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Homework answers / question archive / Exam 1 PSY 247 Abnormal Psychology Exam Study Guide 1)What are the “four D’s” of abnormality? The study of abnormal psychology is the study of people who suffer mental, emotional, and often physical pain

Exam 1 PSY 247 Abnormal Psychology Exam Study Guide 1)What are the “four D’s” of abnormality? The study of abnormal psychology is the study of people who suffer mental, emotional, and often physical pain

Psychology

Exam 1

PSY 247 Abnormal Psychology Exam Study Guide

1)What are the “four D’s” of abnormality?

  1. The study of abnormal psychology is the study of people who suffer mental, emotional, and often physical pain. This is also referred to as _____________
  2. Which criterion for abnormality implies that the presence of a disease is causing given behavior?
  3. In some parts of the world, corporal punishment is a traditional child rearing practice, whereas the practice is frowned upon in other places. In the context of abnormality, this is reflective of ____________________
  4. The practice of drilling circular holes in the skulls of people displaying abnormal behaviors in order to free evil spirits is known as _______________
  5. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks held that a woman’s uterus:
  6. Hippocrates attributed abnormality to:
  7. Which of the following are defined as a phenomenon in which large numbers of people engage in unusual behaviors that appear to have a psychological origin?
  8. The 19th century reformation movement that included rest, relaxation, and prayer in the treatment of mental illnesses was called the ___________________
  9.  In the late 1700s, James was isolated from the public by his family members on the account of his mental illness. His family kept him locked in a room, and brought him his meals. However, his brother began to allow him to move more freely throughout the house. In addition, he was allowed to sit outside and work in the garden. The new approach to James’ caregiving is representative of the _________________
  10. One of America’s most militant crusaders for the moral treatment of the mentally ill was ___________
  11. Which of the following was an outcome of the rapid growth of the moral treatment movement?
  12. Which psychoanalytic theorist is noted for his study of the unconscious?
  13. The experiment that demonstrated that dogs could be conditioned to salivate to stimuli other than food was conceptualized by ________________
  14. Which of the following is a valid criticism leveled against the sociocultural approaches of abnormality?
  15. Research on family systems approaches and therapies is difficult because:
  16. Lucy is concerned because her family members pay little attention or no attention to each other. They seem to go their own way, and have little interest in even having a meal together. According to family systems theory, Lucy’s family is a(n) ___________________ family
  17. ________________ was developed by Carl Rogers
  18. Which of the following theories of abnormality is based on the assumption that humans have an innate capacity for goodness and for living a full life?
  19. Which of the following statements is true about psychodynamic theories?
  20. Patricia begins to talk to her therapist as if he is her father. She also reacts with extreme fear as she did to her father when she was a child. This is an example of _____________
  21. Carl Jung referred to the wisdom accumulated by a society over hundreds of years of human existence that is stored in the memories of individuals as the _____________
  22. Martha was distraught when she discovered her husband has been involved with another woman and has a child with the other woman. She constantly tries to understand why her husband cheated on her, thinking thoughts such as “I’m so stupid for not realizing what was going on,” and, “I should have been more attentive to his needs.” Which type of cognition is Martha most likely exhibiting?
  23. Jerry, who can’t sit still for a minute, sees his classmate, Mike, getting a sticker for sitting quietly in his seat. Jerry decides to stop fidgeting and begins to sit still in the hope of getting a sticker for his sticker collection. Which behavioral theory is in effect here?
  24. Shaping behaviors by providing rewards for desired responses and punishments for undesired responses is known as _____________
  25. Alexis is a sick child who makes frequent visits to the hospital to get her shots. One day she and her mother drive past the hospital and Alexis begins to cry. She repeatedly says, “Mommy, I don’t want to see the doctor.” In this example, the conditioned stimulus would be ____________________
  26. Behavioral theorists:
  27. The process of gathering information about an individual’s symptoms and the possible causes of these symptoms is referred to as _____________
  28. Which psychologist rattled the mental health community when he and several of his colleagues admitted themselves to various psychiatric facilities as “pseudopatients”?
  29. The current edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM):
  30. ______________ tests are based on the assumption that people will interpret ambiguous stimuli in line with their current concerns and feelings, their relationships with others, and their conflicts or desires
  31. Which of the following brain-imaging techniques is considered the most effective?
  32. An enhancement of X-ray procedures that construct 3-dimensional computerized images of the major structures of the brain is called ________________ scan
  33. Margaret received an intelligence quotient (IQ) score of 100 on her intelligence test. How does her performance most likely compare with the average performance of other individuals in her age group?   
  34. An important advantage of direct behavioral observation is that:
  35. During 28-year-old Sophia’s second visit to the psychologist, the clinician gave her a symptom questionnaire that assessed her symptoms of loss of interest, low motivation, and changes in her appetite. Sophia most likely received the _____________
  36. On Lee’s first visit to a psychologist’s office, the psychologist asks him a series of questions about his personal and family history. These questions:
  37. A test is considered to have predictive validity when it:
  38. In which closed community was Janice Egeland’s study of psychological disorders conducted?
  39. Michael and Michelle are adolescent siblings who share the same birth date. Michael received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. On the other hand, Michelle shows no signs of mood disturbance. In this example:
  40. A statistical technique for summarizing the results across several studies is called a ____________________
  41. Seligman and colleagues posited that the learned helplessness deficits in the experimental dogs could be applicable to individuals with the psychological symptoms of _____________________
  42. Which of the following is most often used for measuring the effectiveness of new drugs using therapy outcome studies?
  43. Darin participated as a subject in a double-blind experimental study. In this study:
  44. Steven was participating in an experimental study where the experimenter interacted with the participants. After several conversations, the experimenter started unintentionally providing subtle hints about the way Steven should behave during the experiment. By doing this, the experimenter ran the risk of creating ________________________
  45. In an experimental study, the group that shares all the same experiences as the group of interest but does not receive the key manipulation is the _____________________
  46. Internal validity in experimental research means that:
  47. An instructor asks you to report the proportion of the population that has a specific disorder during a specific point in time. The instructor has asked you for the ____________________________
  48. External validity refers to the extent to which the:
  49. Dr. Peters investigated the relationship between academic performance of middle school students and the length of recess in the school. The study revealed that the longer periods of recess for students, the better were their performances. This study is indicative of a:

Exam 2

  1. Which of the following hormones is often used as a measure of stress?
  2. Janie’s house was broken into, and the perpetrator brutally attacked her. Since the attack, she has withdrawn from family and friends. Janie is most likely:
  3. Which of the following is true of brain activities found in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTDS) sufferers?
  4. Patrick is a Vietnam War veteran who has been having a recurrent nightmare of being on the frontline. Any sound that remotely resembles gunfire makes him anxious. Although he has been suffering for years with this problem, only recently did he decide to seek treatment. His psychologist asks him to identify the thoughts and situations that evoke anxiety and rank them. His psychologist then begins to help him work through each situation by using relaxation techniques. This technique is called _________________________
  5. Which of the following processes explains phobias in terms of negative reinforcement of avoidant behavior?
  6. Anna is terrified of speaking in public. She always finds an excuse to avoid public speaking or gets someone to speak for her. Once, Anna had a full-blown panic attack when her boss called on her unexpectedly to speak at a meeting. Anna is most likely exhibiting symptoms of ____________________
  7. According to cognitive theorists, people who experience panic attacks engage in all of the following behaviors EXCEPT:
  8. Which of the following treatments is most effective in preventing relapse in clients with panic disorders?
  9. ____________________ are thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses that are persistent, that uncontrollably intrude upon consciousness, and that cause significant anxiety or distress
  10. In exposure and response prevention therapy, by preventing a person from engaging in compulsive behavior:
  11. Which of the following is a good example of the use of exposure and response prevention therapy?
  12. By the end of an exposure and response prevention therapy, repeated exposure to the content of the obsession:
  13. Herman has been diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder. He often misinterprets his bodily symptoms, which result in increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and dizziness. He states regularly, “If the pain doesn’t stop soon, it will probably cause damage to the other parts of my body.” Herman is most likely catastrophizing his symptoms. This maladaptive way of thinking is linked with ______________ theoretical perspective
  14. _____________ was formerly known as hypochondriasis (without physical symptoms)
  15. Sherry believes that she has a serious illness. She has had severe headaches and tremors for several days with no relief from traditional over-the-counter medications. Her visit to the doctor revealed no organic cause for the headaches. Unsatisfied with the results, she goes to several other medical professionals for treatment. Sherry is most likely suffering from a(n) ______________ disorder
  16. Which of the following statements is true of conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder)?
  17. Dissociative identity disorder was formerly known as ____________ disorder
  18. A person diagnosed with dissociative personality disorder may have several alters. An alter is a(n) __________________
  19. A disorder that has high comorbidity with DID is:
  20. When people with dissociative identity disorder report hearing voices talking inside their heads, they may be misdiagnosed as having _____________
  21. Which of the following is the most common contributor to dissociative identity disorder?
  22. Which of the following is a treatment goal for dissociative identity disorder?
  23. Repressed memories represent a form of ________________________
  24. Elizabeth Loftus’s “lost at the mall” studies showed how easy it is to _______________
  25. Brain has a history of drinking heavily before going to bed. His family accuses him of kicking the dog, breaking several dishes, and being verbally abusive on several occasions. Brian recalls none of these incidents and soon begins to forget personal information as well. Brian’s memory loss is most likely related to _______________
  26. If a person experiences a loss of interest in usual activities and at least 4 other depressive symptoms chronically for at least 2 weeks, and these symptoms are severe enough to interfere with the person’s ability to function in everyday life, the person meets the criteria for ______________________
  27. The combination of major depression and anxiety is so common that the authors of the DSM-5 introduced the subtype of _____________________
  28. Bart has been diagnosed with major depression. Recently, he has been experiencing hallucinations. He sees mystical beings cloaked in white swooping down from the sky trying to “whisk” him away. Bart is most likely experiencing major depression with _____________________ features
  29. The diagnosis of depression in older adults is complicated because:
  30. A person filled with grandiose self-esteem, displaying rapid speech and impulsive behaviors, and showing an elevated, expansive, or irritable mood for at least 1 week is exhibiting symptoms of ___________________-
  31. _____________________ have higher-than-normal prevalence of mania and depression
  32. According the behavioral theories of depression, :
  33. According to interpersonal theories of depression, some depressed people have a heightened need for approval and expressions of support from others but at the same time easily perceive rejection by others, a characteristic called rejection ______________
  34. In the treatment of depression, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs):
  35. The agitation some people experience while taking an SSRI may contribute to an increase in suicidal thoughts and behavior. This risk may be greatest for:
  36. Which of the following is true of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?
  37. What are the goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy in treating depression?
  38. Which of the following statements is true about the different treatments for mood disorders?
  39. Which of the following statements is true of suicide?
  40. Psychosis refers to knowing the difference between:
  41. The psychiatrist credited with labeling schizophrenia as dementia praecox was ________________
  42. A common side effect of neuroleptics that consists of involuntary movements of the tongue, mouth, or jaw is _______________
  43. Although she has never met the actor Chris Rock, June believes that he is in love with her. This is an example of a __________________
  44. Hallucinations are:
  45. Which of the following is a cognitive strategy for treating clients with schizophrenia?
  46. Which of the following neurotransmitters is thought to play a role in schizophrenia?
  47. The odd and eccentric behaviors seen in schizophrenia can resemble the symptoms of ___________ disorder
  48. Dr. Rushford’s patient has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She is helping her patient learn how to initiate and maintain a conversation with others. In addition, she is also teaching her client how to gather important information by accompanying the client to selected places and demonstrating the skills necessary to accomplish this goal. This type of intervention follows a(n) ____________________ approach
  49. Calista shows a pervasive pattern of social deficits and has a great deal of discomfort in close relationships. Her coworkers describe her as odd as she speaks in a particular manner, is often suspicious, and in inappropriate in her display of emotion. However, a diagnosis reveals no psychosis. Calista is most likely suffering from __________________ disorder
  50. The ____________ model holds that symptoms arise from conflicted social relationships and healing involves mobilizing a patient’s kin to support him/her through the crisis and reintegrating the patient into a positive community

Exam 3

  1. Define personality
  2. Why are there 2 models of personality in the DSM-5?
  3. Under the DSM-5 approach, the first step in diagnosing a personality disorder is determining:

 

  1. What are 2 cognitive characteristics often seen in people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder?
  2. Describe the 2 main goals of dialectal behavior therapy in dealing with patients with a diagnoses of borderline personality disorder:
  3. ___________________________ uses the relationship between patient and therapist to help patients develop a more realistic and healthy understanding of themselves and their interpersonal skills
  4. Why are some people with narcissistic personality disorder able to achieve success in countries like the United States?
  5. Narcissistic personality disorder is most associated with a history of:
  6. Individuals who consistently avoid or leave social settings, like dinner parties, because they elicit a high degree of anxiety may qualify for the diagnosis of ______________________________
  7. What behaviors characterize schizotypal personality disorder?
  8. People with schizotypal personality disorder tend to show dysregulation of ________________________________ in the brain
  9. The crucial component of cognitive therapy with clients diagnosed with schizotypal personality disorder is:
  10. Children who find it difficult to pay attention, control their impulses, and organize their behaviors are most likely exhibiting symptoms of ___________
  11. The DSM-5 changed the criteria for diagnosing ADHD, most notably by:
  12. Drugs used to treat ADHD are from the drug classification generally known as _________________-
  13. _________________________ therapy, used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), typically engage in parents and teachers in changing rewards and punishments in every aspect of the child’s life
  14. Dimitri tends to move his body in a repetitive manner such as waving his hands. These behaviors sometimes are referred to as:
  15. The best predictor of the outcome of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is:
  16. Children with ASD have a higher than average rate of:
  17. _____________________ is carried by a recessive gene and occurs primarily in Jewish populations
  18. The most common specific learning disorder is _______________
  19. The deterioration of language as seen in a neurocognitive disorder is referred to as ______________
  20. Shoko engages in repetitive hair swirling and hand shaking. These are not tics as she continues to engage in the behaviors for long periods of time. Although she has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, her doctor is adding a diagnosis of __________________________________ disorder to expand her treatment
  21. June is finding it difficult to recognize familiar objects, like tables, chairs, and people, like her close friends and family members. June is most likely experiencing __________________
  22. Physical evidence of Alzheimer’s disease (usually found during autopsy) includes:
  23. Individuals labeled as either a sociopath or a psychopath share symptoms with the DSM-5 diagnosis of _________________________
  24. Limited prosocial emotions, like lack of remorse or guilt for one’s actions, lack of empathy, and lack of concern for performance at school or work, are specifiers for ________________________ in the DSM-5
  25. Humberto often loses his temper, argues with his teacher and parents, and his parents report that he is vindictive. He is not aggressive toward others of his age nor does he shoplift or steal. Humberto is likely to have ___________
  26. In terms of antisocial behavior, girls appear to engage in _____________________, such as excluding their peers, gossiping about them, and colluding with others to damage the social status of their targets, more so than boys
  27. Brain imaging studies show that children diagnosed with conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder show:
  28. Which parenting style is likely to increase a child’s vulnerability to conduct disorder?
  29. In a study in rural North Carolina, researchers found that in Native American children:
  30. Mauricio is in a bar with his friends when someone bumps into the stool his girlfriend is sitting on. He perceives this as a direct affront to his machismo and that the other man wants to fight. According to Dodge and Pettit, the primary issue is with Mauricio’s:
  31. Estella’a therapist has her repeat phrases to help her avoid reacting negatively to situations. Her therapist’s use of self-talk is trying to:
    1.  
  32. Racine, et al. (200) found that differences in the brains between males and females with antisocial personality disorder accounted for the differences in the number of antisocial symptoms they had. Specifically, it was differences in the volume of the:
  33. Tony takes pleasure in running people off the bicycle path with his bicycle. He says “It doesn’t matter if people get hurt, they just need to get out of my way.” Tony shows no remorse when his actions hurt others. He is most likely exhibiting symptoms of ___________________________
  34. Because of his father’s antisocial behaviors, Jake has had difficulties keeping good jobs. His family moves to a poor neighborhood and has much financial difficulty. Jake begins to hang out with the other young men who display aggression and antisocial behaviors. This is an example of _________________

 

  1. Fergus has lost 100 lbs this past year through extreme exercise and dieting. His weight is 15% below what his physician says is healthy for him, yet Fergus refuses to acknowledge his thinness or the serious risks of self-starvation. Fergus is afraid that if he gains weight, no woman will date him. Fergus is best exhibiting signs of _______________________
  2. Thea is significantly underweight and disturbed by her body image. She tends to use diuretics and laxatives to keep her weight low. She experiences a sense of lack of control over eating, but only when she eats large amounts of food at a time. According to the DSM-5 criteria for feeding and eating disorders, she would most likely be diagnosed with __________________
  3. Enrique is significantly overweight and distressed with his body image. He often eats at the all-you-can-eat buffet and then feels a lack of control when he can’t do anything to make himself feel better. According to the DSM-5, he will most likely meet the criteria for _______________________
  4. What is a proven method for preventing weight gain and reducing weight?
  5. According to research, people with feeding and eating disorders:
  6. According to Stice et al. (2002, 2008), women with the  _________________________ of binge eating try their best to maintain a strict low-calorie diet, but they frequently fall off the wagon and engage in binge eating
  7. The best-studied family therapy for persons with anorexia nervosa is known as the _______________________
  8. In _________________ therapy, the client and the therapist discuss interpersonal problems related to the client's feeding and eating disorder, and the therapist works actively with the client to develop strategies to solve these problems
  9. Dominic has been seeing Dr. Provine for help with his feeding and eating disorder. In a highly non directive manner, Dr. Provine helps Dominic talk about problems related to his feeding and eating disorder, including those related to his interpersonal relationships. This is an example of ________________________________ therapy
  10. Comparisons of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) suggest that:
  11. _____________________, such as fluoxetine (Prozac), have been the focus of much research on biological treatments for bulimia nervosa
  12. Regarding current drug treatments and psychotherapies in treating bulimia nervosa:
  13. In _______________________therapy, the client is taught how to monitor her food intake, is reinforced for introducing avoided foods into her diet, and is taught coping techniques for avoiding bingeing

 

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