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Homework answers / question archive / Chapter 14 Economics and Urbanization Multiple Choice Questions 1) In 1950 only ____ percent of the world's population lived in cities

Chapter 14 Economics and Urbanization Multiple Choice Questions 1) In 1950 only ____ percent of the world's population lived in cities


Chapter 14

Economics and Urbanization
Multiple Choice Questions

1) In 1950 only ____ percent of the world's population lived in cities. 
A. 16
B. 22
C. 31
D. 38
E. 43


2. In 2000 what continent had the highest percentage of people living in urban areas? 
A. North America
B. Europe
C. Asia
D. South America
E. Africa


3. Ecological economics is different from the other economic theories because it recognizes the 
A. scarcity of natural capital.
B. recycling of ecological processes and the scarcity of manufactured capital.
C. abundance of natural capital.
D. fragility of the human economy and power of ecological systems.
E. human economy as one part of a dynamic world system.



4. Natural capital is that which is created by 
A. industrial processes.
B. human labor.
C. natural Earth processes.
D. animal labor.
E. All of these are ways natural capital is created.


5. Renewable resources are those that 
A. will not be exhausted.
B. will always renew themselves unless we destroy them.
C. can be renewed through intensive investments of capital and labor.
D. are intangible and inexhaustible.
E. are intangible and exhaustible.


6. An example of an intangible resource, or one that is difficult to place a monetary value on, is 
A. solar energy.
B. satisfaction.
C. human labor.
D. capital.
E. extinct species.



7. What is the name of the process the lending institution is going through? 
A. a long-term analysis
B. a supply-demand analysis
C. a tangible-intangible cost analysis
D. a benefit-need ratio analysis
E. a cost-benefit analysis


8. Which of the following is not a major criticism of this type of analysis? 
A. People are willing to answer questions about how much they would spend to save the Amazon rainforest.
B. The quantification process compares the value of the lives of indigenous people's lives with the lives of people in the city who would be receiving the electricity.
C. The focus of this type of analysis would be mainly on the hydroelectric project rather than alternatives.
D. Monetary values are placed on intangible things like the river running freely.
E. These are all criticisms of this type of analysis.



9. When we purchase a product, the price we pay directly reflects the _____ cost of producing it. If the manufacture of the product degrades the quality of air or water, then the costs of this pollution are termed _____ costs. 
A. incidental; external
B. incidental; indirect
C. indirect; incidental
D. external; internal
E. internal; external


10. When a factory pollutes a river, the costs and losses that affect people downstream would be called 
A. indirect costs.
B. external costs.
C. incidental costs.
D. internal costs.
E. social costs.


11. Businesses are now willing to become "green" because 
A. it improves their public image.
B. it saves money.
C. doing so is expensive but makes good advertising.
D. doing so improves their image and saves money in the end.
E. they need to obey laws and comply with government regulations.



12. Many businesses are exploring and adopting the "design for the environment." Which of the following is not associated with this approach? 
A. Improve public relations about the business' environmental policies.
B. The products of a process are resources for other processes.
C. Work within the limits of the current incoming amounts of solar energy.
D. Include an emphasis on the maintenance of cultural and biological diversity.
E. All of these are associated with adopting the "design for the environment."


13. Environmental protection has been proven to __________ the number of available jobs because __________. 
A. decrease; it limits the use of nonrenewable resources (as in the case of the logging industry)
B. increase; labor is usually substituted for natural resources (as in the case of recycling)
C. stabilize; the use of nonrenewable resources is stabilized and jobs are scarce anyway
D. decrease; it negatively affects economic growth
E. stabilize; it limits the use of nonrenewable resources (as in the case of the logging industry)


14. Urbanization began to grow especially quickly after the 
A. development of agriculture.
B. beginning of the twentieth century.
C. invention of commerce and religion.
D. industrial revolution.
E. invention of record keeping.



15. Which of the following is a push factor for urban growth? 
A. jobs in rural manufacturing
B. unemployment in farming communities
C. better access to education at big universities
D. high unemployment in cities
E. opportunities for specialization in an occupation


16.  Which would be an example of sustainable development?  
A.  Current use of fossil fuels in the U.S.
B.  Heap-leach extraction of gold.
C.  Harvest of food species to the point of extinction.
D.  Development of brownfields in urban areas.
E.  Suburban development programs.


17. Which is an example of a pull factor for an urban area? 
A. unemployment in rural areas
B. the availability of arts and cultural activities
C. heavy traffic on city streets
D. the lack of clean drinking water in rural areas
E. none of these are correct.



18. Slums are usually dwelling places that are 
A. illegal and built by squatters.
B. legal but have inadequate living conditions.
C. small but up to city code.
D. condemned by the city but illegally occupied.
E. on undeveloped lands in the outskirts of a city.


19. In many U.S. cities, poor, undereducated, minority, and other less powerful groups are often concentrated 
A. in urban centers.
B. at city margins.
C. outside of the city entirely.
D. in a ring of satellite settlements around a city.
E. None of these. Usually the poor, undereducated, minority, and other less powerful groups are distributed throughout the area.


20. Which is a negative consequence of urban sprawl? 
A. increased traffic congestion
B. abandonment of city centers
C. inefficient use of land
D. all of these are correct.
E. none of these are correct.



21. Traditional suburban development does not 
A. consist of only house lots and streets.
B. typically consist of identical parcels of land without open space.
C. facilitate social interactions among neighbors.
D. consume agricultural land and wildlife habitat.
E. All of these are characteristics of traditional suburban development.


22. The emphasis in the traditional U.S. suburban development is on ____. This is reflected by the _____. 
A. flexible housing; variety of living arrangements supported by most suburban zoning ordinances
B. walking; pedestrian-friendly streets
C. social interactions; pedestrian-friendly streets and parks
D. ease of shopping and running errands; nearby availability of goods and services
E. the automobile; prominent streets, garages, and driveways


23. Which is not a goal of smart growth? 
A. reduction of noise, air and water pollution
B. increased access to artistic and cultural opportunities
C. reduction of substandard housing
D. improved communication among members of the community
E. all of these are goals of smart growth.



24. According to the principle of new urbanism what is the ideal size of a city? 
A. less than 15,000 people
B. 15,000-30,000
C. 30,000-50,000
D. 50,000-100,000
E. up to 150,000


25. The idea of a steady-state economy was developed by 
A. Thomas Malthus
B. John Stuart Mill
C. Adam Smith
D. Henry David Thoreau
E. Karl Marx



True / False Questions

26. Mass transportation in urban areas is one example of how cities have negative impacts on the environment. 



27. Suburbs are known for the presence of artistic and cultural opportunities. 


28. A major criticism of the ‘limits to growth' model is that it doesn't fully account for technological innovations. 


29. The dilemma of public property use presented by Garret Hardin is also called the "free rider problem." 


30. The estimated annual value of soil formation by natural systems is more than 10 trillion dollars. 


31.  International trade of goods internalizes costs.  



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