reverse transcriptase; Baltimore found reverse transcriptase in mouse leukemia cells.  These Nobel Prize works showed that ____ was partially wrong.
    1. Hardy-Weinberg
    2. Central Dogma
    3. Natural selection
    4. Klompher theory
    5. Darwin
  26. AZT is an effective treatment for HIV, because ____.
    1. Viral reverse transcriptase does not distinguish between AZT and T
    2. It blocks the CD4 receptor
    3. It blocks the CCR5 receptor
    4. HIV is incapable of evolving resistance o AZT’s effects
    5. Both A & D are true
  27. Simultaneous administration of drugs which attack different portions of the HIV life cycle is known as cocktail therapy.  It is effective, because ____.
    1. Patients are unable to simultaneously evolve resistance to an umber of drugs
    2. Viruses are unable to simultaneously evolve resistance to a number of drugs
    3. Some of the drugs administered clock mutations in the patients
    4. Some of the drugs administered block viral mutations
    5. Two of the drugs prevent transmission of viral mutants to their progeny
  28. Stephen J. O’Brien hypothesized that some humans would be resistant to HIV just as almost all wild cats were found to be resistant to FIV.  Resistant humans were identified in northern ____.  They carry a mutant allele for a ____, and O’Brien has suggested that their ancestors were resistant to ____.
    1. Florida             :           reverse transcriptase              :           chicken flu
    2. Africa              :           reverse transcriptase              :           HIV
    3. Africa              :           correceptor                             :           plague
    4. Europe             :           reverse transcriptase              :           plague
    5. Europe             :           correceptor                             :           plague
  29. The three most closely related HIV strains in this table of nucleotide sequence differences are ____.
    1. 1,2 and 3
    2. 1,2 and 4
    3. 2,3 and 4
    4. 2,3 and 5
    5. 5, 6 and 7
  30. The increased genetic distance over years is measured by comparing mutations in viral isolates sampled over time against ____.
    1. The isolate when the patient was first diagnosed
    2. Isolates from other patients
    3. The isolate when the patient was initially infected
    4. The average nucleotide sequence from all patients
    5. Patient DNA sequence
  31. HIV like the H1N1 virus are RNA retroviruses.  Finding vaccines for such viruses is difficult because of the high mutation rate associated with RNA viruses.  What would be the best way to target/combat these viruses?
    1. Use medications that target multiple points of the cell cycle/sites, so that by the time the virus builds resistance to one medications, at least the others are still affecting the virus
    2. Use a high dosage medications that targets one specific site
    3. Target cell surface receptors
    4. There is no suitable approach due to the high mutation rates, it is hopeless
  32. The creation-evolution controversy is a recurring theological and cultural-political dispute about the origins of the Earth, humanity, life and the universe.  Creation denotes the existence of a divine Creator who has exercised His creative abilities, creating this world and the life forms, as we know it.  While as evolution stresses the naturalistic (random and undirected) descent of all living creatures from a common ancestor who originally evolved from inorganic matter and has continued to survive through a mechanism known as natural selection.  Which of these statements regarding creationism and evolution is false?
    1. Evolution uses observation and experimentation as a basis of developing understanding of he natural world
    2. Creationism uses biblical interpretation as a basis of developing understanding of the natural world
    3. To respond to challenges facing us these days, evolutions uses new instrumentation to furthermore observe and experiment
    4. Far as the domain of interest is concerned for both realms of the debate-both evolution and creationism stress the universe-limiting the field of view to the material world
  33. Evolutionists reason “we cannot see the Creator, we cannot hear the Creator, and we cannot touch, taste, smell the Creator; therefore we are unable to test for the Creator with any form of scientific equipment.”  Creationists retort “we cannot se, hear, touch, taste, or smell the human mind; therefore we are unable to test for the human mind.”
    1. Creation is a theory used by religions
    2. Evolution is a theory created by scientific minds
    3. Creations vs. Evolution is the ultimate debate
    4. All of the above
  34. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, commonly referred to as NRTIs or nukes for short, inhibit reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that HIV needs in order to infect CD4 cells.  Retroviruses, such as HIV, use the enzyme reverse transcriptase to convert their RNA into DNA, the structure that contains all of a person’s genes.  Without the ability to create the DNA inside the nucleus of a healthy cell, HIV cannot infect that cell.  The HIV DNA then integrates with the DNA of cells in the body.  NRTIs are analogs because they are imitations of the body’s’ own nucleosides, which HIV uses to infect cells.  Hence, you will hear the term “nucleoside analogs” used to refer to NRTIs.  The NRTIs trick the HIV reverse transcriptase into using these imitation nucleosides, incorporating the imitation nucleoside into the HIV DNA chain.  Therefore it can be said that ____.
    1. The virus will continue to reproduce at the same rate
    2. The virus thinks it’s inserting the cell’s nucleoside into it’s DNA chain,, but it’s actually inserting the drug, which breaks the viral DNA chain
    3. The virus will possibly die off of caught on time
    4. Fusion inhibitors fight HIV outside the CD4 cell by blocking fusion of HIV before the virus enters the cell and begins its replication process
  35. One of the most probable problems with teaching intelligent design in the context of religion (God & Creationism) with evolution is ____.
    1. There are more than one religious beliefs, the intelligent design needs to be explanative
    2. Religion does not talk about intelligent design
    3. There’s no proof of intelligent design in various religious prophecies
    4. Both B and C are correct
  36. In HIV, half of the DNA transcripts produced by reverse transcriptase contain at least one mistake mutation.  Therefore, HIV has (the) of any virus organism observed to date.
    1. Lowest mutation rate
    2. Moderate mutation rate
    3. Highest mutation rate
    4. No mutation rate
  37. Craig Venter and his colleagues published the results of their work in Science May 2010; they had synthesized a minimal genome, inserted it into Mycoplasma mycoides and it grew.  This work destroys the long accepted biological law that ____.
    1. DNA -> RNA -> polypeptide
    2. FST ≤ δU2
    3. All life comes from life
    4. The fittest survive
    5. If your parents had no children, you won’t either
  38. An epidemic occurs when the incidence of a disease exceeds expectation based on recent experience.  If the epidemic spreads across a broad geographic area it is called a pandemic.  The availability of a large pool or group of susceptible hosts is, in evolutionary terms, similar to ____.
    1. The large pool of genetic variation seen by Darwin in the wild pigeon
    2. The high mutation rates observed in viruses and bacteria
    3. The increased rate of extinction seen in many organisms as a result of man’s activity
    4. The huge set of open niches seen following a mass extinction such as the K-T event
    5. The conversion of biomass into energy in a fuel cell
  39. Retroviruses attach to target cell membrane receptors, make and insert a copy of their genome , and then proceed to produce progeny virions.  Which of the following targets for antiviral therapy is not likely to be effective?
    1. Reverse transcriptase
    2. Krebs cycle
    3. Ligase
    4. Receptor blockers
    5. Viral coat protein blockers
  40. As viral loads increase during HIV infection over years, the ____.
    1. The viral mutation rate decreases
    2. The viral mutation rate increases
    3. The host response accelerates
    4. The host CD4 T cell count increases
    5. The host CD4 T cell count declines
  41. AZT-triphosphate must be phosphorylated by the host before it is recognized as thymine.  After months of AZT therapy, the AZT dosage required to effect the same decrease in viral load must be increased three or four orders of magnitude.  This suggests that ____.
    1. HIV+ patients have a reduced CD4 T-cell population
    2. HIV+ patients are phosphorylating AZT-triphosphate ineffectively
    3. The patients HOV population has been transformed by patient DNA into an antiviral
    4. The patients HIV population has transformed the host CD4 T-cell population
    5. The HIV population has evolved resistance to AZT
  42. The genetic distances among HIV samples taken from a single patient ____.
    1. Vary randomly as the time from initial infection increases
    2. Are driven by the selective response of the bacterium to the antiviral therapies
    3. Are measureable only at the protein level for retroviruses
    4. Increase as the time since first infection increases
    5. Decreases as the time since first infection increases
  43. The resistance of some people in Europe to HIV infection is based in a mutant CCR5 receptor.  Stephen J. O’Brien hypothesized that the CCR5 deletion conferred resistance to the ____, and preliminary data suggested that the deletion had first appeared ____.
    1. Plague                         :           in the 1920’s
    2. Malarial parasite        :           in the 1900’s
    3. Plague                         :           about 700 years ago
    4. HIV                              :           around 1940
    5. CD4                             :           San Francisco
  44.   SIV and HIV phylogenetic trees suggest that the virus has jumped from chimps to humans ____.
    1. Only once
    2. Three or four times
    3. At least twenty times
    4. Using green monkeys as an intermediate
    5. Every 100 years
  45.  The graph depicts the degree of divergence for viral isolates from their common ancestor.  If we want to know when the common ancestor “lived”, we can ____.
    1. Average the divergence estimates and divide by the time to the common ancestor
    2. Take the square root of the average divergence and divide by the time to the common ancestor
    3. Extrapolate the best fit line to the base line
    4. Average the As, Bs, Cs and Ds and use the quadrilineal intersection as our estimate
    5. Convert the linear best fit to a polynomial and solve for time
  46. Following infection populations of pathogens may accumulate mutations so that the genetic signature of the population some years after infection is different from the genetic signature of the population at the time of infection.  This fact confounds the prosecution of individuals who have purposely infected others and requires the prosecution to introduce evidence explaining ____.
    1. Pathogen life cycles
    2. Reverse transcriptase evolution
    3. Deletion mechanisms
    4. Phylogenetic trees
    5. Natural selection
  47. Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism for evolutionary change.  Under the hypothesis of natural selection, we expect an increased frequency of a favored phenotype to be associated with ____.
    1. An increase in mutation rate
    2. An increase  in fertility
    3. Decrease in fertility
    4. Return to normalcy
    5. A decrease in mutation rate
  48. Vestigial structures or processes are considered to be evidence in favor of evolution, because structures or processes which are not utilized will accumulate nonfunctional mutations.  These will be favored by natural selection, because they eliminate ____.
    1. A vestigial structure or process
    2. The energy expenditure required to maintain vestigial structures in working order
    3. The genes required to produce vestigial structures
    4. The forces of natural selection
    5. The argument for intelligent design
  49. Pseudogenes are nonfunctional copies of genes that arise by retrotransposition of mRNA.  They are usually identified by the presence of STOP codons in the coding region of the normal gene, and this, by definition, makes them nonfunctional.  It is, however, possible for these pseudogenes to evolve functions other than those of the normal gene.  These include ____.
    1. Production of antibodies
    2. Production of mtDNA
    3. Production of kinases
    4. Production of chromosomes
    5. Production of miRNA
  50. Which of the following is not a name of an epoch?
    1. Holocene
    2. Pleistocene
    3. Obscene
    4. Meiocene
    5. Oligocene
  51. The time required for TRACIUM43 to decay by ½ to Tracium 42 is 37 million years.  The FIU fossil team has unearthed bones was 50.  How old are these bones?
    1. 18.5 million years
    2. 74 million years
    3. 111 million years
    4. 37 million years
  52. Why sex, in evolutionary terms?
    1. Holistic completion
    2. Genetic variation
    3. Mutational acceleration
    4. Pathogen suppression
    5. Love
  53. Mispairing of DNA is thought to be common mutational mechanism leading to loss or gain of repeats.  In ____ an increase in the number of repeats is seen when the newly synthesized DNA strand moves down one repeat on the template strand.
    1. Unequal crossover
    2. Polymerase duplication
    3. Slipped-strand mispairing
    4. Okazaki rearrangement
    5. Microsatellite overlap
  54. A population of green, little people on an island just west of the UK was found to have the following genotype frequencies at the alcohol dehydrogenase 27 locus:

ald 27B / ald27B

ald27B / ald27b

ald27b / ald27b

519

1122

359

N = 2,000

2N = 4,000

                        The frequency of the ald27B allele is ____.

    1. 718/4000
    2. 1122/4000
    3. 878/4000
    4. 2160/4000
    5. 1840/4000
  1.  Fitness differences involve differential reproduction, differential reproduction is not necessarily based on fitness differences.  It may be the result of chance.  So experimental evidence of natural selection requires ____.
    1. Data showing that a particular phenotype has increased frequency
    2. Data showing that a particular phenotype has increased in frequency under a particular set of environmental conditions and that the results may be replicated
    3. Data showing that a particular phenotype may be produced by a range of genotypes none of which alter fertility
    4. Data showing that a particular set of phenotypes has decreased in frequency
    5. Data showing that only fertility associated characters are inherited
  2.  the graph of offspring beak depth and midparent beak depth shows that ____.
    1. Beak depth is strongly selected for during periods of drought
    2. Beak depth is strongly selected against during periods of drought
    3. Beak depth is a genetically determined trait
    4. Eye color in Darwin’s finches is invariant
    5. Parents prefer mates with similar beak depth
  3. Martin Surbeck has just published his recent observations of bonobos in Salonga National Park, Congo.  Males were seen to arrange themselves in  a dominance hierarchy, and the alpha males mated more frequently than the other males.   However, when the males mothers were present the alpha males mating declined from 40% to 25%, and the mothers of subordinate males were seen helping to fend off males competing with their sons.  This maternal behavior could increase the mothers fitness by ____.
    1. Decreasing the reproductive success of the alpha males
    2. Increasing the reproductive success of the alpha males
    3. Increasing their sons’ reproductive success
    4. Deceasing their son’s reproductive success
    5. Fostering maternal disinterest
  4. Tumor suppressor genes regulate cell division by down regulating the cell cycle or by stimulating apoptosis.  PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog, downregulates through its phosphatase function; PTEN1, a PTEn pseudogene, is transcribed and it shares an miRNA target site with PTEN.  If there is a regulated pool of S1 specific miRNA, we would expect ____.
    1. The PTEN1 transcript to be upregulated at the expanse of the PTEN transcript
    2. The PTEN1 transcript to be downregulated at the expense of the PTEN transcript
    3. That the PTEN and PTENP1 S1 sites would compete dor S1 specific miRNA and this would upregulate PTEN
    4. That the PTEN and PTENP! S1 sites would compete for S1 specific miRNA and this would downregulate PTEN
    5. S2 interference with miRNA binding in he PTEN but not in the PTENP1 transcripts
  5. S2 is not very similar in the 3’ UTRs of PTEN and PTEN1, but we could expect that S2 is also subject to miRNA regulation.  This allows ____.
    1. Regulation of the concentration of PTENP1 which would allow control of the concentration of PTENP1 transcripts competing for miRNA specific to S1 sites
    2. Regulation of the concentration of PTENP1 which would allow control of the concentration of PTENP1 transcripts competing for miRNA specific to S2 sites
    3. Normal levels of PTEN protein to be produced in the presence of PTENP1
    4. Reduced levels of PTENP1 protein to be produced in the presence of PTENP1
    5. Both C and D are true

 

 

 

Miscellaneous

Sexual Conflict

  1. Predicting the outcome of sexual conflict, like predicting the outcome of selection based on relationship (Br-C>0), may be modeled by looking at the relative reproductive costs and benefits to male and females. If it is relatively cheaper for females to counter a male adaptation, we would predict that
  2. In those species of fish where males avoid female choice by rushing-in and depositing sperm without “permission”, one would expect to see females evolve a counter-adaptation  if
  3. The traditional view of sexual selection and sexual conflict suggests that females select males with “desirable” phenotypic characteristics such as big antlers or huge peacock tails, because these males provide DNA which provides the female with better offspring. The benefits are higher. Consideration of sexual conflict leads to focus on

East African Lakes

 

  1. The Knight and Turner studies reported here suggests that ________ may have contributed to incipient speciation in African cichlids
  2. In the mate choice experiments males were confined to pens and the smaller females were allowed to “cruise” until they had selected a mate. The majority of females mated with males from ____________
  3. Clutch paternity was assigned using microsatellite markers and was assigned to males from the same population approximately 62% of the time. The expected percentage of matings, using a random mating model is 20%, because
  4. Under Fisher’s runaway hypothesis of female mate selection, females arbitrarily prefer a particular male characteristic in selecting a mate. Male respond by exaggerating the female preferred trait. Since the female prefer traits arbitrarily, neighboring populations, with next to no migration, may diverge rapidly because

 

 

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