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List five examples of specific operational audits that can be conducted by an internal auditor in a manufacturing company


List five examples of specific operational audits that can be conducted by an internal auditor in a manufacturing company.

(Objectives 1-6, 1-7)

(Objective 1-6)


CPAs perform three primary types of audits, as illustrated with examples in Table 1-2:

1. Operational audit

2. Compliance audit

3. Financial statement audit

Objective 1-7)


A government accountability office auditor is an auditor working for the U.S. Govern - ment Accountability Office (GAO), a nonpartisan agency in the legislative branch of the federal government. Headed by the Comptroller General, the GAO reports to and is responsible solely to Congress. The GAO’s primary responsibility is to perform the audit function for Congress, and it has many of the same audit responsibilities as a CPA firm. The GAO audits much of the financial information prepared by various federal government agencies before it is submitted to Congress. Because the authority for expenditures and receipts of governmental agencies is defined by law, there is considerable emphasis on compliance in these audits. An increasing portion of the GAO’s audit efforts are devoted to evaluating the operational efficiency and effectiveness of various federal programs. Also, because of the immense size of many federal agencies and the similarity of their operations, the GAO has made significant advances in developing better methods of auditing through the widespread use of highly sophisticated statistical sampling and computer risk assessment techniques. In many states, experience as a GAO auditor fulfills the experience requirement for becoming a CPA. In those states, if an individual passes the CPA examination and fulfills the experience stipulations by becoming a GAO auditor, he or she may then obtain a CPA certificate. As a result of their great responsibility for auditing the expenditures of the federal government, their use of advanced auditing concepts, their eligibility to be CPAs, and

Internal Auditors are employed by all types of organizations to audit for management, much as the GAO does for Congress. Internal auditors’ responsibilities vary considerably, depending on the employer. Some internal audit staffs consist of only one or two employees doing routine compliance auditing. Other internal audit staffs may have more than 100 employees who have diverse responsibilities, including many outside the accounting area. Many internal auditors are involved in operational auditing or have expertise in evaluating computer systems. To maintain independence from other business functions, the internal audit group typically reports directly to the president, another high executive officer, or the audit committee of the board of directors. However, internal auditors cannot be entirely independent of the entity as long as an employer–employee relationship exists. Users from outside the entity are unlikely to want to rely on information verified solely by internal auditors because of their lack of independence. This lack of independence is the major difference between internal auditors and CPA firms. In many states, internal audit experience can be used to fulfill the experience requirement for becoming a CPA. Many internal auditors pursue certification as a certified internal auditor (CIA), and some internal auditors pursue both the CPA and CIA designations.

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