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#### 1) In a coin-tossing experiment where N = 144 and P (probability) =

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1) In a coin-tossing experiment where N = 144 and P (probability) = .50, draw the curve depicting the distribution of probable outcomes of heads appearing for an i finite number of repetitions of this experiment. Indicate the number of heads for the mean, and at 1, 2, and 3 standard deviations from the mean, both positive and negative .

2) If five points were added to each score in a distribution, how would this change each of the following: a. the range

b. the mean

c. the median

d. the mode

e. the variance

f. the standard deviation

3) A) The distribution with the larger range is the distribution with the larger standar deviation. Do you agree or disagree? Why? B) Joan Brown ranked 27th in a graduating class of 367. What was her percentile r nk?

4) A) More than half the families in a community can have an annual income that is lower than the mean income for that community. Do you agree or disagree? Why? B) The median is the midpoint between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution. Do you agree or disagree? Why?

5) Statisticians and liars are often equated in humorous quips. There is little doubt that statistical processes can be used to prove nearly anything tha one sets out to prove if the procedures used are inappropriate. Starting with false assumptions, using inappropriate procedures, or omitting relevant data , the biased investigator can arrive at false conclusions. These conclusions are ften particularly dangerous because of the authenticity that the statistical reatment seems to confer. Of course, intentionally using inappropriate proce ures or omitting relevant data constitutes unethical behavior and is quite rare .

Distortion may be deliberate or unintentional. In research, omitting certain facts or choosing only those facts favorable to one's position is as culpable as actua distortion, which has no place in research. The reader must always try to evaluat the manipulation of data, particularly when the report seems to be persuasive.

6) The conclusions derived from statistical analysis will be no more accur te or valid than the original data. To use an analogy, no matter how elaborat the mixer, a cake made of poor ingredients will be a poor cake. All the refine ent of elaborate statistical manipulation will not yield significant truths if the data result from crude or inexact measurement. In computer terminology t is is known as GI-GO, "garbage in-garbage out."

7) What types of validity are necessary for each of the following types of tests: teacher designed test of achievement; standardized measure of achievement; projective test (e.g., Rorschach); IQ test?