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Homework answers / question archive / 1)Tomoko Ohata and Motoo Kimura studied the joint effects of genetic drift and selection

1)Tomoko Ohata and Motoo Kimura studied the joint effects of genetic drift and selection

Health Science

1)Tomoko Ohata and Motoo Kimura studied the joint effects of genetic drift and selection. They considered slightly deleterious mutant alleles in finite populations; they found that:

    1. Natural selection act to alter recessive alleles, making them dominant
    2. Slightly deleterious alleles were effectively neutral in large population.
    3. Slightly deleterious alleles became tool kit genes in large populations.
    4. Population size had little or no effect on evolutionary rates.
    5. Drift fixes a larger percentage of mutations where populations are small.
  1. this BRCA1 Exon 11 phylogenetic tree has the ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates on the branches.
  1. The rat and mouse are closely related.
  2. Selection appears to be the weakest on the gorilla lineage.
  3. On most branches the ratio of replacement to silent substitutions is 1.0.
  4. On the branches leading to humans and chimps selection is suggested.
  5. None of these statements is correct.
  1.  Tetrapod limbs have bones which are clearly homologous to bones seen in the ____ of Eusthenoptereron.
  2. Once species are formed _____ stops.
  3. Imagine a variate of the above model where

D1D1               D1D2               D2D2               genotypes

    1                         1-s                       1-2s                    fitnesses

               The frequency of D1 is p and p will be in the next generation

                        P’ = [p2 + pq(1-s)]/[1-2qs] = p(1-qs)/(1-2qs)

               If p0 is 0.8 what is p3 if s = 0.25

  1. Linkage disequilibrium is produced by migration when …
  2. Speciation is the one process of macroevolution which is potentially open to experimental validation. The ____ defines a species as a group of interbreeding, or potentially interbreeding populations.
  3. Adaptations, that is hypothesized adaptations, may be studied using the experimental, observational or ____ methods.
  4. Adaptations, that is hypothesized adaptations, may be studied using the experimental, observational or ____ methods
  5. Br – C > 0 for an altruistic act the benefit to the recipient was estimated to be 9; the cost was estimated to be 1. The most distant relative to which this altruistic act should be directed is ____. Performing this act for more distant relatives would place the actor at a disadvantage in inclusive fitness terms.
  6. For one species to split into two species, alleles which produce _____ must become fixed (100%) in the two newly evolved species.
  7. Snapping shrimp species on the Pacific or Caribbean side of the Panamanian isthmus are presumed to have formed new species through _____ speciation.
  8. Bacterial chemical warfare is predicted, by kin selection theory, to occur at _______ levels of relatedness
  9. Slime in a biofilm is a __________ product and depends on a ________ level of relatedness
  10. Through evolution, new species arise.  When new species appear they may succeed and dominate an ecosystem for awhile.  Around 65 million years ago an asteroid hit the earth causing mass extinction of the dinosaurs.  Small mammals that lived underground survived and many new mammals evolved and increased in size.  The first primates appear in the fossil records 5-6 million years ago.  Which of the following statements is not supported by scientific evidence?
    1. Extinction is an unusual event
    2. Extinction appears to be the ultimate fate of all species
    3. Species appear throughout the course of evolutionary history
    4. Humans evolved from either chimpanzees or bonobos through speciation
    5. Not all species disappear in a mass extinction
  11. Extinction is a threat all living organisms face.  According to the best estimates, 99.9% of all previously living species are now extinct.  There are many factors that make a species vulnerable to extinction.  All of the following are factors that may lead a species into extinction EXEPT:
    1. Small population size
    2. Excessive genetic variability
    3. Cross linkage disequilibrium
    4. Low genetic variability
    5. Linkage disequilibrium
  12. By the end of the Cretaceous, 65 million years ago, there was a massive extinction event that wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs.  Up to 50 % of the planet’s animals and plant species disappeared.  With the dinosaurs suddenly gone, ____ stepped into their big shoes, rapidly diversifying and growing in size as the animals filled newly vacant ecological niches.
    1. Amphibians
    2. Mammals
    3. Birds
    4. Mammals
    5. Chordates
  13. In ecosystems top level carnivores require approximately ten times their biomass of midlevel carnivores to survive.  Midlevel carnivores require approximately ten times their biomass in other smaller carnivores or herbivores to survive.  Thus the best indicator of a healthy ecosystem is a stable population of ____.
    1. Herbivores
    2. Omnivores
    3. Midlevel; carnivores
    4. Top level carnivores
    5. B & C
  14. Living organism are very diverse, they have adapted to conditions that make them environment-specific in many ways.  Organisms highly adapted to specific conditions are more prone to extinction if their habitat changes.  Extinction of a species occurs, on average after about 10 million years of existence.  In recent decades, this extinction rate has increased because ____.
    1. There are oscillations in the rate of extinction that could be held responsible for the increase
    2. The human population has been growing exponentially.  Given human’s need for resources to survive, they have overwhelmed an otherwise balanced ecosystem causing many more species to go extinct than normal.
    3. This is the beginning of Armageddon , which is referenced by the Bible and other religious books, where there will soon be an event that will cause the end of all living things and the world as we know it, where a possible battle between Good and Evil will take place (there is some discrepancy between books)
    4. There has been no real issue in the rate of extinction.  We are just getting more information and reporting more extinctions
    5. Of an increase in the number of living species.
  15. Genetic variation occurs both within and among populations.  Genetic variation is important because it provides the “raw material” for natural selection.  Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation because they alter the order of bases in DNA.  Base substitutions are rare and most mutations are probably harmful, but in some instances the new alleles can be favored by natural selection.  Genetic variation can also be produces by the recombination of chromosomes and alleles at different loci on chromosomes; this occurs during sexual reproduction.  The crossing over that occurs during meiosis can ____.
    1. Produce new combinations or haplotypes of alleles at different loci
    2. Can produce harmful recessive alleles which are not subject to selection
    3. Lead to the generation of an excessive amount of inbreeding
    4. Result in the generation of frameshift mutations
    5. Now generate new variability, because it occurs during mitosis
  16. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism are detected by a technique in which a (n) ____ recognizes and ____ DNA wherever specific ____ sequence occur.
    1. Enzyme polymerase    :           joins     :           similar
    2. Enzyme lipase                         :           Cuts     :           matching
    3. Restriction enzyme     :           fuses    :           long
    4. Restriction enzyme     :           cuts      :           short
  17.  People with sickle cell anemia are homozygous for a different form of hemoglobin and the difference between normal and sickle cell hemoglobin is due to a single amino acid change at position number 6 in the __ protein chain.  Instead of glutamic acid at this position, the sickle cell protein has valine and this amino acid replacement is caused by a ___ in the _+__ hemoglobin gene.  The mutant allele has __ instead of ___.
    1. Single base substitution          :           adenine           :           thymine
    2. Addition of base                      :           purine              :           pyrimidine
    3. Deletion of bases                    :           cytosine           :           guanine
    4. Addition of base                      :           pyrimidine       :           purine
    5. Single allele substitution         :           thymine           :           Adenine
  18. How do we know that an identical single nucleotide polymorphism seen in different organisms from different populations originated from separate and distinct mutations in close proximity to the substitution in question
    1. Analysis shows that the alleles that neutral
    2. Sequence analysis of the surrounding region reveals different mutations in close proximity to the substitution in question
    3. Analysis of the substitution in question reveals frame shift mutations
    4. We simply do not know how this SNP originated
    5. Analysis of the cross over products in large pedigrees will show differe43nt alleles within a span of 100-200 nucleotides
  19. Suppose alloenzyme F has undergone SNP mutation and becomes alloenzyme S.  Enzyme F travels further down the agar plate in electrophoretic separations.  What can we assume about enzyme S?
    1. Alloenzyme S is a protein
    2. Alloenzyme F reaches its isoelectric point before alloenzyme S
    3. Alloenzyme S reaches its isoelectric point before alloenzyme F
    4. Alloenzymes F & S migrate at the same rate
    5. The position of an alloenzyme is dependent on the degree of methylation which occurs after fertilization
  20. The basis of genetic variation is rooted in independently occurring single mutations that accumulate over a period of time.  There are various types of single mutations, which of the following is NOT a type of mutation?
    1. Inversion
    2. Deletion
    3. Altercation
    4. Insertion
    5. Translocation
  21. Genetic variation is a requirement for adaptation; one example of adaption seen in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei is switching of variant surface glycoprotein.  These VSGs are the cell surface or coat glycoproteins recognized by the host’s immune system; the VSGs are the antigens targeted by the host’s antibodies.  Once T. brucei infects it begins to reproduce and the host begins to mount an immune response by producing antibodies directed to the VSG coat proteins, say VSG 364.  Before long antibodies will be binding to VSG 364 coat proteins and the parasite will be destroyed, some T. brucei have changed their coat proteins and are no longer VSG 364.  They will not be destroyed.  This antigenic switching strategy is seen in many pathogens and it usually involves differential activation of silent genes and pseudogenes.  The mechanism for T. brucei is ____.
    1. Gene conversion
    2. Induction of a double strand break and filling of the gap by DNA repair
    3. Induction of a double strand break and closing of the gap though recombination
    4. Recombination with the telomeres and subsequent double strand breakage
    5. Formation of a tetrad
  22. The presence of a 70-bp repeat upstream from the VSG may ____.
    1. Reduce fitness
    2. Create an instability which triggers breakage and repair
    3. Allow the enzyme reverse transcriptase to insert a telomere
    4. Facilitate  gene conversion
    5. Generate more 70-bp repeats which increase instability
  23. Gonzalez and coworkers recently reported that the copy number of a segmental duplication including the chemokine CCL3L1 varies widely among humans.  Individuals with higher CCL3L1 copy number are ____.
    1. More likely to also be blood type AB
    2. More likely to also be blood type O
    3. Less likely to also be blood type B
    4. More resistant to HIV infection, because CCL3L1 binds to CCR5
    5. Less resistant to HIV infection, because CCL3L1 binds to CD4+
  24. The human vermiform appendix is often offered as a vestigial organ and therefore another bit of evidence for the fact of evolution.  The truth is that many scientists feel that the vermiform appendix is ____.
    1. Not a vestigial organ
    2. Is mostly lymphoid tissue and a part of the immune system
    3. A vestige of the organ responsible for hindgut fermentation
    4. A vestige of the organ responsible for digestion of raw flesh
    5. All of the above
  25. During a drought on the island of Daphne Major in the Galapagos archipelago the average size of seeds available as food increased.  During this period the finch population decreased from about 1200 to 180.  The average size of birds surviving the drought was ____ than the average size before the drought.
    1. About the same
    2. Larger
    3. Smaller
  26. Robert Vroenhoek’s studies of fish with coexisting sexual and asexual species were an attempt to answer the question Why do so many organisms reproduce sexually when it is so costly? He found that the Black Spot pathogen affects about 40% of asexual fish, but almost none of the sexually reproducing fish were infected.  Then after twenty season of seeing higher rated of infection in the asexual fish as severer drought reduced the fish populations and he found a lot of sexually reproducing fish were infected, but few asexual fish were now infected, because the populations had crashed during the drought leaving little genetic variation in the sexual population.  They tested their hypothesis by ____.
    1. Collecting DNA and checking for allelic variation
    2. Collecting mtDNA and checking for haplotype variation
    3. Introducing sexually reproducing fish from a population which had escaped the drought
    4. Hybridizing the sexual and asexual populations
    5. Removing all the sexually reproducing fish
  27. Songbird females pair bond and he males assist with the feeding of the hatchlings.  Females without a male assistant do not succeed in raising their young.  This seems a good deal all around:  the females get a helpmate and the males get a monogamous partner.  Approximately  ____ of the nestlings being fed by the resident male were actually fathered by another male.
    1. 2%
    2. 10%
    3. 20%
    4. 25%
    5. 40%
  28. Some evolutionary theorists have argued that differing male and female reproductive strategies are grounded in ___.
    1. X and Y chromosomes
    2. Adult size
    3. Parental investment, beginning with big eggs and small sperm
    4. Grandparental expectations
    5. Both A & D are wrong
  29. Dating of fossils with radioisotopes requires a known isotopic parent which was deposited “with” the fossil to be dated, and this parent isotope is assumes, based on evidence to be 100% at time zero.  Given an isotopic decay series with a half-life of 10,000 years it is determined that the % of parent isotope associated with the fossil being dated is twenty-five percent.  This fossil is approximately ____ years old.
    1. 10,000
    2. 20,000
    3. 5,000
    4. 2,500
    5. 100,000
  30. Selection, artificial or natural, is base on increasing the frequency of the alleles producing the desired phenotype.  For plan breeders this meant ____ the frequency of the cauliflower alleles and ____ the frequency of their “loss of function” APETALA1 alleles to produce and edible cauliflower.
    1. Increasing       :           increasing
    2. Decreasing      :           decreasing
    3. Increasing       :           decreasing
    4. Deceasing       :           increasing
    5. Both A and B
  31. Experimental studies of phenotypes which show an increase in the percentage of one phenotype over one generation provide, at best, very weak evidence for natural selection and fitness differences.  Indeed critics complain that much of evolutionary biology is circular, because the fittest phenotype is identified as the one increasing in frequency.  The response to his legitimate complain is to ____.
    1. Throw a hissy –fit and call the objector a religious zealot
    2. Use the first experiment as pilot data to formulate a predictive hypothesis to explain frequency changes over generations
    3. Lower the environmental temperature in the experiment
    4. Raise the environmental temperature in the experiment
    5. Use reverse transcriptase to shuffle exons between phenotypes.
  32. Even before we knew that DNA was the genetic material, we knew that the genetic material had to be both stable and mutable.  The Watson- Crick model suggested that DNA replication was semi-conservative and this allow for mutation through _____>
    1. Phosphorylation
    2. Adenine oxidation
    3. Adenine hydroxylation
    4. Base pairing
    5. Base mispairing
  33. In this graph populations in which natural selection was at work eliminating _____ mutations show ____ survival to maturity.  Those populations where natural selection was not allowed to eliminate _____ show ____ survival to maturity.
    1. Deleterious     >95%   :           Deleterious     >95%
    2. Beneficial        >95%   :           Deleterious     >95%
    3. Deleterious     >95%   :           Deleterious     <90%
    4. Beneficial        <95%   :           Beneficial        >95%
    5. Deleterious     >95%   :           Deleterious     >95%
  34. Much of the DNA in plants and animals is found in multiple copies and some of this, even though it is not in coding regions, has profound phenotypic effects like Fragile- XD and Huntington’s.  Repeat expansion for microsatellites is believed to occur by ____.
    1. Polymerase slippage
    2. Translocation
    3. Jumping gene translocation
    4. Solubilization
    5. Frameshift
  35. The relationship between ____ and song repertoire should be established before components of fitness are studied.  This is true because song repertoire may correlate by chance with some components of fitness without producing an overall benefit.
    1. Machismo
    2. Reproductive fitness
    3. Organ size
    4. Tonality
    5. Sperm count
  36. Female song sparrows who choose to mate with males having large and complex song repertoires will enjoy a fitness advantage, because their ____ will have a higher fitness if they gain the ability to learn a large song repertoire from parental genes.
    1. Sisters
    2. Sons and grandsons
    3. Husbands and lovers
    4. Daughters and granddaughters
    5. Parents
  37. Evidence that evolution has occurred includes all of the following except one.  Which is not evidence that evolution has occurred?
    1. Change in a phenotypic character through time, that is descent with modification
    2. Differential reproduction
    3. Vestigial structures
    4. Homologous structures
    5. Pseudogenes
  38. Prior to 1920 soapberry bugs used globular fruits from balloon vines; then the golden rain tree which has flattened fruit was introduces.  Soapberry bug beak lengths ____ in central Florida, suggesting that change sin beak length were associated with the switch from balloon vine fruits to golden rain tree fruits.
    1. Remained constant
    2. Lengthened
    3. Flattened
    4. Shortened
    5. Curved
  39. The arrector pili muscles in humans effect goose bumps and are considered to be a vestige of mammalian response ______.
    1. Cold
    2. Heat
    3. Humidity
    4. Stress
    5. ACTH
  40. As one examines fossils deeper and deeper, older and older, stratified layers fossils are more similar to extant organisms in ____.
    1. The same biogeographic area
    2. Different biogeographic areas
    3. Totally unrelated taxa
    4. Different kingdoms
    5. Metabolism
  41. Evolutionary trees such as the tree which attempts to explain coat spotting in cats are usually constructed attempting to _____ the number of changes required to explain the current taxonomic distribution.  Construction of a tree for the same organisms utilizing a different phenotypic character may produce a(n) ______ tree.
    1. Maximize        :           identical
    2. Minimize         :           different
    3. Maximize        :           different
    4. Average           :           identical
    5. Average           :           different
  42. If the half-life of Q is 1,000,000 years and a sample is shown to contain 75% of the parent isotope, a good estimate of the age of this sample is ____.
    1. 250,000 years
    2. 750,000 years
    3. 500,000 years
    4. 1,500,000 years
    5. 1,750,000 years
  43. Artificial or natural selection requires a number of conditions.  Which of the following is NOT required?
    1. Phenotypic variability
    2. Inherited variability
    3. Unequal crossover
    4. Overabundance of zygotes
    5. Differential reproduction
  44. Fitness is differential reproduction associated with a particular phenotype, but data showing differential reproduction are insufficient evidence for natural selection, ­____ changes in phenotype /genotype frequency must be made.
    1. Natural
    2. Predictable
    3. Unquantifiable
    4. Circular
    5. Absolute
  45.  The data suggest that _____.
    1. Beak size changes through time
    2. Midparent beak depth is larger in males
    3. Midparent beak depth is smaller in females
    4. Beak size is developmentally variable
    5. Beak size is heritable
  46. Finches hatched in 1978, the year after the drought had ____.
    1. Bigger beaks, although their parent’s beaks were smaller than the 1975 average
    2. Smaller beaks, although their parent’s beaks were smaller than the 1975 average
    3. Similar beak size to those hatched in 1976 the year before the drought
    4. Bigger beaks than the pre-drought average, just like their parents who survived
    5. Bigger beaks than the non-surviving parents
  47. When special, protective chromosomes are used to allow mutations to accumulate over time, viability or egg to adult survival
    1. Decreases
    2. Remains unchanged
    3. Increases
    4. Decreases exponentially
    5. Increases exponentially
  48. Natural selection facilitates adaptation of organisms to the environments in which they live; however, these environments are not static they are full of other organisms.  Garter snakes are able, at a cost, to eat highly poisonous newts.  The newt population has evolved ____ and the garter snake population has evolved ____.
    1. More potent toxins     :           greater resistance
    2. Weaker toxins             :           greater resistance
    3. Greater escape speed :           greater capture speed
    4. Less potent toxins       :           greater resistance
    5. Less potent toxins       :           lowered resistance
  49. Vibrio cholera is water borne bacterial pathogen which often makes those infected very sick.  This is not a problem for the bacterial population, because infection occurs through drinking contaminated water.  If however, the water supply is cleaned up we would expect the bacterial population to evolve to a state of ____, because this would ____.
    1. Even greater virulence           :           foul the water
    2. Even greater virulence           :           block infection
    3. Lessened virulence                 :           facilitate transmission
    4. Lessened virulence                 :           foul the water
    5. Lessened virulence                 :           block infection
  50. Studies comparing the incidence of asthma and allergies in children raised on farms and children raised in cities suggest _____.
    1. That children should be encouraged to lick livestock
    2. That children should always disinfect themselves after being near animals
    3. That parents should scrupulously disinfect all play areas
    4. That parents should instruct their children not to touch animals
    5. That children should not allow parents to pet their cats & dogs
  51. Fear and pain are unpleasant responses; but they, at least pain, are clearly very old and evolutionary conserved.  Humans and vinegar flies Drosophila melanogaster share pain receptors.  Humans born insensitive to pain are almost always dead before they reach reproductive age.  These facts suggest that fear and pain are ____.
    1. Vestigial phenotypes
    2. Adaptations
    3. Maladaptive responses
    4. Newly arisen mutations
    5. Neutral mutations
  52. The association between malarial resistance and hemoglobin variants was detected by showing that the S allele was found in high frequency in biogeographic areas with a high incidence of malaria.  Similar data suggest ____.
    1. Some mtdNA amino acid substitutions may uncouple electron transport
    2. Some Y chromosome amino acid substitutions may increase fertility
    3. Some mtDNA amino acid substitutions may increase fertility
    4. The combination of mtDNA and Y chromosome mutations increase fitness
    5. Mitochondrial EVE and Y Chromosome Adam were contemporaries
  53. Target mitochondrial amino acid substitutions were identified by ____.
    1. Comparing the conservation of biogeographic polymorphisms to pathogenic mutants
    2. Comparing the biogeographic distributions of 26 pathogenic mutants
    3. Studying  their effects on electron transport coupling
    4. Studying their effects on electron transport uncoupling
    5. Producing cybrids with two or more mtDNA mutations
  54. Which of the following mtDNA genes is unlikely to be involved in the uncoupling of electron transport?
    1. ATP6
    2. Cytb
    3. ROS
    4. ND2
    5. ND4
  55. The time course average for an HIV infection shows a very rapid rise in the viral load over the first six weeks; over the same period CD4 T-cell counts decline by about 50% to 500 cells per milliliter.  The following three to six years show a gradual decline in the CD4 T-cell population and increase in the viral load.  During this chronic phase the immune system holds its own against HIV, but the AIDS phase begins when ____ concentrations drop below 200 cells per ml.
    1. AZT
    2. CD4 T-Cell
    3. HIV
    4. µ8 T-cells
    5. Macrophage
  56. AZT must be phosphorylated by the cell before it is recognized by the viral reverse transcriptase as thymidine.  It is very effective at reducing viral loads when first administered, but dosages must be dramatically increased over time.  This supports the hypothesis that the viral population is becoming resistant to AZT.  This occurs because virions with altered ____ live and reproduce while the others die.
    1. Active sites
    2. gp120
    3. CD4’s
    4. Ligases
    5. Proteases
  57. The toxicity of some prey animals or plants hypothesized to be ratcheted up by the evolution or coevolution of toxin resistance in predators or herbivores.  That is, more potent toxins in prey SELECT for more resistance in predators, an evolutionary arms race   A good example of this arms race is the ____ and ____.
    1. Bacterium       :           virus
    2. Newt                :           garter snake
    3. HIV                  :           monkey
    4. Tuberculosis    :           pneumonia
    5. Armadillo        :           cowboy
  58. The development of antibiotic resistance in the tubercle bacillus, in gonococcus, and in syphilis is a common phenomenon.  Infection is detected; antibiotics are prescribed and the patient takes the drug for awhile.  Ahh, this for awhile effect leads some to prematurely terminate drug treatment, and this premature end to antibiotic treatment ____.
    1. Allows AIDS to progress
    2. Allows HIV to spread
    3. Explains Typhoid Mary
    4. Allows resistant bacteria to survive while sensitive bacteria are killed
    5. Allows sensitive bacteria to adapt to the antibiotic
  59. “Kissing” cows and pigs and chickens and goats and other livestock may be good for you, at least when you were a child.
    1. True
    2. False
  60. The arrangement of viral isolates and their associated hosts suggests that ____.
    1. HIV originated in SIV from green monkeys
    2. HIV originated in an oriental human lineage
    3. HIV originated in Sooty Mangabbeys and chimpanzees
    4. HIV originated in Mandrills and Sun-tailed monkeys
    5. HIV originated in the Sykes’ monkey
  61. Which of the following is NOT evidence of evolution?
    1. Change in phenotype through time especially if correlated with an environmental change as in soapberry bugs and fruit
    2. Vestigial organs
    3. Mutational changes
    4. Fossils
    5. Structural and developmental homology
  62. The proximal CMT1A repeat, near the gene for peripheral myelin protein 22 is a duplication of the distal repeat on the other side of the gene.  Misalignment of the proximal and distal repeats results in unequal crossing over and the products are associated with neurological disorders.  ____ and ____ share this CMT1A – PMP22 – CMT1A arrangement.
    1. Bonobos          :           orangutan
    2. Chomps           :           gorillas
    3. Bonobos          :           gorillas
    4. Humans           :           chimps
    5. Humans           :           orangutans
  63. Much of the evidence for natural selection in Origin of Species is from artificial selection especially pigeons.  Theses examples are, of course, analogies, but they do contain the same postulates required of natural selection.  Which of the following is not one of the four postulates which apply to populations undergoing natural selection?
    1. Individual variation
    2. Mutability of variation
    3. Heritability of variation
    4. Differential survival and reproduction
    5. Correlation between individual variation and differential reproduction
  64. Following the severe 1977 drought on Daphne Major the average beak depth of medium ground finches increased.  A correlated increase was seen between ____.
    1. Large ground finches
    2. Small ground finches
    3. 1976 and 1978 medium hatchlings
    4. Beak shape
    5. 1977 and 1979 hatchlings
  65. In Darwin’s time the prevailing theory of inheritance was the blending theory-every generation the “stuff” of inheritance was blended like fluids.  If this theory were true, natural selection would not work, because there would be ____.
    1. No heritable variation
    2. No mutation
    3. Differential reproduction
    4. Differential survival
    5. Chromosomal change
  66. The reason for the accumulated difference in survival to maturity between mutation accumulation lines and control lines is ____.
    1. Deleterious mutations are eliminated by natural selection
    2. Natural selection increases the mutation rate unless controlled
    3. The correlation between survival to maturity and mutation rate is stronger in later generations
    4. Control lines have a transpositional insertion
    5. Control lines lack a transpositional insertion
  67. The genetic material DNA for new genes comes from ____ as well as ploidy and other changes.
    1. Blending inheritance
    2. Translation
    3. Pseudogenes
    4. Unequal crossing over
    5. Transversion
  68. The frequency of the wild-type or + allele among the individuals on this gel is ____.        
    1. 1/3
    2. 1/6
    3. ½
    4. 2/3
    5. 5/6
  69.   

Number of people

+/+

+/Q7

Q7/Q7

50

13

14

23

 

The frequency of the Q7 allele in this sample is ____.

    1. 0.60
    2. 0.35
    3. 0.50
    4. 0.40
    5. 0.65
  1. As a broad generalization, in a typical natural population, roughly ____ percent of the enzyme loci are polymorphic; the average individual is heterozygous at approximately ____ percent of its loci.
    1. 40        :           10
    2. 10        :           40
    3. 50        :           50
    4. 90        :           50
    5. 50        :           90
  2. The “evolutionary explanation” for the general existence of sexual reproduction is ____.
    1. Sexual selection
    2. Recombination
    3. Mate selection
    4. Parent-offspring conflict
    5. Maternal care
  3. Comparison of chimp and human karyotypes and gene sequences allows us to identify collinear and rearranged chromosomal segments.  The rate of polypeptide change is ____in rearranged segments.
    1. Half as fast
    2. Twice as slow
    3. Equal
    4. Twice as fast
    5. 20 times as fast
  4. The most plausible interpretation of this pattern is that ____.
    1. Hybrids between two populations with different rearrangements will be less fit and this allows speciation
    2. The rearrangements allowed adapted gene combinations to stay together and these coadapted, rearranged complexes triggered the speciation, although the populations interbred for many generations
    3. Hybrids carrying different chromosomal rearrangements are sterile
    4. Male hybrids carrying different chromosomal rearrangements are more successful in courtship
    5. Parapatric chromosomal rearrangements have high KA/KS ratios
  5. If KA is the number of genes exhibiting altered amino acids due to base substitution and KS is the number of unaltered amino acids following synonymous substitutions, the KA/KS ratio should tell us something about evolutionary changes due to selection, because ____.
    1. KA should be equal to KS if the amino acid changes do not alter fitness and greater than KS is the changes are beneficial and selected
    2. The KA/KS ration relates paraphyletic chromosomal changes to fitness
    3. KA and KS should be equal if amino acid changes do not alter fitness and KA should be less than KS when mutations are accumulating
    4. KS and KA values are inflated when chromosomal rearrangements alter fitness
    5. KS is always greater than KA when amino acid substitution rates are equal
  6. Chromosomal rearrangements trigger speciation in this model by ____.
    1. Inflating KS/KA
    2. deflating KS/KA
    3. Eliminating collinearity
    4. Reducing recombination
    5. Increasing recombination
  7. Humans and all other jawed vertebrates have two known immune response systems, a cellular system and a humoral system.  The humoral system produces antibodies against foreign molecules and once it has responded to a specific foreign molecules antigen it “remembers” that molecules and the individual is immune to subsequent infection.  This explains why flu vaccination works to protect us against the specific viruses in the vaccine, but not against all flu viruses.  Still some vaccines provide life-long immunity.  Salk and Sabin developed polio vaccines more than fifty years ago and are still used.  They still stimulate active immunity in those vaccinated and we are on the verge of eliminating polio.  The conundrum is clear:  we may provide life-long protection through vaccination for some viruses; for others new vaccines are required on an annual basis.  The explanation of this puzzling difference lies largely in the fact that ____.
    1. Bacteria are prokaryotes and do not have mitochondria
    2. Some vaccinations stimulate the cellular response immune system, but not the humoral response system
    3. Bacteria are capable of evolving resistance to antibiotics
    4. Some vaccines target viral proteins like H and N which mutate at a high rate, and others target proteins which change very little over time
    5. Yeasts have a gender determination system which requires recombination
  8. Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 is a subtype of influenza virus A and the most common cause of influenza in humans.  Some strains of H1N1 are endemic (mostly found in ) humans, including the strains responsible for the 1918 flu pandemic, while other strains, such as the H5N1 are endemic in birds (avian flu).  These strains may become more or less virulent, more or less transmissible through mutation and recombination during mixed infection.  What makes the H1N1 strain of the influenza virus more of a pressing public health concern when compared to the H5N1 strain of the same virus?
    1. The high density population in China
    2. That fact that pigs are genetically  more similar to humans than to birds
    3. H1N1 is transmitted from human to human as opposed to the epizootic epidemic of the avian flu
    4. Because birds are able to fly and therefore migrate over long distances at a much faster rate
    5. Humans eat more swine-based food products, than birds do
  9. HIV infects cells of the immune system, destroying theses cells as well as the immune systems’ ability to fight off invaders.  HIV, like all other viruses can only replicate within living cells and uses the cells replication enzymes to make copies of itself.  However, HIV, a retrovirus, brings along a few of its own enzymes.  Retroviruses have single-stranded RNA genomes that must be converted into double-stand DNA before the cell can begin viral replication.  For this purpose, retroviral genes encode an enzyme called reverse transcriptase that copies the retroviral RNA into DNA.  Along with the RNA genome, each viral particle contains a few copies of reverse transcriptase, which allows the virus to begin the infection cycle.  Generally speaking, what is the correct order of the HIV life cycle?
    1. Budding, assembly, transcription, integration, reverse transcription, binding and fusion
    2. Budding, binding and fusion, integration, transcription, assembly, reverse transcription
    3. Reverse transcription, integration, transcription, assembly, binding and fusion, budding
    4. Binding and fusion, integration, assemble, transcription, budding, reverse transcription
    5. Binding and fusion, reverse transcription, integration, transcription, assembly, budding
  10. The origin of life is believed, on one contrast, to be explained by either evolution or intelligent design.  The idea of evolution was first proposed by the ancients and extensive studies have been done to test the theory of evolution.  On the other hand, intelligent design is a religious explanation.  Why is it that many scientists believe in evolution over intelligent design?
    1. Scientists have no religion nor do they believe in God, so they cannot believe in intelligent design
    2. Enough studies have been done to conclude that evolution is a proven fact, whereas intelligent design has not been proven
    3. Scientists practice many different religions and some are not compatible with the idea of intelligent design
    4. Scientists accept evolution as true because there are so many instances where evolution has been tested and not disproved, while intelligent design has not been tested and cannot be disproved
    5. A test to see if a complex organ can be spontaneously “formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications” as suggested by Charles Darwin has been successfully performed numerous times that prove evolution to be true.
  11. Many flu viruses that we see today such as H1N1 have been around for a very long time.  However, the spread of theses viruses has been slower in the past.  Recently we have seen H1N1 spread from the hypothesized epicenter in Mexico to Asia, Europe and New Zeeland.  The rapid spread is the result of modern worldwide transportation.  What allows the virus to evolve so rapidly?
    1. Mutations resulting from a lack of reverse transcriptase proof reading
    2. Modern air travel
    3. Lack of vaccination
    4. Lack of viral genome
    5. Lack of gP120
  12. HIV, like the flu virus evolves rapidly.  Designing treatments for this pathogen is difficult.  What is the best treatment modality to combat these rapidly evolving viruses?
    1. Modify the patients CD4 and CCR5 receptors to block HIV entry into the cell
    2. Vaccination would appear to be the best treatment modality
    3. Use medications which target multiple points of the life cycle.  So that by the time the virus evolves resistance to one medication, the other medications are still effective.
    4. Target only the cell surface receptors
    5. A strict, long term course of antibiotics is the best available treatment
  13. ________ states that God the Creator uses evolution to bring about his plan.  It claims the Father, Son and Holy Spirit crated the universe and life through an evolutionary process.  It contends that God ordains and sustains the laws of nature, including mechanisms of evolution; more specifically, evolution is ‘teleological,’ and features plan, purpose, and promise.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Creation Theory
    3. Evolutionary Theory
    4. Evolutionary Creationism
    5. String Theory
  14. In HIV, mutations to AZT resistance are often (the) ____ from patient to patient and are located in the ____ site of _____.
    1. Similar             :           target              :           reverse transcriptase
    2. Same               :           target              :           forward transcriptase
    3. Similar             :           active              :           reverse transcriptase
    4. Same               :           active              :           reverse transcriptase
    5. Negative          :           reactive           :           DNA polymerase
  15. Evidence for evolution includes ____.
    1. A fossil record showing that most earlier species are now extinct
    2. Anatomical and physiological homology
    3. The biogeographic distribution of species
    4. Genetic homologies and genetic map similarities among related species
    5. All of the above
  16. One of the basic precepts of evolution is “descent with change.”  All that basically means is that descendant species will be different from ancestral species.  Which of the following statements about the fossil records is true?
    1. There is a clear lack of evolution despite and enormous number of fossils
    2. The fossil record is almost entirely complete, containing evidence for 90% plus of all life which existed on Earth
    3. Transitional forms, predicted by Darwin, have been discovered in many lineages
    4. The fossil record provides clear evidence for the original species
    5. The fossil record contains sufficient DNA to allow reconstruction of many species
  17. Vestigial organs/structures are organs/structures that have no function.  Darwin said :  “on the view of descent with modification, we may conclude that the existence of organs in a rudimentary, imperfect and useless condition, or quite aborted, are far from presenting strange difficulty, as they assuredly do on the old doctrine of creation, might even have been anticipated in accordance with the views here explained.” Which if the following is not considered vestigial by most scientists?
    1. Human spleen
    2. Snake pelvis
    3. Legs in legless lizards
    4. Wisdom teeth
    5. Human tail
  18. Humans, chimps, and bonobos are every closely related.  They look alike, but have different social structures.  Many people can’t accept the idea that humans, chimps, and bonobos share a recent, common, ancestor, and they are astounded to discover that we share more than ____ percent of our DNA.
    1. 95
    2. 99.99
    3. 80.15
    4. 50
    5. 81.34
  19. Homologous structures often appear in juvenile or larval forms and are loci in adult forms.  Tunicates, lancelets and frogs share a notochord as larvae and are all class??? ___.
    1. Mammals
    2. Amphibians
    3. Mollusks
    4. Chordates
    5. Reptiles
  20. Natural selection as differential reproduction may be the result of natural forc??? Result of human activities.  Which of the following examples of natural selection I?? result of human activities?
    1. Industrial melanism
    2. Reduction in cholera virulence
    3. Darwin’s finches
    4. Alteration in U.S. sickle-cell rates
    5. Antibiotic resistance
  21. Of the industrial pollution.  The darker moths increased in frequency.  What theory explains this change in frequency?
    1. Evolution
    2. The Re-Queen
    3. Genetic variation
    4. Natural selection
    5. Mutation
  22. In many species either the female of the male, usually the female, is 100% responsible for care of the offspring; the other parent leaves after copulation to seek another opportunity to reproduce.  However, in many species care of the offspring requires the attention of both parents if the offspring are to survive.  In these species ____.
    1. Quasimonogamy is common
    2. Male and female form a monogamous union
    3. Females flirt continuously with both of their partners
    4. Asexual reproduction becomes the norm
    5. Females fight for males
  23. In a series of fish populations a black-spot fungus was seen far more often on the asexually reproducing fish than on their sexually reproducing neighbors in all populations.  Curiously after a severe drought dried most of the pools the fungus was more common on the sexually reproducing population than on the asexual.  One possible explanation o this observation is ____.
    1. The asexual and sexual fish populations had probably undergone dramatic declines in members during the drought and this increased the mutation frequency in the asexuals
    2. Many of the sexually reproducing fish had reverted to asexual reproduction during the drought and acquired a fungal infection from the other asexual
    3. The asexual population had undergone a round of sexual reproduction during the drought and had taken most of the genetic variation formerly seen in the sexual fish
    4. The sift in degree of fungal infestation is probably just a random event
    5. The asexual genotype was resistant to the fungus and the sexual population had lost almost all of its genetic variation leaving only a highly sensitive genotype

 

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