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Homework answers / question archive / Question 1 0 / 2 pts According to Timberlake, response or activity deprivation produces    motivation    negative reinforcement    unfortunate emotional by-products    instinctual drift   Question 2 2 / 2 pts Autoshaping seems to be best explained as:    superstitious behavior    the release of innate response tendencies    classical conditioning    operant conditioning   Question 3 2 / 2 pts The reinforcement schedule in which the administration of a reinforcement follows a response occurring some definite time period after the previous reinforcement is called a:    fixed interval schedule    fixed reinforcement schedule    fixed ratio schedule    fixed response schedule   Question 4 2 / 2 pts Herrnstein’s Equation is a mathematical expression that:    describes a learning curve for one operant behavior    predicts the effects of various reinforcements    describes complex choice behavior    predicts the Matching Law   Question 5 2 / 2 pts Which of the following procedures would give reinforcement every fourth trial?    fixed ratio    fixed interval    fixed duration    variable interval   Question 6 2 / 2 pts Which of the following develops through noncontingent reinforcement?    superstitious behavior    shaping    extinction    chaining   Question 7 2 / 2 pts Whereas --------------------- schedules of reinforcement are used to investigate simple choice behavior, ----------------- schedules are used to investigate complex choice behavior

Question 1 0 / 2 pts According to Timberlake, response or activity deprivation produces    motivation    negative reinforcement    unfortunate emotional by-products    instinctual drift   Question 2 2 / 2 pts Autoshaping seems to be best explained as:    superstitious behavior    the release of innate response tendencies    classical conditioning    operant conditioning   Question 3 2 / 2 pts The reinforcement schedule in which the administration of a reinforcement follows a response occurring some definite time period after the previous reinforcement is called a:    fixed interval schedule    fixed reinforcement schedule    fixed ratio schedule    fixed response schedule   Question 4 2 / 2 pts Herrnstein’s Equation is a mathematical expression that:    describes a learning curve for one operant behavior    predicts the effects of various reinforcements    describes complex choice behavior    predicts the Matching Law   Question 5 2 / 2 pts Which of the following procedures would give reinforcement every fourth trial?    fixed ratio    fixed interval    fixed duration    variable interval   Question 6 2 / 2 pts Which of the following develops through noncontingent reinforcement?    superstitious behavior    shaping    extinction    chaining   Question 7 2 / 2 pts Whereas --------------------- schedules of reinforcement are used to investigate simple choice behavior, ----------------- schedules are used to investigate complex choice behavior

Psychology

Question 1

0 / 2 pts

According to Timberlake, response or activity deprivation produces

  

motivation

  

negative reinforcement

  

unfortunate emotional by-products

  

instinctual drift

 

Question 2

2 / 2 pts

Autoshaping seems to be best explained as:

  

superstitious behavior

  

the release of innate response tendencies

  

classical conditioning

  

operant conditioning

 

Question 3

2 / 2 pts

The reinforcement schedule in which the administration of a reinforcement follows a response occurring some definite time period after the previous reinforcement is called a:

  

fixed interval schedule

  

fixed reinforcement schedule

  

fixed ratio schedule

  

fixed response schedule

 

Question 4

2 / 2 pts

Herrnstein’s Equation is a mathematical expression that:

  

describes a learning curve for one operant behavior

  

predicts the effects of various reinforcements

  

describes complex choice behavior

  

predicts the Matching Law

 

Question 5

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following procedures would give reinforcement every fourth trial?

  

fixed ratio

  

fixed interval

  

fixed duration

  

variable interval

 

Question 6

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following develops through noncontingent reinforcement?

  

superstitious behavior

  

shaping

  

extinction

  

chaining

 

Question 7

2 / 2 pts

Whereas --------------------- schedules of reinforcement are used to investigate simple choice behavior, ----------------- schedules are used to investigate complex choice behavior.

  

fixed ratio ..... variable ratio

  

concurrent-chain ..... concurrent

  

concurrent ..... concurrent-chain

  

fixed interval ...... variable interval

 

Question 8

2 / 2 pts

The rate at which a response occurs before reinforcement is introduced is referred to as:

  

noncontingent activity

  

spontaneous activity

  

the operant level

  

shaping

 

Question 9

2 / 2 pts

According to Skinner, the best way to discourage undesirable behavior is to ------------ it.

  

punish

  

reinforce

  

shock

  

ignore

 

Question 10

2 / 2 pts

A cue indicating which response is appropriate:

  

all of the above

  

becomes a secondary reinforcer

  

is a SD

  

is a discriminative stimulus

 

Question 11

2 / 2 pts

Slot machines are based upon which schedule of reinforcement?

  

variable interval

  

continuous

  

fixed interval

  

variable ratio

 

Question 12

2 / 2 pts

Whose name is associated with the concept of the “relativity of reinforcement “?

  

David Premack

  

Noam Chomsky

  

William Estes

  

Edward Thorndike

 

Question 13

2 / 2 pts

The relative rate with which responses are made, equals or almost equals the relative rate with which responses are reinforced. This statement summarizes the:

  

partial information effect

  

misbehavior of organisms

  

matching law

  

Premack Principle

 

Question 14

2 / 2 pts

On a cumulative recording, the slope of the line indicates:

  

rate of responding

  

what kind of response is being made

  

schedule of reinforcement

  

when a response is not being made

 

Question 15

2 / 2 pts

Skinner’s main argument against the use of punishment was that it:

  

is evil

  

causes aggression

  

is too effective

  

is ineffective in the long run

 

Question 16

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following is similar to the game of  “you’re hot, you’re cold”?

  

chaining

  

extinction

  

operant conditioning

  

shaping

 

Question 17

2 / 2 pts

According to Pavlov, physical stimuli that precede biologically significant events and thus allow for their anticipation are referred to as:

  

reciprocal induction

  

the second signal system

  

the first signal system

  

dynamic stereotypes

 

Question 18

2 / 2 pts

Using the method of --------------------, the CS eliciting undesirable behavior is paired with a US other than the one that reinforces undesirable behavior

  

extinction

  

flooding

  

systematic desensitization

  

counterconditioning

 

Question 19

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following exemplifies an unconditioned stimulus?

  

a blinking light

  

a soft tone

  

a buzzer

  

a painful electric shock

 

IncorrectQuestion 20

0 / 2 pts

Pavlov considered his work pertinent to discovery of basic nervous system functions and was unaware that his work was relevant to the development of learning theory in the United States until the early 1980s.

  

True

   

False

 

 

Question 21

2 / 2 pts

Ader and his colleagues have demonstrated classical conditioning in

  

the immune system

  

bacteria

  

sea mollusks

  

green plants

 

IncorrectQuestion 22

0 / 2 pts

In the Garcia and Koelling experiment, which of the following became associated with shock?

  

nausea

  

pain

  

bright, noisy water

  

saccharin solution

 

Question 23

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following becomes a secondary reinforcer in classical conditioning?

  

CR

  

UR

  

US

  

CS

 

 

Question 24

2 / 2 pts

Pavlov referred to stimuli that signal biologically significant events as the:

  

first signal

  

symbols

  

reinforcers

  

conditioned stimuli

 

IncorrectQuestion 25

0 / 2 pts

The opposite of generalization is:

  

irradiation

  

extinction

  

discrimination

  

conditioning

 

Question 26

2 / 2 pts

What is a problem in explaining the development of taste aversions as a classical conditioning phenomenon?

  

all of the above

  

such aversions are highly resistant to extinction

  

sometimes such aversions develop in one trial

  

the CS-US interval is too long

 

Question 27

2 / 2 pts

When a CR has been extinguished, it will often reappear if the animal is re-exposed to the original US. This is called:

  

the reminiscence effect

  

the renewal effect

  

the reinstatement effect

  

the reminder effect

 

IncorrectQuestion 28

0 / 2 pts

Which of the following exemplifies an conditioned response?

  

your mouth watering when you bite a lemon

  

withdrawing from a painful stimulus

  

squinting at the bright sun as you leave a movie theater in the middle of the afternoon

  

your mouth watering because it’s dinner time

 

Question 29

2 / 2 pts

Rescorla (1966) found that no conditioning occurs when:

  

there is no correlation between the CS and the US

  

a CS reliably predicts the US

  

a CS reliably predicts the absence of the US

  

more than one of the above

 

IncorrectQuestion 30

0 / 2 pts

If a 1600 cycle per second tone is used as a CS during conditioning, it will be found that    during a test for generalization, the CR of greatest magnitude will be given to a tone of -------------------- cycles per second.

  

1600

  

2600

  

2000

  

800

 

IncorrectQuestion 31

0 / 2 pts

Which of the following symbolizes the procedure used to develop classical conditioning?

  

US ------> CS ------> UR

  

CS ------> US ------> UR

  

UR ------> US ------>CS

  

US ------> UR ------> CS

 

Question 32

2 / 2 pts

In the study by Garcia and Koelling, which of the following became associated with nausea?

  

saccharin solution

  

bright, noisy water

  

shock

  

pain

 

IncorrectQuestion 33

0 / 2 pts

According to Kamin, conditioning continues as long as,

  

the organism attends to the US

  

the US will support additional conditioning

  

the organism is surprised by the occurrence of the US

  

a CS is paired with a US

 

Question 34

2 / 2 pts

According to Guthrie, students learn:

  

only that material that supports their biases

  

what a book or lecture causes them to do

  

only that which is challenging

  

what is in a book or lecture

 

Question 35

2 / 2 pts

There is a difference between breaking a habit and sidetracking a habit.

  

True

   

False

 

 

Question 36

2 / 2 pts

According to Guthrie, the effectiveness of punishment is determined by:

  

how much pain is involved

  

whether or not the organism understands the relationship between its behavior and the punishment

  

emotional factors

  

what it causes an organism to do and when it causes it to do it    

 

IncorrectQuestion 37

0 / 2 pts

Punishment should do the following:

  

be used as the disruptive behavior is occurring

  

two of the above

  

cause a new association to be formed

  

product undesirable behavior

 

Question 38

2 / 2 pts

According to Guthrie, if you want to learn how to fill out tax forms you should:

  

all of the above

  

study any difficult topic and you will be better able to perform on any number of difficult tasks

  

fill out tax forms

  

study mathematics

 

Question 39

2 / 2 pts

Guthrie’s position on transfer was:

  

energy in the brain spills over to neighboring areas and generalizes

  

all of the above

  

transfer occurs continuously

  

it happens in new situations because of similarity to an old situation

 

Question 40

2 / 2 pts

What explains Guthrie's lack of theoretical experimentation?

  

Principles of learning were stated in terms that were too general to be tested easily.

   

theory minimized the roles of motivation and reinforcement, the two components of most other learning theories in the 1930s and 1940s that stimulated most of the research associated with them.

   

All choices are reasons

   

Theses and dissertations of graduate students, which were often used to test other theories experimentally, were not available.

 

Page 209

 

Question 41

2 / 2 pts

According to Guthrie, which of the following had no meaning?

  

insight

  

All of the above

  

thinking

  

understanding

 

Question 42

2 / 2 pts

Guthrie would advise a student to

  

use the threshold method for studying

  

study in the room where the exam will occur

  

sidetrack the exam habit

  

take a “diversity break” before an exam

 

Question 43

2 / 2 pts

“The last thing done in the presence of a stimulus combination will be that which will be done when the stimulus combination next occurs” was Guthrie’s:

  

principle of polarity

  

principle of response by analogy

  

recency principle

  

principle of generalization

 

Question 44

2 / 2 pts

Who was able to develop a diverse body of theory and research that extended into the 1990s by using the basic ingredients of Guthrie’s position.

  

Robert D. Thorndike

   

William K. Estes

   

Ivan Pavlov

   

Jacie K. Horton

 

 

Question 45

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following best summarizes Guthrie’s theory of learning?

  

reinforcement and punishment

  

contiguity and one trial learning

  

classical conditioning and introspection

  

trial and error learning and associative shifting

 

IncorrectQuestion 46

0 / 2 pts

A student has forgotten an answer to a test question. According to Guthrie:

  

this indicates that the student never really learned the correct response

  

a new pattern of response has been learned and is interfering with the correct response -   comprehensive

  

lack of reinforced repetition has eliminated the answer from the student’s mind

  

the student’s competence is questionable

 

Question 47

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following is correctly arranged from most complex to least complex?

  

acts, movements, skills

  

movements, skills, acts

  

skills, acts, movements

  

movements, acts, skills

 

Question 48

2 / 2 pts

The essence of Guthrie’s theory is:

  

responses are learned in one trial when there is contingency between stimulus and response

  

the number of pairings of stimulus and response determines degree of learning

  

trial and error learning

  

all of the above

 

Question 49

2 / 2 pts

Maintaining stimuli that keep the organism active until a goal is reached is provided by

  

drives

  

egocentrism

  

emotions

  

intentions

 

Question 50

2 / 2 pts

Which of the following can be used to break a habit?

  

retroactive inhibition method

  

formulation of expectancies method

  

compatible response method

  

threshold method

Quiz Score: 80 out of 100

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