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questions 1.     A sign/symptom of digitalis toxicity may include?




a.     Visual distrubances

b.    Hypertension

c.     Tachycardia

d.    Potassium retention

2.     A diuretic has a potent and rapid effect;

a.     Furosemide

b.    Spironolactone  ??

c.     Chlorothiazide

3.     All of the following are compensatory mechanisms that occur during the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure EXCEPT:

a.     An increase in ventricular end-diastolic volume.

b.    An increase in the concentration of plasma catecholamines

c.     An increase in vagal tone

d.     Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

4.     To increase blood pressure in patients with low cardiac output, the following agent must be used:

a.     Ganglionic blockers

b.    Vasoconstrictors

c.     positive inotropic drugs

d.    Diuretics

5.     A patient with existing heart failure has recently been prescribed metoprolol for new onset atrial tachycardia. What potential side-effect should the nurse be worried about?

a.      It may cause sodium retention making the fluid problem worse

b.     As a negative inotropic drug, heart failure may worsen

c.     It probably will cause bronchoconstriction.  ??

d.    . Hypertension may result, causing worsening of heart failure

6.     A diuretic that is used in hypertension and that may cause an increase in serum potassium:

a.     Metolazone (Mykrox, Zaroxolyn)

b.    Hydrochlorothiazide

c.     Acetazolamide

d.    Spironolactone

7.     A dry cough is associated with the following drug class:

a.     B agonists

b.    Ace inhibitors

c.     K+ sparing diurectics

d.    Na + channel blocker

8.     A thiazide diuretic that can be used in renal compromised patients.

a.     Chlorothiazide

b.    Metolazone

c.     Hydrochlorothiazide

d.    Triameterene

9.     Digoxin (Lanoxin) has:

a.      parasympathomimetic properties

b.     parasympatholytic properties

c.     sympathomimetic properties

d.    inhibits the vagus

10. Direct-acting vasodilators may cause:

a.     Reflex tachycardia

b.    Hypertension

c.     Hypotension

d.    Both a & c

e.     All of the above

11. The following statements concerning the mechanism of nitrates and their clinical effects are true EXCEPT:

a.     Decreased myocardial oxygen requirement

b.    Relief of coronary artery spasm

c.     Improved perfusion to ischemic myocardium

d.    Increased myocardial oxygen consumption

12. What instructions should a patient receive when discontinuing a beta-blocker?

a.     the beta blocker should be abruptly stopped when another cardiac drug is prescribed

b.    the beta blocker should NOT be abruptly stopped; the dose should be tapered down

c.      the patient should take half of their normal dose of the beta blocker for the next several weeks

13. Which statement concerning beta-antagonist drugs is true?

a.      These agents decrease transmembrane calcium current in cardiac muscle resulting in a reduction in myocardial contractility

b.     These agents have a moderate reflex and vascular dilation action caused by the stimulation of sensitive nerve endings

c.     Beneficial effects of these agents are related primarily to their hemodynamic effects - decreased heart rate, blood pressure and contractility - these effects decrease myocardial oxygen requirements at rest and during exercise

d.    These agents increase the permeability of K channels, this results in stabilizing the membrane potential of excitable cells near the resting potential

14. _____________________ diuretics inhibit sodium and chloride reabsorption in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

a.     Potassium sparing

b.    Osmotic

c.     Loop

d.    None of the above

15. Patient's receiving loop diuretics should have regular monitoring of: 

a.     Sodium levels

b.    Bone marrow function

c.     Calcium

d.    Potassium

16. ARBs are contraindicated in:

a.     Renal disease

b.    Second and third trimester of pregnancy

c.     Seizure disorders

d.    Depression

17. This mechanism associated with ACE inhibitors make them useful in the treatment of heart failure.

a.     Reduction of pre load

b.    Reduction of after load

18. Angiotension converting enzyme

a.     Can degrade bradykinin

b.    Converts aldosterone I to aldosterone II

c.     Is a liver enzyme

19. Following the guidelines of the American Heart Association, patients at high risk for the development of heart failure (stage A) should be treated with:

a.     Metoprolol (Lopressor)

b.    Digoxin (Lanoxin)

c.     Any of the ACE inhibitors

d.    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)

20. Of the following drugs for dyslipidemia which is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor?

a.     Fenofibrate (tricor)

b.    Atorvastatin (Lipitor)

c.     Exetimibe (zetia)

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