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Write a 1250 words paper on the topic Bioinformatics of Bt Cry Toxins


Write a 1250 words paper on the topic Bioinformatics of Bt Cry Toxins. Most of the cry protein gene formation is through cloning, sequencing, and finally named cyt genes or cry genes. Over a hundred cry gene sequences are organized into thirty-two groups and other different subgroups based on their range of specificity and nucleotide similarities (Neale 2008, p.32). An example is the protein toxic used on the lepidopteron insect, which belongs to the Cry 1, Cry 2, and Cry 9 groups (Bergeron 2013, 12). The toxins used against coleopteran insects include Cry 8, Cry 3, and Cry 7 and Cry 11a1 a subclass of Cry1 protein. There are several examples of nematocidal cry proteins, which include Cry 13, Cry 5, Cry 12, and Cry 14. Cry 2Aal a subgroup of Cry 2 protein, Cry 10, Cry 16, Cry 4, Cry 19, Cyt proteins, and Cry 11 are poisonous to dipterans insects.

B.thuringiensis strain carries more than one crystal toxin protein and, therefore, different strains of organisms can synthesize more than one crystal protein (Fisher 2009, 23). Transfer of plasmids in B.thuringiensis is the main agent of creating change in toxin genes. The synthesis of insecticidal crystal protein in bacteria takes place during the stationary phase of its life cycle growth. The proteins are stored in the mother cell. B.thurigienisis sporulated cells contain twenty-five percent of the dry weight of the protein. The soaring intensity of crystal protein formation in B.thuringiensis is controlled during different processes (Caballero, 2008, p.32). The processes are likely to occur at the post-translational, post-transcriptional, and transcriptional levels. Specific sporulation genes control the expression of cry genes. Some of the cry genes express their action during vegetative growth.

The expressions of the cry gene are divided into sporulation independent and sporulation-dependent. Cry 1Aa gene is an exemplar of sporulation-dependent cry genetic material. It produces toxins against Lepidoptera (Jarrett, 2007, p. 56). This gene is depicted on the sporulation phase. Cry 3Aa gene is expressed during the stationary stage and vegetative growth. Its expression is more active in the vegetative phase than in the stationary phase. Stable cry m RNA contributes to increased production of toxins at the post-transcriptional stage.

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