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Homework answers / question archive / The project should have at least 1000-words of substance not counting the cover and reference page

The project should have at least 1000-words of substance not counting the cover and reference page

Writing

The project should have at least 1000-words of substance not counting the cover and reference page. Please include a Cover Page, an abstract and a list of references. 

Each student will be required to complete a research proposal, as the term project. The research proposal will include the following:

• Title page

• Abstract (100-120 words)

• Introduction

• Hypothesis/Problem Statement/Purpose Statement

• Literature Review and Definitions included in research

• Research methods/design

• References

• Appendices - as needed (annotated bibliography)

Students will be required to use at least five scholarly references in their work.

Students are required to follow APA Style guidelines. 

 

TOPIC/Working Title: 

Crime Theory: Examining Preconception of Illegal Immigration and Crime

Running head: Crime Theory: Examining Preconception of Illegal Immigration and Crime 1

Crime Theory: Examining Preconception of Illegal Immigration and Crime 5

Annotated Bibliography

Name

SSGS300

21 June 2020

Light, M. T., & Miller, T. (2018). Does Undocumented Immigration Increase Violent Crime?: Undocumented Immigration and Violent Crime. Criminology, 56(2), 370–401. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9125.12175

Michael investigates whether undocumented immigration promotes an increase in violent crime. According to him, there are fewer studies that demonstrate the impact of undocumented immigration. Therefore, the fundamental question of whether undocumented immigration influences the increase in violent crime is still unanswered. The article combines recent data sources of the unauthorized population in about 50 states of the United States to analyze the relationship between undocumented immigration and violent crime. The results from the demographic context of the states concluded that undocumented immigration does not increase violent crime. The negative correlation is not significant in all specifications.

Furthermore, the author was not satisfied with the results obtained from the data sources of the unauthorized population of the 50 states in the U.S. Michael used victimization data and instrumental variable model to determine the relationship between undocumented immigration and violent crime across United States. The supplementary victimization data model and instrumental model demonstrate that the negative relationship between undocumented immigration and violence is due to selective migration to avoid crime. This is also caused by an increase in immigration enforcement in recent years.

Though the relationship between undocumented immigration and violence is negative, the author treats the results with caution and have identified avenues that can be used for future research. However, undocumented immigration and violence vary from one state to another. The study should be extended to analyze undocumented immigration across different contexts. This will align with the current effort to determine the relationship between Latino immigration and crime in communities in which they settle.

Bersani, B. E., & Piquero, A. R. (2017). Examining Systematic Crime Reporting Bias Across Three Immigrant Generations: Prevalence, Trends, and Divergence in Self-Reported and Official Reported Arrests. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 33(4), 835–857. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-016-9314-9

The article investigates whether the foreign-born, first-generation immigrants have lower crime engagement compared to their American-born, second- plus-generation peers. The study test crime reporting bias among first and second-plus generation immigrants to examine whether the finding will be influenced by differential crime reporting practices. The research obtained data from serious adolescent offenders. Moreover, the self-reported and official reports of the arrest of adjudicated adolescent males and females were compared.

The study demonstrated that there was significant correspondence between self-reported and official reports of arrest when a comparison is done within the immigrant group. Most studies have revealed a lower offending pattern among foreign-born, first generation immigrants as compared to their American-born colleagues. Although crime reporting biases impact all demographic groups, there is a heightened reporting bias among the foreign-born, first-generation immigrants.

The finding of the study contributes to immigrant crime and crime reporting differences across the group. The research utilized different data sources and sampling frame to conclude that foreign-born, first generation immigrants do not pose a threat in terms of crime involvement. The article demonstrates that the lower crime involvement of foreign-born immigrants is not the result of heightened crime reporting biases. Divergence in reporting practices has an impact on foreign-born, first-generation immigrants.

Johnson, K. (2015). A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Federal Prosecution of Immigration Crimes. Denver University Law Review, 92(4), 863–.

According to Johnson, immigration crimes account for the most prosecuted federal crimes in America. In 2014, immigration crime account for 56.5 percent of all prosecuted crimes in the U.S. The study determined the benefit of prosecution of immigration crime against the cost of such prosecution. Johnson concluded that deportation after conviction of immigration crime is a beneficial system and significantly minimizes the associated expenses. The article evaluates the increasing trend of immigration crime prosecution by weighing the benefits and costs of prosecution.

According to the article, deporting offenders after conviction is one way that the country can enjoy the benefit of prosecuting immigration crimes while cutting down on significant costs. Few foreign individuals will have a defense to their deportation following a conviction of a federal crime. Even though deportation separates individual from society just like incarceration; however, it is a cheaper method that can be used by the government. The benefits of prosecuting immigration crimes include the provision of training for federal prosecutors to handle complex cases, deter others by increasing consequences for offenders, and expressing the seriousness of illegal immigration.

On the other hand, the cost of prosecuting immigration crimes includes increased courthouse costs, alternative prosecution costs, and incarceration costs. However, the finding does not encourage reducing prosecution of immigration crimes, or elimination of prosecution of immigration crime. The study advocate for the deportation of offenders after conviction.

O’Brien, B., Collingwood, L., & El-Khatib, S. (2019). The Politics of Refuge: Sanctuary Cities, Crime, and Undocumented Immigration. Urban Affairs Review, 55(1), 3–40. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087417704974

The article investigates the relationship between sanctuary cities and post hoc increases in crime. Sanctuary city expressly forbids police officers from inquiring about the immigration status of an individual. The study finds no differences in violent crimes across cities with sanctuary policies and those with no sanctuary policies. The finding demonstrates that sanctuary policies are not associated with crimes despite contrary claims. Therefore, the benefits of the sanctuary community, such as the incorporation of undocumented immigrants and cooperation with police, have a low disadvantage in terms of crime involvement.

The findings of the research have normative democratic impacts. Sanctuary policies are not a problem in terms of crime. According to the study, most research show an inverse relationship between immigration and criminality. The most argument of politicians about the link of legal immigration to crime is not valid as it is not supported by empirical studies. The finding of the study is that sanctuary policies do not cause an increase in crime. Therefore, sanctuary policy should be enhanced because it protects people. The sanctuary policy will incorporate Latino and other immigrants to promote democratic polity. The article is essential in understanding the relationship between sanctuary policies and an increase in crime. I will use the article to support my argument of enhancing sanctuary policies in sanctuary cities.

References

Bersani, B. E., & Piquero, A. R. (2017). Examining Systematic Crime Reporting Bias Across Three Immigrant Generations: Prevalence, Trends, and Divergence in Self-Reported and Official Reported Arrests. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 33(4), 835–857. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-016-9314-9

Johnson, K. (2015). A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Federal Prosecution of Immigration Crimes. Denver University Law Review, 92(4), 863–.

Light, M., & Miller, T. (2018). Does Undocumented Immigration Increase Violent Crime?: Undocumented Immigration and Violent Crime. Criminology, 56(2), 370–401. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9125.12175

O’Brien, B., Collingwood, L., & El-Khatib, S. (2019). The Politics of Refuge: Sanctuary Cities, Crime, and Undocumented Immigration. Urban Affairs Review, 55(1), 3–40. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087417704974

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