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Provide the appropriate vocabulary words

Earth Science

Provide the appropriate vocabulary words. Each blank represents only one word. 1) Lunar eclipses occur when the Moon and Sun are at 2) A day measures how much time it takes the Earth to complete one rotation on its axis. 3) says that if all other things are equal, the simplest scientific model is generally the best one. 4) discovered that planetary orbits are elliptical rather than circular.

5) A telescope's tells you its theoretically best possible angular resolution. 6) is what keeps a hockey puck sliding across an ice rink long after it is no longer in contact with the hockey stick that struck it. 7) Stars reach their highest altitude in the sky as they cross the 8) Adaptive optics relies on using a deformable mirror to compensate for the refraction of light in Earth's atmosphere. 9) The of a system is a measure of the average kinetic energy of its particles. 10) Earth is closest to the Sun when it reaches in its orbit. 11 ) Einstein's states that the effects of gravity are indistinguishable from the effects of an accelerating reference frame. 12) telescopes focus light using concentric, nested mirrors so that light strikes the mirrors at a grazing incidence. 13) The Moon and planets are all found near the on the celestial sphere because our solar system is rather flat.

14) The sky is blue during the day due to in Earth's atmosphere. 15) tides occur when the Moon is nearly full. Multiple Choice (15 points, 1 each) Choose the best option from those provided. 16) How did Eratosthenes estimate the size of Earth in 240 B.C.? A. By observing the duration of a solar eclipse. B. By measuring the size of Earth's shadow on the Moon during a lunar eclipse. C. By comparing the maximum altitude of the Sun in two cities at different latitudes. D. By sending fleets of ships around Earth. 17) Approximately when is a third quarter moon on your meridian? A. Midnight B. 6 am C.Noon D. 6 pm 18) Ultraviolet photons travel through space faster than infrared photons because infrared photons are less energetic than ultraviolet photons. A. True B. False

19) Suppose you live on the Moon. How long is a solar day (i.e., from sunrise to sunrise)? A. 23 hours and 56 minutes. B. 24 hours. C. 27.3 Earth days. D. 29.5 Earth days. 20) If the solar system were scaled down in size so that the Sun were as big as a cantaloupe, Neptune would be as big as: A. A cantaloupe. B. Agrape. C.Apea. D. A sesame seed. 21) As predicted by general relativity, time runs slightly faster in Los Angeles (at sea level) than in Denver (a mile above sea level). A. True B. False 22) If I could snap my ?ngers and move Earth to an orbital distance at 9 AU, what would happen to the strength of the Sun's gravitational force on Earth? A. It would become 81 times weaker. B. It would become 9 times weaker. C. It would become 9 times stronger. D. It would become 81 times stronger.

23) The largest effective telescope, created by radio interferometry, is the size of: A. Several football ?elds, in a natural depression in the landscape in Puerto Rico. B. Tens of miles across, in the deserts of New Mexico. C. The state of New Mexico. D. The continental United States. E. The Earth. 24) A 4-meter-diameter telescope has how much more light collecting area than a 1-meter—diameter telescope? A. Twice as much. B. Four times as much. C. Eight times as much. D. Sixteen times as much. 25) Kepler and Galileo practiced astrology. A. True, they practiced astrology in addition to astronomy. B. False, they were famous astronomers. 26) Which telescopes might use liquid nitrogen to keep their cameras cool during observation? A. Radio B. Ultraviolet C. Infrared D. Gamma Ray 27) When Copernicus ?rst created his Sun-centered model of the universe, it did not lead to substantially better predictions of planetary positions than the Ptolemaic model. Why not?

27) When Copernicus ?rst created his Sun-centered model of the universe, it did not lead to substantially better predictions of planetary positions than the Ptolemaic model. Why not? A. Copernicus placed the Sun at the center but did not realize that the Moon orbits Earth. B. Copernicus misjudged the speeds at which the planets orbit the Sun. C. Copernicus used perfect circles for the orbits of the planets. D. Copernicus misjudged the distances between the planets. E. Copernicus placed the planets in the wrong order going outward from the Sun. 28) As long as an object is not gaining or losing mass, a net force on the object will cause a change in its: A. Speed B. Velocity C. Acceleration D. Direction 29) If a star's spectral lines appear to be shifted to a higher frequency than expected from laboratory measurements, what can astronomers conclude? A. The star must be hotter than predicted. B. The star must be cooler than predicted. C. The star must be moving away from Earth. D. The star must be moving towards Earth. E. The star must be rotating.

30) Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus proved that it must orbit the Sun. When we see Venus in its full phase, what phase would Earth be in as seen by a hypothetical Venetian? A. New B. First Quarter C. Full D. Third Quarter

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