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Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide


Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. In more developed countries, roads are always maintained properly thereby making them even more durable, but in most developing countries roads sometimes become pathetic due to poor maintenance. This leads to them being damaged compromising their lifespan.

Roads structures are always of two major types that are rigid and flexible. (Rigid and flexible pavement design and rehabilitation.1993)1. Which are mainly divided into, open granular flexible pavement which may contain one or more tailored layers, Bound granular flexible pavement, Segmental block pavements, and Rigid pavements (concrete). Rigid structure always requires a lot of skills with special types of equipment to construct. During construction of the latter in many parts of the world, the construction companies starting from the engineers have often compromised the recommended composition of the materials used in construction. This mainly occurs either because of corruption, lack of funds to implement the paved road, and lack of appropriate skills required for building the structure.

Currently, there are few genuine engineers who specialize in the sector of civil engineering. Most people who claim this profession do not have the knowledge it takes to carry out a road construction job, yet they are always engaged in this process. This has hampered efforts by genuine engineers to come up with an appropriate plan and implement them in the pursuit of real durable and sustainable structures.

Usually, when a road is being constructed, the ground is excavated to a required depth, which will depend upon the topography of the land, firmness of the soil, and the level of the road required above the ground (Saeed& Hall, 2001 p33)2. The road will consist of the following layers.

This is the bottom layer is exposed to the ground which has been excavated. Its uppermost level is referred to as the formation. The main function of this layer is to connect other road layers to the ground.

This layer is laid in order to prevent rain and sun which causes cracking to the surface.&nbsp.

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