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Homework answers / question archive / MGT Test 2 Questions Ch7   1

MGT Test 2 Questions Ch7   1

Management

MGT Test 2 Questions

Ch7

 

1.Patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage are called:

2. The __________ Approach to managing innovation assumes that innovation is a predictable process made up of a series of steps and that compressing the time it takes to complete those steps can speed up innovation.

3. The first stage of organizational decline is:

4. Which of the following is one of the three steps in the basic process of managing organizational change outlined by Kurt Lewin?

5. According to John Kotter’s analysis of the errors managers make when leading change, the first and potentially most serious of these errors is:

6. Organizational _____ is the successful implementation of creative ideas in organizations.

7. Creativity was needed to improve efficiency without raising costs at one automobile maker. Over the last few years, the company has successfully implemented a creative engineering program that allows its plants to produce more than one type of car from the same assembly line. This successful change to a flexible manufacturing system is an example of __________.

8. The development of the DVD player was a source of _____ to companies in the movie industry just as VHS tapes had once been.

9. A technology _____ begins with the birth of a new technology and ends when that technology reaches its limits and dies as it is replaces by a newer, substantially better technology.

10. Nearly all technology cycles follow the typical _____ pattern of innovation.

11. In the typical S-curve pattern of innovation, increased effort (i.e. money, research and development) brings only small improvements in technological performance _____.

12. When significant improvements in performance can ONLY be gained through radical new designs or new performance-enhancing materials, it is likely that a company is _____ in the S-curve pattern of innovation

13. A technology cycle occurs whenever there are major advances or changes in the _____ in a field or discipline.

14. _________ is the phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological substitution and design competition.

15. The purchase of new technologies to replace older ones is an example of _____.

16. Discontinuous change in an innovation stream is characterized by _____.

17. In order from beginning to end, the phases of a technology cycle within an innovation stream consist of _____.

18. _____ are workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged.

19. Organizational development __________.

20. Which of the following statements describes an advantage of the results-driven change approach to managing change?

            Managers actually test to see if changes make a difference

It supplant the sole emphasis on activity with a focus on quickly measuring and improving results

Quick, visible improvements motivate employees to continue to make additional changes

Managers introduce changes in policies, procedures, rules, and regulations only when they will improve measured performance

All of these were cited as advantages of the results-driven change approach

21. A _____ is the individual who is formally in charge of guiding a change effort.

22. Which of the following methods for managing resistance to change should only be used as a last resort or under crisis conditions?

23. Which of the following statements about resistance to change is true?

24. According to social psychologist Kurt Lewin, _____ lead to differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time, while _____ support the status quo, or the existing state of conditions in an organization.

25. It is appropriate to use a _____ approach to manage innovation in more certain environments during periods of incremental change, in which the goals are lower costs and incremental improvements in the performance and function of the existing technological design.

26. When incremental improvements are made to a dominant technological design such that the improved version of the technology is fully backward compatible with the older version, _____ is said to have occurred.

27. Which of the following is a component of a creative work environment that encourages creativity?

            Organizational encouragement

            The development of challenging work

            The granting of autonomy

            The removal of organizational impediments

            All of these

 

Ch8

1.The two general kinds of trade barriers are:

2. The trade agreement that represented the most significant change to the regulations governing global trade during the 1990s was the:

3. Which of the following represents the correct sequence for the phase model of globalization?

4. Two factors help determine the growth potential of foreign markets. They are foreign competition and:

5. Hofstede’s research has shown there are:

6. An expatriate is someone who:

7. The evidence clearly shows that _____ is the most important factor in determining the success or failure of an international assignment

8. Global business is defines as _____.

9. _____ is a method of investment in which a company builds a new business or buys an existing business in a foreign country.

10. In 2000, the United States imposed a tax on all steel imports in an effort to protect about 5,000 jobs. This tax is an example of a _____.

11. _____ are long-term, low-interest loans, cash grants, and tax deductions used to develop and protect companies or special industries.

12. The acronym GATT stands for the _____.

13. One of the major questions that a company must typically answer about its future, once it has decided to go global is _____.

14. Historically, most companies have used the _____ to successfully enter foreign markets.

15. Fran Wilson Creative Cosmetics is a medium-sized U.S. company that sells 1.5 million tubes of its lipstick annually in Japan. It has no physical presence within the country beyong the fact its products are sold there. Fran Wilson Creative Cosmetics uses _____ to reach the Japanese market.

16. _____ occurs when a company sells domestically produced products to customers in foreign countries.

17. A _____ is an agreement in which a foreign business owner pays a company a fee for the right to conduct that business in his or her country.

18. _____ are both examples of cooperative contracts.

19. In terms of Hofstede’s cultural differences, the people who are described as happy-go-lucky and are people who are comfortable with an unstructured life and deal well with sudden changes. In terms of Hofstede’s cultural differences, these people have a __________.

20. Starbucks is expanding its global operations into South America in spite of the real probability of civil wars and terrorist activities in many of the continent’s nationa. As Starbucks expands into South America, it must deal with _____.

21. All global new ventures share two common factors. One is the bringing of a good or service to several different foreign markets at the same time. The other is _____.

            None of these

            The use of local adaptation strategy

            A mechanistic organizational culture

The ability to respond quickly and efficiently to any changes in the external environment

            The development of culturally-specific implementation policies

 

22. The evidence clearly shows that _____ is the most important factor in determining the success or failure of an international assignment.

23. The term _____ is used by Hofstede to describe the degree to which people in a country are uncomfortable with unstructured, ambiguous, unpredictable situations.

24. According to Hofstede, when people in a culture are oriented to the present and seek immediate gratification, that culture is described as _____.

25. The _____ strategy of minimizing or adapting to the political risk inherent to global business makes use of joint ventures and collaborative contracts.

26. _____ is the set of shared values and beliefs that affects the perception, decisions, and behavior of people from a particular country.

27. What are the two types of political risk that affect companies conducting global business?

28. A country or region that has an attractive business climate for companies that want to go global has _____.

29. Which of the following factors helps a company determine the growth potential of a foreign market?

30. Which of the following factors should be considered when choosing an office/manufacturing location in the Brazilian market for a U.S. company that operates cinemas and wants to open a chain of movie theatres there?

            Tariff and nontariff barriers

            The strategy of the movie theatre chain

            Work force quality

            Exchange rates

            All of these

 

Ch9

1.Organizational authority is traditionally characterized by:

2. A __________ function is an activity that contributes directly to creating or selling the company’s products.

3. _______ means increasing the number of tasks in a particular job and giving workers the power to make decisions about their own work.

4. A _______ organization is an organization that is characterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities, precisely defined, unchanging roles, and a rigid chain of command based on centralized authority and vertical communication.

5. ________ is a fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures or performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.

6. Except for the core business activities that they can perform better, faster, and cheaper than others, ______ outsource all remaining business activities to outside companies, suppliers, specialists, or consultants.

7. The organizational process ________.

8. While _____ emphasizes jobs and their authority relationships, _____ emphasizes the activities through which work gets done in the organization.

9. _____ departmentalization is defined as organizing work and workers into separate units responsible for particular business functions or areas of expertise.

10. _____ is a general term that refers to subdividing work and workers into separate organizational units that are responsible for completing particular tasks.

11. Which of the following statements about functional departmentalization is true?

12. Hallmark has four departments. These departments are (1) Flowers and Gifts, (2) Cards and E-cards, (3) Hallmark Collectibles, and (4) Photo Albums and Scrapbooks. Hallmark uses _____ departmentalization.

13. With divisions that focus on business clients and consumer clients, companies like Sprint, American Express, and others are examples of ______ departmentalization.

14. Procter & Gamble has divisions for personal and beauty, house and home, health and wellness, baby and family, and pet nutrition and care. These divisions indicate that the company uses _____ departmentalization.

15. With _____ departmentalization, most employees report to two bosses.

16. In terms of the chain of command, _____ authority is the right to command immediate subordinates, while _____ authority is the right to advise but not command others who are not subordinates.

17. The chain of command _____.

            Is described by non of these

            Is only relevant in mechanistic organizations

            Does not permit delegation of authority

Is the horizontal line of authority that indicates at which level of management an individual belongs

            Acts at cross-purposes to the unity of command principle

18. _____ involves assigning direct authority and responsibility to a subordinate to complete tasks for which the manager is normally responsible.

19. When managers delegate work, three transfers occur. The three transfers are responsibility, authority, and _____.

20._____ is the process of solving problems by consistently applying the same rules, procedures, and processes.

21. Decentralization _____.

22. Job specialization can result in _____.

23. ______ determines the number, kind, and variety of tasks that individual workers perform in their jobs.

24. An organization that has increased the number of different tasks that a worker performs within one particular job has engaged in _____.

25. The central concern of the job characteristics model (JCM) is _____.

26. _____ is the degree to which a job gives workers the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish their jobs.

27. _____ is the degree to which a job is perceived to have a substantial impact on others inside or outside the organization.

28. An _____ organization is one that is characterized by broadly defined jobs and responsibilities; loosely defined, frequently changing roles; and decentralized authority and horizontal communication based on task knowledge.

29. A _____ organization is an organization that is characterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities; precisely defined, unchanging roles; and a rigid chain of command based on centralized authority and vertical communication.

30. The three types of task interdependence are

 

Ch10

1.Team rewards that depend on _____ are the key to rewarding team behaviors and efforts.

2. Which of the following types of teams have the authority to change their composition as well as all of their tasks and work methods?

3. Which of the following size teams usually provides the best performance?

4. According to the text, a _____ is a small number of people with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for pursuing a common purpose, achieving performance goals, and improving interdependent work processes.

5. How are organizations using teams to help increase customer satisfaction?

6. Which of the following is a reason teamwork can be more satisfying than traditional work?

7. _____ Answer:  occurs when workers withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work.

8. Which of the following statements describe an advantage teams have over individuals in the decision-making process?

9. Teams are typically required when _____.

10. In the autonomy continuum (which shows how five kinds of teams differ in terms of autonomy), the correct sequence, from low team autonomy to high team autonomy, is _____.

11. The _____ is purposefully composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization.

12. A _____ is defined as a team composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telecommunications and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task.

13. The _____ is created to complete specific, one-time projects or tasks within a limited time.

14. _____ are informally agreed-on standards that regulate team behavior.

15. _____ is the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain with it.

16.Team norms in an organization can create _____.

            Negative behaviors, such as breaking rules

            Stronger organizational commitment

            More trust in management

            Increased job satisfaction

            All of these

17. Which of the following statements regarding cohesiveness is true?

18. _____ undermines team effectiveness by preventing teams from engaging in the kinds of activities that are critical to team effectiveness.

19. Affective conflict _____.

20. Minority domination tends to be a particular problem in _____.

21. Which of the following statements about team development is true?

22. Which of the following is one of the stages that teams pass through as they develop and grow, rather than decline?

23. Group cohesion tends to be relatively strong at the _____ stage of team development.

24. A team has finally matured into a fully-functioning team at the _____stage of development.

25. With _____, teams no longer have to go through the frustratingly slow process of multilevel reviews and signoffs to get management approval before making changes.

26. _____ is the ability to change organizational structures, policies, and practices if it helps teams meet their stretch goals.

27. _____ describes the average level of ability, experience, personality, or any other factor on a team.

28. Which of the following statements about team training is true?

29. Which of the following is a method used for compensating employees for team participation and accomplishments?

30. An organization that rewards its team members through gainsharing is _____.

Ch11 – 40% of test

1.To which of the following aspects of the human resource management process does federal employment law apply?

            Selection decisions

            Performance appraisals

            Compensation decisions

            Training and development activities

            All of these

2. A _____ is a purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job

3. The _____ interview uses only standardized, job-related interview questions that are prepared ahead of time and asked of all candidates

4. A _____ is a performance appraisal process in which feedback is obtained from the boss, subordinates, peers and co-workers, and the employees themselves.

5. An ESOP is an:

6. _____ is the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people for the company

7. The fact that a 98-pound job candidate is not hired as a dock worker to move 60-pound boxes of produce is legal as a result of _____.

8. _____ is intentional discrimination that occurs when people are purposefully not given the same hiring, promotion, or membership opportunities because of their race, sex, age, ethnic group, national origin, or religious beliefs.

9. When a CEO opened the nationwide sales force meeting with a crude sexually explicit joke it was an example of _____.

10. The _____ is a rule of thumb used by the courts and the EEOC to determine whether there is evidence of adverse impact. A violation of this rule occurs when the selection rate for a protected group is less than a specified level of the selection rate for a nonprotected group.

11. From a legal perspective, there are two kinds of sexual harassment. They are _____.

12. Which of the following statements about sexual harassment is true?

13. Former female employees of a national real estate brokerage firm claimed that they were subjected to lewd remarks, unwanted groping, and sexual propositions by male co-workers. According to their attorney, “The firm created a frat-house culture and then failed to do anything about it.” Their suit claims the women were victims of _____.

14. To ensure that sexual harassment laws are followed and not violated, companies should _____.

            Respect the privacy of the accused and the accusers

            Respond immediately when sexual harassment is reported

Make sure they are acting in compliance with not only federal but also local laws

Write a clear, understandable, strongly worded policy that is well publicized within the company

            Do all of these

15. Two of the most important results of a job analysis are _____.

16. _____ help companies meet the legal requirement that their human resource decisions be job-related.

17. Which of the following types of information would typically be collected as part of a job analysis?

            Knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to do the job

            Tools and equipment used

            Work activities

            Job context

            All of these

18. Before beginning to recruit, organizations must _____.

19. In order to be considered _____, recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisals, and employee separations must be valid and be directly related to the important aspects of the job and identified by a careful job analysis.

20. _____ is the process of gathering information about job applicants to decide who should be offered a job.

21. Which of the following statements about job validation tests is true?

22. Which of the following questions is deemed acceptable (i.e., “legal”) for employers to ask applicants during the selection process?

23. Which of the following types of tests accurately predicts job performance in almost all kinds of jobs?

24. _____ means providing opportunities for employees to develop the job-specific skills, experience, and knowledge they need to do their jobs or improve their performance.

25. Which of the following training methods is most appropriate for imparting information or knowledge to trainees?

26. Which of the following is one of the ways in which training can be evaluated?

            How much employees actually modified their on-the-job behavior

            Reactions of employees

            How job performance improved

            On how much employees learned

            All of these

27. Which of the following statements about performance appraisal is true?

28. Which of the following is an example of an objective performance measure?

29. To improve traditional performance appraisal feedback sessions, it is recommended that managers _____.

30. The term _____ refers to both the financial rewards organizations give employees in exchange for their work.

 

Ch12

1.Which of the following statements explains why diversity actually makes good business sense?

2. The two basic types of diversity training programs are _____.

3. The term _____ refers to a work environment where (1) each member is empowered to contribute in a way that maximizes the benefits to the organization, customers, and themselves; and (2) the individuality of each member is respected by not segmenting or polarizing people on the basis of their membership in a particular group

4. Organizational plurality is consistent with _____.

5. Which of the Big Five personality measures has the greatest impact on behavior in organizations?           

6. Which of the following is the most commonly used paradigm for managing diversity?

7. Conscientiousness is _____.

8. Which of the following jobs would be most likely to require someone who has high degree of extraversion?

9. Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five personality dimensions?

10. To make sure that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else, organizations can _____.

11. An individual’s _____ refers to his or her tendency to respond to situations and events in a predetermined manner.

12. _____ is the relatively stable set of behaviors, attitudes, and emotions displayed over time that makes people different from each other

13. Which of the following might account for the disparities between the percentages of African, Hispanic, and Asian Americans among the general population and their smaller representation in management positions?

14. Which of the following statements about disabilities is true?

15. Older workers _____.

16. _____ helps companies grow by improving the quality of problem solving and improving marketplace understanding.

17. _____ is the degree to which group members are psychologically attracted to working with each other to accomplish a common objective.

18. _____ within P&G’s management has led the company to realize that Hispanic consumers “are more likely to support a company or brand that is active in their community.”

19. Diversity helps companies grow by _____.

20. Unlike _____, which punishes companies for not achieving specific gender and race differences in their work forces, _____ programs seek to benefit both organization and their employees by encouraging organizations to value all kinds of differences.

21. The purposeful steps taken by an organization to create employment opportunities for minorities and women is called _____.

22.A key difference between affirmative action and diversity is that _____.

23. Affirmative action programs are typically designed to _____.

24. _____ is a term that describes a situation in organizations when there is a variety of demographic, cultural, and personal differences among the people who work there and the customers who do business there.

25. Organizational plurality is consistent with:

26. Which of the following is a paradigm for managing diversity?

27. Which of the following diversity practices is a special kind of mentoring?

28. Which of the following is an example of a diversity principle that will help managers do a better job of managing company diversity programs?

29. A _____ is a formal assessment that measures employee and management attitudes, investigates the extent to which people are advantaged or disadvantaged with respect to hiring and promotions, and reviews companies’ diversity-related policies and procedures.

30. People with the Big Five dimension of _____ respond well under stress.

 

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