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Homework answers / question archive / 1)In formulating comparative evolutionary hypotheses such as explanations for testes size, loss of hind limbs, coat patterning, presence or absence of spines, etc

1)In formulating comparative evolutionary hypotheses such as explanations for testes size, loss of hind limbs, coat patterning, presence or absence of spines, etc

Health Science

1)In formulating comparative evolutionary hypotheses such as explanations for testes size, loss of hind limbs, coat patterning, presence or absence of spines, etc., independent comparisons can only be made when we account for___?

    1.  Gene dosage
    2. heteroplasmy
    3. Common ancestry
    4. Inbreeding
    5. Jumping genes
  1. Male giraffes have long necks, because they neck joust for_____.
    1. High leaves
    2. Access to females
    3. Nuts
    4. Grasses
    5. Nesting bird eggs
  2. The source of the duplicated gene on the bottom line in this diagram is fairly obvious, because the inserted Exon A has a ______. 
    1. Unique DNA sequence
    2. LINE 1 upstream
    3. Poly (A) sequence
    4. Complimentary sequence to Exon B
    5. Methylated region upstream
  3.  Transposons are often referred to as “selfish DNA”, because they make copies of themselves which insert into other areas of the genome and this is often deleterious.  However, there is some evidence that our ____ systems may be as effective as they are because of a transposition.
    1. Immune
    2. Digestive
    3. Reproductive
    4. Circulatory
    5. Nervous
  4. The protozoan parasite Theileria ensures that it will be present in both mitotic daughter cells of its host by attaching to the microtubules and being drawn like a chromosome to opposite poles.  It accomplishes this by presenting ____ on its cell surface.
    1. MHC glycoproteins
    2. Microtubular glycolipids
    3. Kinetochore proteins
    4. Mitoglobulorea
    5. Histones
  5. Just before the host cell enters anaphase Theileria displays ___ on its cell surface ensuring that the host microtubules responsible for cytokinesis will divide in half.
    1. Kinetochore proteins
    2. ER
    3. Omphalocytes
    4. Toxoplasma gondii
    5. Polo-like kinase 1
  6. Single celled organisms do not have to orient in time and space relative to other cells. They are the organism and must regulate where and when structures are produces within the cell and on the cell surface. Multicellular organisms must have a system to organize the cells in space, that is anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, left-right. The genes responsible for coding positional information are the__?
    1. Positron loci
    2. Groundhog loci
    3. Homeotic loci
    4. Anteropos loci
    5. Pacman loci
  7. Hox genes   ____?
    1. Have been identified in all major animal phyla suggesting that they are evolutionarily very old
    2. Occur in groups which diversified following gene duplications.
    3. Are arranged in 3’-5’ chromosomal order which parallels the antero- posterior order of   expression
    4. Have a 180 Base Pair (bp) sequence which is a DNA binding motif
    5. All of the above are true.
  8. Hox genes do not specify specific appendages such as wings or legs. They____.
    1. Demarcate relative position in the embryo
    2. Control cell movement of imaginal discs
    3. Regulate cdc cell division cycle genes
    4. Control timing in the developing embryo
    5. All of the above are true
  9. If Hox genes organize the body and their number has increased over evolutionary time we might expect changes in number and function to explain___?
    1. Reproductive isolation
    2. Loss of appendages
    3. Some major evolutionary changes
    4. The high level of extinction at boundaries
    5. The origin of the electron transport chain
  10.  Which of the following genes is not a Hox gene?
    1. Antennapedia
    2. Bithorax
    3. Ultrabithorax
    4. Abdominal- A
    5. HbA/HbS
  11.  Tetrapod limbs have bones which are clearly homologous to bones seen in the ____ of Eusthenoptereron.
    1. Zone of polarizing activity
    2. Thoracic segments
    3. Lobed fins
    4. Punctuate zones
    5. AER
  12. Parsimony analysis uses data like that depicted to infer, by minimum steps, the loci present at branch points in the phylogeny.  Sponges and cnidarians have only 3 – 4.  Duplications increase the number of genes to 39+ in mammals.  The bed and zen genes in the fruit fly probably evolved from a ____ in the common ancestor with Onycgophoran.
    1. Mutation
    2. Transition
    3. Crossover
    4. Conversion
    5. Duplication
  13.  In tetrapods the limb bud originates from mesodermal cells which induce the formation of the apical ectodermal ridge which produces FGF-2, the molecule which maintains the progress zone. Thus fibroblast growth factor-2 establishes the ____ axis in the developing limb.
    1. Dorso-lateral
    2. Anterior-posterior
    3. Dorsal-ventral
    4. Proximal-distal
    5. Ventro-lateral
  14. Sonic hedgehog shh mRNA localizes to the Zone of Polarizing Activity and this cellular zone establishes the _____________ axis in the developing limb bud.
    1. Dorso-lateral
    2. Anterior-posterior
    3. Dorsal-ventral
    4. Proximal-distal
    5. Ventro-lateral
  15. The biological species concept BSC uses ____ as the criterion for identifying evolutionary independent units or species.
    1. taxa            
    2. reproductive isolation           
    3. courtship
    4. DNA differences
    5. Phylogeny
  16. The morphospecies concept uses _________ differences among
    specimens to delineate species and the phylogenetic species concept
    uses the smallest _____________ to define a species.
    1. Physical           :           monophyletic group
    2. relational        :           monophyletic group
    3. biochemical    :           monopolymorphic
    4. physical           :           monopolymorphic
    5. biochemical    :           chromosome
  17. The major problem with speciation is that the BSC defines species as reproductively isolated populations, but the genetically based mechanism of reproductive isolation must have arisen in the __.
    1. Gonads
    2. courtship ritual
    3. first stages of meiosis
    4. common ancestor
    5. descendant species
  18. The simplest genetic changes which could produce reproductive isolation involve two loci and the reduced fitness of hybrid progeny is the result of _____.
    1. Dominance
    2. Methylation
    3. Interaction
    4. Transformation
  19. Humans are classified with the African Great Apes based on the following synapomorphies. Which does not fit?
    1. Relatively large brains
    2. Relative monogamy
    3. Absence of a true tail
    4. Flexible wrists
    5. Flexible ankles
  20. Thomas Henry Huxley proposed in 1863 that humans should be placed with the African great Apes. In 1967 Sarich and Wilson provided data which was consistent with Huxley’s proposal. They used __________ to measure ape relationships to humans.
    1. DNA
    2. Allozymes
    3. Antibodies
    4. Chromosomes
    5. miRNA
  21. Humans belong to the same clade as the apes. This means that they all share unique, evolutionarily derived traits. For example all mammals have hair, but no other animals have hair. The technical term for these shared, derived, unique traits is _____.
    1. Synapomorphy
    2. Claptrapomorphy
    3. Ortholog
    4. Phylogeny
    5. Ontogeny
  22. Most molecular and anatomical data support a primate phylogeny in which the closest relative of the chimp and bonobo is ____________.
    1. Gorilla
    2. Macaque
    3. Gibbon
    4. Orangutan
    5. Human
  23. Phylogenetic relationships may be estimated using morphological data, behavioral data, biogeographic data, etc. The advent of molecular biology has produced mountains of DNA sequence data which may be used to estimate gene trees and species trees. The allopatric model of speciation proposes a split among species populations and this split may lead to the loss of some of the alleles present in the ancestral species by genetic drift or selection. This fact means that _______.
    1. Speciation will be more rapid as a result
    2. Gene trees may not accurately reflect species trees
    3. Mutation is not a driving force in speciation
    4. Many of the loci studied in estimating species trees are irrelevant to the speciation event
    5. Both a and d are correct
  24. In an analysis of mRNA differences in different tissues from humans, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys, the largest difference between chimps and humans was seen in
    1. Bone
    2. Brain
    3. Liver
    4. Blood
    5. Gonad

              

  1. This hypothetical history of species of Homo is usually referred to as the ____________ hypothesis.
    1. Hybridization and assimilation
    2. Candelabra
    3. Out of Africa
    4. Multiregional
    5. Basement
  2. Genetic diversity (the chance that two randomly drawn individuals are genetically similar) is, among primates, least in ________.
    1. Bonobos
    2. Gorillas
    3. Western chimps
    4. Eastern chimps
    5. Humans
  3. Which of the following trait has NOT been proposed as the unique trait separating humans from all other animals?
    1. Language
    2. Opposable thumbs
    3. Tool use
    4. Migratory behavior
    5. Brain size
  4. The distribution or apportionment of genetic variation in Homo sapiens is approximately ___ limited to local populations, ____ limited to major racial groups and ____ species wide in distribution.
    1. 20% 20% 60%
    2. 5% 5% 90%
    3. 40% 20% 40%
    4. 20% 60% 20%
    5. 80% 10% 20%
  5.  Comparison of amino acid and/or nucleotide differences between Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes shows that collinear genes, genes on the same chromosome in the two species, evolve at ___________ the rate of genes on rearranged chromosomes.
    1. ½
    2. twice
    3. 10X
    4. 1/10th
    5. equal
  6.  It is very difficult for alleles which produce reproductive isolation to become fixed in populations which are exchanging genes, because the heterozygotes are underdominant and recombination does not occur between rearranged chromosomes. The argument for human – chimp divergence from a common ancestor suggests that chromosomal rearrangement heterozygotes present a semipermeable barrier to allele exchange by recombination. Thus differences accumulate more quickly in ___________ than in __________.
    1. Biparental       :           uniparental
    2. Rearranged     :           collinear
    3. Collinear         :           rearranged
    4. Human            :           chimp
    5. Chimp              :           human
  7. Nucleotide substitutions which alter the amino acid (KA) and those which do not alter the specified amino acid (KS) may be compared between rearranged segment genes and collinear segment genes. The human-chimp comparison suggests that ____.
    1. humans and chimps have undergone remarkably little amino acid altering nucleotide    substitution in collinear or rearranged chromosomes.
    2. nucleotide substitutions which lead to amino acid replacement are five times more common in rearranged than in collinear segments.
    3. the bipolarity of mononucleotide substitutions is a multiphasic function of underdominant natural selection and random mating.
    4. the monopolarity of binucleotide substitution is an epiphasic and stochastic approximation to the evo-devo approximation.
    5.  than the average bear.
  8. Knowing the frequency of an allele at locus N provides no information about the frequency of alleles at locus T in a population which is ______.
    1. undergoing a selective sweep through hitch hiking.
    2. in linkage disequilibrium.
    3. in linkage equilibrium.
    4. undergoing epistatic convolution.
    5. increasing in numbers.
  9.  Linkage disequilibrium may be generated by ______.
    1. genetic drift, mutation, migration and selection.
    2. genetic drift, recombination, transposition and transcription
    3. genetic drip, recombination, transposition and translation.
    4. genetic drift, migration, transposition and translation.
    5. migration, genetic drift, transcription and translation.
  10.  D’ = [(gAB’ – rD) (gab’ – rD] [(gAb’ + rD) (gaB + rD)] may be rearranged to   D’ = D (1 – r).  The only force reducing linkage disequilibrium is _____.
    1. Random mating
    2. Mutation
    3. Recombination
    4. Nonrandom mating
    5. hyperflumoxiation
  11. Mutations must occur on a specific background; they occur on a chromosome and their initial frequency is 1/2N. They are, thus, in linkage from the outset. This disequilibrium may be reduced by _____ and _____; this allows us to estimate the time of the mutation.
    1. random mating  and  mutation  
    2. panmixia and recombination
    3. methylation  and  acetylation
    4. recombination  and  mutation
    5.  mutation and selection
  12. Linkage disequilibrium is produced by migration when _____.
    1. the migrants come from a large continental land mass.
    2. the migrants come from a small, offshore island.
    3.  the allele frequencies between the immigrant and native populations are different.
    4. the allele frequencies between the immigrant and native populations are identical.
    5. the immigrants are mostly males. 
  13. The theory known as Muller’s ratchet predicts accumulation of deleterious/nonfunctional alleles in ________ populations.
    1. Asexual
    2. Sexual
    3. Transsexual
    4. Temperate
    5. Tropical
  14. It is possible to map new mutant alleles by association with known marker alleles, because the mutation must occur on a specific DNA molecule in a specific genetic neighborhood. This association is, of course, broken down over time by ___________ and ___________.
  1. sex and recombination                          
  2. gene conversion and sex
  3. transition and transversion
  4. transition and sex                             
  5. crossing-over and mutation

40.  A mutation producing neural degeneration  nD  is found together with marker allele 227 at the PHAT   locus and allele  86 at the FRU in 72% of the nD chromosomes.

 x)    nD chromosomes 

nD-227-86 72% ,   28% of  nD alleles are linked to non 227 & 86 alleles      

Since nD probably occurred on a 227-86 background 28% of the nD chromosomes have undergone recombination or mutation between the n locus and PHAT or FRU.

y)    nOK chromosomes
nOK-227-86 15%,  85% of nOK alleles are linked to non 227 & 86 alleles      
nOK- ? – 86  47%,  53% of nOK alleles are linked to non 86 alleles

The crossover rate between the n locus and PHAT is 0.004 and between n and FRU it is 0.008.    You should assume that the nD277-86 is always paired with nOK chromosomes, that these are in linkage equilibrium and that the mutation rate at PHAT and FRU is 0.001.
 

c  =  (0.85 x 0.004)  +  (0.53 x 0.008)                          Pg = ( 1 – c - m )g
 

The mutation to nD occurred on a 227-86 background approximately __________ generations ago.

Use:  Log (0.72) = -0.1427/0.004 = 37

 

  1. 450       
  2. 1450 
  3. 370    
  4. 5
  5. 37
          
  1. The classic explanation of the giraffe’s long neck has recently been challenged on the grounds that giraffes feed at about the height of their shoulders.  Simmons and Scheepers (1196) proposed that the giraffe’s long neck was selected for ______.
    1. fighting with other males for mating opportunities.
    2. allowing giraffes to breath in deep water
    3. allowing giraffes to see long distances across the savannah.
    4. fighting with predators to defend their young.
    5. Both b and d are supported by recent data.
  2.  Adaptations, that is hypothesized adaptations, may be studied using the experimental, observational or ______________ methods.
    1. Evolutionary
    2. Narrative
    3. Phylogenetic
    4. Cladistic
    5. Comparative
  3. The tephritid fly Zonosemata vittigera has banded wings which it holds perpendicular to its body and waves when disturbed. Greene and colleagues hypothesized in 1987 that this behavior mimics jumping
    spiders and protects the fly from predation by jumping spiders. If this is an accurate hypothesis jumping spiders presented with an untreated fly will ________ while other predators will ________.     
  1. attack   :           retreat                      
  2. retreat  :           attack
  3. freeze   :           retreat
  4. attack   :           freeze 
  5. freeze   :           attack
  1. The tephritid fly Zonosemata vittigera has banded wings which it holds perpendicular to its body and waves when disturbed. Greene and colleagues hypothesized in 1987 that this behavior mimics jumping
    spiders and protects the fly from predation by jumping spiders. If this is an accurate hypothesis jumping spiders presented with a treated house fly will _____ while other predators will _____.     
  1. attack   :           retreat                      
  2. retreat  :           attack
  3. freeze   :           retreat
  4. attack   :           freeze 
  5. attack   :           attack
  1.  When similar structures, behaviors, biochemical pathways, etc are seen in different species and a hypothesis is formulated to explain the adaptive value of this character, the adaptive hypothesis may be tested by comparing species with different characteristics such as large or small testes. Joe Felsensteins (1985) method allows comparison among species by making the contrasts among species _________.
    1. Easier to graph
    2. Phylogenetically dependent
    3. Log normal
    4. Phylogenetically independent
    5. Neutral
  2. Altruism is behavior in which the individual instigating an action pays a fitness cost (risks or reduces her reproductive potential) and the recipient benefits (fitness increase). This seems to contradict the theory of natural selection, because any alleles predisposing to altruistic act will be eliminated by natural selection. Darwin, Haldane, Trivers, Hamilton and others have used ____ to explain the evolution of altruism.
    1. Kinship
    2. Linkage disequilibrium
    3. Crossing over
    4. Genetic balance
    5. epitasis
  3. Br-C>0 For an altruistic act the benefit to the recipient was estimated to be 4, the cost was estimated to be 1. The most distant relative to which this altruistic act should be directed is _______. Performing this act for more distant relatives would place the actor at a disadvantage in inclusive fitness terms.
    1. Parents
    2. Siblings
    3. Aunts
    4. Cousins
    5. Uncles
  4. Br-C>0 For an altruistic act the benefit to the recipient was estimated to be 9, the cost was estimated to be 1. The most distant relative to which this altruistic act should be directed is _______. Performing this act for more distant relatives would place the actor at a disadvantage in inclusive fitness terms.
    1. Parents
    2. Siblings
    3. Aunts
    4. Cousins
    5. Uncles
  5. Br-C>0 For an altruistic act the benefit to the recipient was estimated to be 2, the cost was estimated to be 0.5. The most distant relative to which this altruistic act should be directed is _______. Performing this act for more distant relatives would place the actor at a disadvantage in inclusive fitness terms.
    1. Grandparents
    2. Siblings
    3. Aunts
    4. Cousins
    5. Uncles
  6.  Etymologically the term evolution is derived from the Latin evolution which means “unfolding”. The idea of evolution which most biologists define as “descent with change” had been around for a long time when Darwin published Origin of Species in November of 1859. Darwin provided evidence and a mechanism for evolution. The mechanism he proposed is__________.
    1. mutation
    2. pangenesis
    3. orthology
    4. genetics
    5. natural selection
  7. Some of the evidence that HIV is spread by sexual contact is _________.
    1. The high rate of HIV infection in homosexual communities.
    2. the inverse correlation between condom use and HIV infection.
    3. the fact that HIV is a retrovirus.
    4. the nucleotide sequence similarity between HIV and SIV.
    5. the fact that children are not commonly HIV+.
  8. Extinction is:
    1. Loss of signal
    2. A PermoTriassic Phenomenon
    3. Termination of a species’ lineage
    4. Limited to marine species
    5. Generally related to chromosomal translocations
  9. An asteroid , 65 million years ago, initiated the KT event eliminating the dinosaurs and allowing the      opportunistic expansion of the ________.
    1. amphibians
    2. pterodactyls
    3. mammals
    4. insects
    5. rodents
  10. Evolution is a body of scientific “facts” which the available evidence supports. Evolution is also a collection of laws or theories which are used to interpret observations of the natural world. Knowing that the genetic material mutates and that some mutations will, in particular environments, confer a benefit, we expect these rare beneficial mutations to increase in frequency. HIV enters T cells and other types of cells by binding to CD4 and CCR5 receptors. People carrying a rare CCR5 allele are resistant to HIV infection. If the HIV epidemic continues unchecked we expect to see
    1. an increase in the virulence of the virion.
    2. a decrease in the virulence of the virion.
    3. an increase in the frequency of the rare CCR5 allele.
    4. a decrease in the frequency of the of the rare CCR5 allele.
    5. an increase in the mutation rate at theCCR5 locus.
  11. It has been hypothesized that the rare allelic form of CCR% is seen more commonly in Northern European populations, because ____.
    1. It protected carriers against malaria
    2. It increased the risk of dying from malaria
    3. It protected carriers against the plague
    4. It altered the processing of AZT
  12. Treatments for HIV+ patients attempt to block the viral life cycle without harming the patient. Since HIV is a retrovirus, one obvious point of attack is ______.
    1. gluconeogenesis
    2. reverse transcription
    3. proteolysis
    4. mutation
    5.  translation
  13. HIV+ patients on AZT therapy require increasing doses of AZT over time. This is because the virion population is being subjected to a selection pressure for ______.
    1. reduced AZT acceptance in the reverse transcriptase.
    2. increased AZT acceptance in the reverse transcriptase.
    3. CCR5 alterations.
    4. CD4+ alterations.
    5. reduced virulenc
  14. Nucleotide sequence from three separate viral isolates show different nucleotides in some positions. Isolate one has six differences when compared to isolate two. Isolate two has seven differences when compared to isolate three, and isolate one has four differences when compared to isolate three. Which of these three isolates have the most recent common ancestor?
    1. one and three
    2. two and four
    3. one and two
    4. one and seven
  15. The scatter-plot presents genetic difference values between the viral isolate and the hypothetical consensus sequence that is the common ancestor. The best fit line may be extended back in time to provide an estimate of _________.
    1. the time at which the common ancestor of these isolates existed.
    2. the rate of mutation at time t0.
    3. the time of divergence between groups B and D.
    4. the time of divergence between groups C and F.
    5. the effective size of the HIV population through 2000.
  16. Evolutionary trees may be constructed using lots of different types of data such as behavior, amino acid sequence variation, morphological variation nucleotide sequence variation, etc. The distance between two taxons, that is the branch lengths from one to another, represents the estimated time since the taxons had a common ancestor. If there are six nucleotide replacements or differences between the two, how may we estimate which nucleotide was present in the last common ancestor?
    1. Add the branch lengths and divide by two.
    2. Sequence more individuals from each taxon.
    3. Sequence the homologous region from a third taxon and assign the nucleotide shared by two taxa to the common ancestor.
    4. Sequence the pseudogenes and divide by the total number of nucleotides.
    5. both b and d may be used
  17. In a breeding experiment involving Crepidula fornicata only those animals with 1 mm or smaller shells were allowed to reproduce. The progeny of this selected group of breeders had 1.8 mm shells on average. The average in the parental generation was 2.2 mm for the entire group although only the 1mm animals were allowed to breed. These observations suggest a
    1. low fertility for the parents.
    2. a high heritability for shell size.
    3. a low heritability for shell size.
    4. a high fertility for the parents.
    5. a disordinate interest in molluskcan sexual activity.
  18. One of the more convincing studies of evolution in the field was done by Rosemary and Peter Grant and their students on Geospiza species in the Galapagos. Following a catastrophic drought they found that __________ had increased.
    1. fledge rate
    2. beak size
    3. clutch size
    4. DNA content
    5. tourism
  19. According to a recent report from Doctors Without Borders, 4% of TB patients worldwide are resistant to at least one frontline TB drug. In parts of Eastern Europe multidrug resistant TB is spreading by 250,000 to 400,000 new cases per year. Yet the last new TB drug was introduced in the 1960s, and all available drugs target dividing cells. In addition the evolution of drug resistance is facilitated by the very course of treatment. Mycobacterium tuberculosis spends long periods in a latent state during which antibiotics are ineffective, because the drugs target processes like cell wall synthesis. New drugs which kill during the latent state will attack basic metabolic processes such as ATP synthesis and nutrient transport. Another benefit of this approach is that _______________ occurs during DNA __________ so the bacterium will have less raw material available to evolve resistance.
    1. Phosphorylation :           translocation
    2. translation                     :           replication
    3. mutation                        :           replication
    4. phosphorylation             :           mutation
    5. mutation                        :           phosphorylation
  20. Steve O’Brien is head of the virology lab at NCI and has worked on cats for many decades. His studies of wild and captive cheetah populations around the world uncovered almost no genetic variation. Skin grafts were accepted among all animals. O’Brien’s worry was that ______.
    1. lacking genetic variation these animals were inbred.
    2. lacking genetic variation these animals had little or no allelic variation with which they could respond to pathogen challenges.
    3. the cheetah’s lack of genetic variation suggested that mutation was not occurring in these cats.
    4. the absence of genetic variation in cheetahs would lead to a drop in poaching, because the pelts made lousy coats.
    5. the cheetah was undergoing strong selection for FIV resistanc
  1. The evolutionary roots of the war between the sexes is based on
    1. pigeon studies
    2. peacock tails
    3. big eggs and small sperm
    4. dNTPs
    5. beetlejuice
  2. In sexual selection terms males engage in __ and females engage in ___ .
    1. competition       :           choice
    2. choice                :           competition
    3. sex                     :           abstinence
    4. copulation          :           abstinence
    5. up                       :           down
  3. The data from both patients suggest that ______.
    1. the viral load has decreased over time as a result of weakened viruses.
    2. the patients are both failing to phosphorylate AZT effectively.
    3. increasing the micromolar concentration of AZT increases HIV viability.
    4. a side-effect of AZT medication involves agouti related protein.
    5. the viral population shifts over time to an enzyme which doesn’t recognize AZT as T.
  4. Until 1966 it was impossible to estimate the amount of genetic variation in any population, because Mendelian genetics requires at least two alleles. Geneticists had no available methods for asking the question How many loci are polymorphic and how many loci are monomorphic ? Adapting histochemical assays and applying them to___________ separated ____________, we were able to identify monomorphic (one allele) and polymorphic (>one allele) loci.
    1. DNA                   :           chromatographically
    2. RNA                    :           isotopically
    3. siRNA                 :           chromatographically
    4. proteins :           electrophoretically
    5. proteins :           isotopically
  5. In 1908 Hardy and Weinberg published papers showing that the binomial or multinomial could be applied in genetics to predict the frequencies of genotypes when allele frequencies where known or at least estimated. The formal algebraic proof of this Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Law assumes that the population is infinite in size. This assumption is necessary, because real populations ____.
    1. reproduce sexually and litter or family sizes vary.
    2. will exhibit random changes in allele frequency, invalidating the exact proof.
    3. are not infinite and the Hardy-Weinberg proof is only a very crude approximation when natural selection is acting.
    4. reproduce both sexually and asexually so an infinite size population is required to preserve genetic variation.
    5. vary in size over time and infinity is the mathematicians way of controlling variation.
  6. In a randomly mating population in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium the frequency of mating between AA homozygotes and aa heterozygotes is
    1. p2q2  
    2. p2
    3. p4
    4. 2pq
    5. 2p3q
  7. In a randomly mating population in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium the frequency of mating between AA homozygotes and Aa heterozygotes is
    1. p2q2  
    2. p2
    3. p4
    4. 2pq
    5. 2p3q
  8. Three genotypes are observed in a population at the following frequencies:

Genotypes:

A1A1

A1A2

A2A2

Frequency:

p2

2pq

q2

 

 

 

The frequency of the A1 allele is equal to ______.

    1. p2
    2. 2pq
    3. q2 + pq
    4. p2 + pq
    5. (1-q2)
  1. Three genotypes are observed in a population at the following frequencies:

Genotypes:

C1C1

C1C2

C2C2

Frequency:

p2

2pq

q2

 

 

 

The frequency of the C2 allele is equal to ______.

    1. p2
    2. 2pq
    3. q2 + pq
    4. p2 + 2pq
    5. (1-q2)
  1. The decline in frequency of a lethal or severely deleterious allele which is recessive is fairly rapid when this allele is common, but it is very, very slow when the deleterious allele becomes rare. This accounts for the large number of rare, deleterious alleles in most populations. The slow decline for rare, recessive alleles is attributable to the fact that
    1. recessive homozygote frequency is q2.
    2. A2A2 is dominant.
    3. recessive alleles are always bad.
    4. selection is weak on lethals.
    5. None of theses affects the frequency of a deleterious recessive
  2. Although inbreeding does not directly change allele frequencies, it can reduce the frequency of deleterious alleles because _____.
    1. more recessive homozygotes are produced.
    2. q2 > p2.
    3. heterozygotes are increasing in frequency.
    4. p2 > q2
    5. multiple allelic loci are rar
  3.  Imagine a variation on the above model where:

D1D1

D1D2

D2D2

Genotypes

1

1-s

1-2s

Fitness

 

The frequency of D1 is p and p’ will be in the next generation

p’ = *p2 + pq(1-s)]/ [ 1-2qs ] = p(1-qs)/(1-2qs)

 

If p0 is 0.8 what is p3 if s = 0.25 ?

    1. 0.98
    2. 0.80
    3. 0.77
    4. 0.91
    5. 1.0
  1. Vestigial wings in Drosophila melanogaster are the result of homozygosity at a single recessive locus or gene. In a population 10-4 of the flies have vestigial wings. What is the predicted frequency of heterozygotes +/vg in the next generation ?
    1. 10-3
    2. 0.0198
    3. 0.01
    4. 2
    5. 0.99
  2. The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Law assumes (a) an infinite size population (b) no mutation or migration (c) no selection (d) random mating. Under these conditions even populations not in equilibrium will
    1. Attain equilibrium in a generation and stay in equilibrium forever
    2. Achieve mutation-selection equilibrium in one generation
    3. Drift from one allele frequency to another
    4. Show remarkable increases in genetic variability
    5. Attain equilibrium in p2-pq generations
    6. Attain equilibrium in n-q generations
  3. Mukai and Burdick set up population cages of fruit flies in which one allele I was lethal as a homozygote and the other homozygote hh has a fitness of 0.74. Populations initiated at h frequencies of 0.98 and 0.50 converged to an equilibrium frequency or roughly 0.8. The best explanation for this convergence is
    1. Homozygous lethality
    2. Heterozygous lethality
    3. Heterozygous superiority
    4. Balanced nondisjunction
    5. Heterozygote sterility

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, the neutral theory of molecular evolution was proposed and elaborated. This plot compares the numbers of nucleotide substitutions for two types of mutations. The higher rate of substitution for synonymous mutations in consistent with ______.
    1. Mutational deletion theory
    2. Crossover expansion theory
    3. Lamarckian evolution
    4. The neutral theory
    5. The theory of heterozygote excess
  2. The further apart a pair of loci on any chromosome are, the ____ it is that they will be in linkage disequilibrium.
    1. More likely
    2. Far more likely
    3. Less likely
  3. The original assumption was that, in multiple infections, the more strains present the more virulent the strains would become. This assumption is based on a view of natural selections being solely relative reproduction and pathogenicity is, in this view solely dependent on ____.
    1. Relative rate of increase
    2. Kin selection
    3. Transformation
    4. Recombination
    5. Short tandem repeats
  4. Bacterial chemical warfare is predicted, by kin selection theory, to occur at _______ levels of relatedness
    1. Intermediate
    2. High
    3. low
  5. Slime in a biofilm is a __________ product and depends on a ________ level of relatedness.
    1. Cooperative       :           high
    2. Protein               :           low
    3. Carbohydrate    :           low
    4. Cooperative       :           low
    5. Viral                   :           intermediate
  6. Dominant alleles are expressed when present in either single or double dose. In this case dominance is a matter of developmental physiology. In populations alleles may be dominant in that they are more common than the other alleles. Recessive alleles may be dominant in the frequency sense.
    1. True
    2. False
  7. If p is the frequency of H1,q is the frequency of H2, r is the frequency of H3,and s is the frequency of H4,the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Equation for this locus would be written as __.
    1. (p + q)2
    2. (H1 + H2 + H3 + H4)
    3. (p+q+r+s)2
    4. Unknown
    5. A & d
  8. If the frequency of the R allele is p at generation zero, and the frequency of the R1 allele is q, we may predict the progeny frequencies for the next generation when Hardy-Weinberg assumptions apply as (p+q)2. The frequency of R amongst the progeny is p’ and p’=p2+2pq+p because _____.
    1. R is dominant
    2. R1 is dominant
    3. P, = 2pq
    4. (p + q) = 1
    5. R > = R1
  9. Using the comparative method to test evolutionary hypotheses requires that the species being compared are _____, because common ancestry could also explain similarities such as large testes in animal living in large groups.
    1. Mammals
    2. Insects
    3. Aquatic
    4. Binomial
    5. Independent
  10.  Charles Darwin, surprisingly by today’s standards, included a chapter in The Origin which outlined the problems with his theory of evolution by natural selection. One of the problems he identified was the evolution of characteristics which did not benefit the individual by increasing his/her fitness. One of the problem characteristics he dealt with was _______.
    1. Meiosis
    2. War
    3. Altruism
    4. Selfishness
    5. Love
  11.  Simple Darwinian evolution models focus on the fitness of individuals, but the transmission of an individual’s alleles may be accomplished by her/his own reproduction or the facilitation of that of relatives. This add-on to Darwinian fitness was predicted by Darwin in The Origin, and was developed by Bill Hamilton and others under the name _________.
    1. Zygopsis
    2. Inclusive fitness
    3. Relative fitness
    4. H-W fitness
    5. B & D
  12. The fact that we have common ancestors is quantified by geneticists in various ways. The inbreeding coefficient F is a measure of the probability of drawing two alleles from one individual and finding that the two alleles are IBD identical by descent. In an ideal population parents share no common ancestors, so the probability of finding two alleles in one individual IBD is zero. Another measure used to quantify common ancestry is the _______ which quantifies the probability that two alleles drawn from two individuals are IBD.
    1. Zeta factor
    2. Coefficient or decent
    3. H-W modifier
    4. Coefficient of relatedness
    5. Eigen va
  13. This plot (the bell shape is arbitrarily assumed) compares benefit to cost over time and predicts _________ between parents and offspring.
    1. Conflict
    2. Cooperation
    3. Altruism
    4. Love
    5. Nothing
  14. Expressions suck as “the birds and the bees” are generally interpreted in terms of monogamy for songbirds where the females are dependent on help from the males to raise the chicks.  Still approximately forty percent of the chocks being fed by the m ale are not his offspring.  The females risk these extra pair- bond matings, because
    1. “girls will be girls”
    2. They generate additional genetic variability in the progeny
    3. This decreases infanticide
    4. Her mates bother is nesting down the hedge
    5. These matings increase longevity
  15.  the red beetle population has a three fold reproductive advantage in these populations, but the black beetles reach a frequency of 100% quickly.  This is because ____.
    1. Sex generates the variability required to adapt
    2. The reproductive advantage is artificial
    3. The red reproductive advantage is malathion sensitive
    4. The black beetles are larger and faster and stronger
    5. The black beetles don’t eat flour
  16. Assuming an infinite population size, absence of selection, no mutation or migration and random mating, a population which is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium will
    1. Remain out of equilibrium forever
    2. Achieve equilibrium at a rate dependent on ψ
    3. Will achieve equilibrium in one generation
    4. Will asymptote equilibrium if ψ ≥ 0.5
    5. Will asymptote equilibrium if ψ ≤ 0.5
  17.  

GENOTYPE

14 , 16

14 , 17

16 , 17

14 , 14

16 , 16

17 , 17

FREQUENCY

120

200

300

40

90

250

 

The frequency of the 14 allele is ______________.

  1. 0.4
  2. 0.2
  3. 0.25
  4. 1.00
  5. 0.33
  1. The population in the question above is ______.
      1. Undergoing strong selection for the 17 allele
      2. Experiencing a bout of selfing
      3. Approaching equilibrium
      4. In Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium
      5. Drifting
  2. The selection coefficients associated with alleles or genotypes conferring resistance to a disease ____.
    1. Vary with disease incidence
    2. Do not vary
    3. Are almost always additive and dominant
    4. Are likely to drift randomly
    5. Are almost always recessive and multiplicative
  3. Migration and mutation are mathematically equivalent as violations of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; in most cases migration rates are higher than mutation rates. An island population is 100% ff homozygotes when migrants begin arriving and joining the gene pool. These migrants are 100% FF. If every generation 10% of the island population is newly arrived FF immigrants, we would predict that _____.
    1. All island residents will be heterozygotes
    2. All islands residents will be FF after one generation
    3. After hundreds of generations of the F allele will be the most common island allele
    4. Migration will stop at equilibrium
    5. Equilibrium will be activated at F : f = 1 : 1
  4.  

 

This tree for BRAC 1 Exon 11 suggest that ________________.

    1. Mutations in this exon are selectively neutral
    2. Mutations in this exon are selectively neutral in rodents, but positively selected in the human-chimp lineage
    3. Migration is occurring among lineages
    4. Positive selection is occurring among all primates

 

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