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Homework answers / question archive / Question 1 2 / 2 pts The term “Genetic Epistemology” refers to:    the contribution of inheritance to intellectual ability    the fact that some kinds of knowledge are genetically determined    developmental intelligence    the slow development of a cognitive map   Question 2 2 / 2 pts Equilibration refers to:    the increased tendency to rely more and more on mental operations    the innate need for balance between the organism and its environment    the realization that number, length, substance, or area has not changed although it may be presented in a number of different ways    developmental intelligence   Question 3 2 / 2 pts Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with:    beauty    the nature of knowledge    the relationship between science and religion    the relationship between biology and intelligence   Question 4 2 / 2 pts “All learning depends on failure

Question 1 2 / 2 pts The term “Genetic Epistemology” refers to:    the contribution of inheritance to intellectual ability    the fact that some kinds of knowledge are genetically determined    developmental intelligence    the slow development of a cognitive map   Question 2 2 / 2 pts Equilibration refers to:    the increased tendency to rely more and more on mental operations    the innate need for balance between the organism and its environment    the realization that number, length, substance, or area has not changed although it may be presented in a number of different ways    developmental intelligence   Question 3 2 / 2 pts Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with:    beauty    the nature of knowledge    the relationship between science and religion    the relationship between biology and intelligence   Question 4 2 / 2 pts “All learning depends on failure

Psychology

Question 1

2 / 2 pts

The term “Genetic Epistemology” refers to:

  

the contribution of inheritance to intellectual ability

  

the fact that some kinds of knowledge are genetically determined

  

developmental intelligence

  

the slow development of a cognitive map

 

Question 2

2 / 2 pts

Equilibration refers to:

  

the increased tendency to rely more and more on mental operations

  

the innate need for balance between the organism and its environment

  

the realization that number, length, substance, or area has not changed although it may be presented in a number of different ways

  

developmental intelligence

 

Question 3

2 / 2 pts

Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with:

  

beauty

  

the nature of knowledge

  

the relationship between science and religion

  

the relationship between biology and intelligence

 

Question 4

2 / 2 pts

“All learning depends on failure.” This statement describes what Dollard and Miller called:

  

frustrative nonreinforcement

  

the learning dilemma

  

the frustration effect

  

a vicious circle

 

Question 5

2 / 2 pts

A child saying all men are “Daddy,” represents which of the following kinds of logic:

  

transductive

  

inductive

  

deductive

  

syllogistic

 

Question 6

2 / 2 pts

 

Piaget …

 


  

was a strong advocate for instruction.

  

believed education must be individualized

  

is easily categorized as a reinforcement theorist, a contingency theorist, or a contiguity theorist.

  

all of the above

 

Question 7

2 / 2 pts

The stage of intellectual development where conservation first appears is:

  

formal operations

  

concrete operations

  

sensorimotor stage

  

period of intuitive thought

 

Question 8

2 / 2 pts

The highest stage of intellectual development is:

  

concrete operations

  

sensorimotor stage

  

period of intuitive thought

  

formal operations

 

Question 9

2 / 2 pts

Reversibility means that once something is thought, it can be:

  

thought of again

  

forgotten

  

unthought

  

acted upon

 

Question 10

2 / 2 pts

Interiorization is the process by which adaptive actions become increasingly covert rather than overt.

  

True

   

False

 

 

Question 11

2 / 2 pts

“Children at this stage are egocentric. Everything is seen with themselves as a frame of reference and their psychological world is the only one that exists.”

  

formal operations

  

concrete operations

  

preoperational thinking

  

sensorimotor

 

Question 12

2 / 2 pts

If a child can first add 10 and 3 making a total of 13, and then mentally subtract 3 from 13 making a total of 10, the child has demonstrated:

  

reversibility of thought

  

maturity

  

that he is at the sensorimotor stage of development

  

the Law of Pragnanz

 

Question 13

2 / 2 pts

According to Piaget’s theory, the most important characteristic of any operation is that it is:

  

innate

  

interiorized

  

reversible

  

functionally invariant

 

Question 14

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following is a functional invariant?

  

assimilation

  

accommodation

  

both 1 and 2

  

none of the above

 

IncorrectQuestion 15

0 / 2 pts

Piaget’s major motivational concept was:

  

interiorization

  

assimilation

  

accommodation

  

equilibration

 

Question 16

2 / 2 pts

Piaget and his colleagues found that although mental abilities appear around a certain age level, some children show the ability earlier and some later than other children.

  

True

   

False

 

 

Question 17

2 / 2 pts

According to Piaget, learning will be optimal if the material presented is:

  

not too easy

  

not too hard

  

completely understood by the students

  

both 1 and 2

 

IncorrectQuestion 18

0 / 2 pts

Tolman and his colleagues found that when a rat was forced to take a relatively long route to a goal but was able to see the goal, and was later given the opportunity to choose any route to the goal, it would tend to choose:

  

. the same route it was trained on

  

an even longer route than the one it was forced to take originally

  

the most direct route to the goal

  

the route pointing to the place in the room where it had been fed in its home cage

 

Question 19

2 / 2 pts

Tolman’s greatest contributions, however, lie less in specific research findings and more in his role as an antagonist against the dominance of Hullian neobehaviorism.

  

True

   

False

 

 

Question 20

2 / 2 pts

Tolman and his colleagues found that:

  

place learning is easier for rats than response learning

  

response.learning is easier for rats than place learning

  

place learning is easy for humans but difficult for rats

  

response.learning is easy for humans but difficult for rats

 

Question 21

2 / 2 pts

Tolman was an eclectic theorist. 

  

True

   

False

 

 

Question 22

2 / 2 pts

The acronym “HATE” summarizes Tolman’s ---------------------- variables.

  

independent

  

individual difference

  

intervening

  

dependent

 

IncorrectQuestion 23

0 / 2 pts

The term in Tolman’s system that is most similar to reinforcement is:

  

confirmation

  

cathexis

  

expectancy

  

means-end readiness

 

Question 24

2 / 2 pts

If, after a cognitive map has been formed, a commonly used means of obtaining food is blocked, the organism will:

  

revert to trial and error behavior

  

become hyperactive thus increasing the probability of discovering an alternative route to the food

  

simply take an alternative route to the food

  

resort to vicarious trial and error (VTE)

 

Question 25

2 / 2 pts

In Tolman’s theory, the distinction between learning and performance is:

  

not made

  

made but not important

  

made and is very important

  

not made but should be

 

Question 26

2 / 2 pts

Tolman’s position is most closely associated with which of the following?

  

Gestalt psychology

  

structuralism

  

behavior motivation

  

peripheralism

 

IncorrectQuestion 27

0 / 2 pts

Tolman’s explanation for extinction was radically different from those of Skinner and Hull because Tolman’s explanation did not refer to:

  

nonreinforced performance

  

the importance of observation

  

the revision of expectations

  

latent extinction

 

Question 28

2 / 2 pts

For Tolman, intervening variables were:

  

measures of performance

  

theoretical terms

  

very general kinds of variables

  

manipulated by the subjects

 

IncorrectQuestion 29

0 / 2 pts

For Tolman, drive was important for:

  

learning

  

performance

  

both 1 and 2

  

none of the above

 

Question 30

2 / 2 pts

Tolman’s findings concerning place learning indicated that:

  

the learner moves from start to goal in a fixed pattern

  

the learner “knows” where the goal is and will vary his behavior as the conditions change

  

the learner finds his way using the habit family hierarchy

  

the learner finds his way by kinestheic cues

 

Question 31

2 / 2 pts

Tolman was called an S-S rather than an S-R theorist.

  

True

   

False

 

 

Question 32

2 / 2 pts

Tolman called pausing and looking around at the choice point in a maze for rates----------------.

  

trial and error

  

ends to a means

  

recall of maze

  

vicarious trial and error

 

Question 33

2 / 2 pts

Maintenance schedule is related to which of the following intervening variables?

  

sensory differentiation

  

appetite

  

demand

  

the learning of sign Gestalts

 

Question 34

2 / 2 pts

Gestalt psychology can be thought of as an attempt to apply field theory from physics to the problems of psychology.

  

True

   

False

 

 

Question 35

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following best describes what Wertheimer felt characterizes a true solution to a problem?

  

understanding

  

a correct response

  

knowing the elements making up a problem

  

the absence of emotional involvement

 

Question 36

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following constitutes the Gestaltist’s explanation as to why we experience a partial circle as a complete circle?

  

our experience is dominated by the trace system of “circleness”

  

unique events are remembered in terms of something familiar

  

the process set up by the incomplete circle dominates the trace system related to circles

  

we do not have a verbal label for incomplete circles so we simply call them “circles”

 

Question 37

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following describes epiphenomenalism?

  

the body influences the mind and the mind influences the body

  

the contents of the mind vary as a function of sensory experience

  

the activities of the brain correspond dynamically to the content of thought

  

consciousness occurs independent of sensory experience

 

Question 38

2 / 2 pts

The Gestalt psychologists felt that the proper object of study for psychology should be:

  

overt behavior

  

habits

  

unconscious experience

  

phenomenological experience

 

Question 39

2 / 2 pts

“Psychological organization will always be as good as the controlling circumstances allow” is a description of:

  

the law of perceptual simplicity

  

the law of Pragnanz

  

the principle of constancies

  

isomorphism

 

IncorrectQuestion 40

0 / 2 pts

According to the Gestalt theorists, which of the following would be most influential in determining what would be remembered from an experience?

  

the experience itself

  

the process triggered by the experience

  

the trace system that developed from numerous similar experiences

  

the memory trace of the experience

 

Question 41

2 / 2 pts

The Gestalters linked the past with the present through their concept of:

  

insight

  

transposition

  

perceptual constancies

  

memory trace

 

Question 42

2 / 2 pts

For the Gestalists, reinforcement was ---------- and came when the learner gained an insight into the solution of the problem.

  

good

  

intrinsic

  

transposition

  

extrinsic

 

IncorrectQuestion 43

0 / 2 pts

According to Wertheimer, the best solution to a problem involves seeing the ---------------- involved in the problem.

  

elements

  

logic

  

principles

  

associations

 

Question 44

2 / 2 pts

Research on various aspects of-------------, however, has demonstrated that both S-R and Gestalt predictions fail under certain circumstances, and the matter is still unsettled.

  

transposition

  

closure

  

proximity

  

simplicity

 

Question 45

2 / 2 pts

Molercular behavior refers to a large segment of behavior that is goal-directed and purposive, and molar behavior refers to a small segment of behavior, such as a conditioned reflex, that is isolated for analysis.

  

True

   

False

 

 

Question 46

2 / 2 pts

---------------------are attempting to locate the brain mechanisms that generate insight.

  

Gestaltists

  

Behavioral psychologists

  

Cognitive neuroscientists

  

Cognitive psychologists

 

Question 47

2 / 2 pts

According to Gestaltists, the melody emanating from an orchestra has a(n) ------------------ which is something different from the various notes being played by the various musicians.

  

emergent quality

  

pleasantness

  

isomorphism

  

transposition

 

Question 48

2 / 2 pts

According to Lewin, the total number of “psychological facts” influencing a person at any given moment constitutes that person’s:

  

habit family hierarchy

  

trace system

  

operant level

  

life space

 

Question 49

2 / 2 pts

Spence’s explanation of transposition relied heavily on which of the following concepts?

  

insightful learning

  

the Law of Pragnanz

  

generalization

  

cognitive disequilibrium

 

Question 50

2 / 2 pts

The Gestalt-oriented classroom would be characterized by a give-and-take relationship between students and teacher.

  

True

   

False

 

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