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1.   Sampling error refers to



 A. differences between the sample     statistics and the population's parameters caused by random fluctuations     inherent in the sampling process.


B. error created by systematic variance.


C. differences between the results of a     census and the population's parameters.


D. bias caused by using a poor sample     frame.


2.   An instrument designer can   counteract biases arising from primacy and recency effects by



A. including questions designed to measure     a participant's susceptibility to order bias.


B. providing another option in the     response choices.


C. randomizing the question order.


D. using the     split-ballot technique.



3.       In a study of college search behaviors among the families of     college-bound high school students, the search behaviors are very different     from family to family. In the situation described, which guideline below best     explains why the researcher will use a larger sample size?



A. The greater       the variance within the population, the larger the sample should be.


B. The higher the level of confidence in       the estimate, the larger the sample must be.


C. The greater the desired precision of       the estimate, the larger the sample should be.


D. The greater the number of subgroups       of interest within a sample, the larger the sample must be.


4.       The list of elements in a population from which the sample is     actually drawn is known as the



A. population extent.


B. sample frame.


C. sampling base.


D. database.


5.       Estimates of precision are possible with _______ samples.



A. quota


B. judgment


C. nonprobability


D. probability


6.       Which of the following terms refers to a learned, stable     predisposition to respond to oneself, other persons, objects, or issues in     a consistently favorable or unfavorable way?



A. Construct


B. Personality trait


C. Opinion


 D. Attitude


7.       In which of the following situations should a study's objective be     disguised?



A. When requesting willingly shared,       conscious-level information


B. When       requesting reluctantly shared, conscious-level information


C. When requesting knowable,       conscious-level information


D. When the study's objective is       unlikely to affect the participants' responses


8.       The ordinal measurement scale



A. can be grouped into two or more       categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive.


B. provides for an absolute zero, or       origin.


C. includes a fixed or equal interval.


 D. includes an       indication of order or sequence.


9.       Which type of scale is used when participants place cards into piles     using criteria established by the researcher?



A. Sorting


B. Rating


C. Ranking


D. Categorization


10.       _____ describes how scores cluster or scatter in a distribution.



A. Mode


B. Median


C. Mean


 D. Dispersion


11.       Brittany is developing a sampling plan for a study of alcohol     consumption among college students at Metro University. She wants to ensure     that students from each class level are represented. She also wants to be     able to compare students who are members of Greek organizations to     non-Greeks. Finally, she wants to consider patterns by gender. Brittany     plans to cross-reference Metro University's student directory with     membership lists from each Greek organization on campus to develop a     sampling frame. What type of sampling method should Brittany use?



A. Stratified


B. Cluster


C. Simple random


D. Systematic


12.   Choosing between the questions   "Do you think the distribution of soft drinks is adequate?"   (incorrect) and "Do you think soft drinks are readily available when you   want to buy them?" (correct) is an example of



 A. ensuring the right frame of     reference.


B. presuming knowledge.


C. avoiding leading questions.


D. avoiding biased words.


13.   _______ sampling selects every kth   element, using a random starting point.



A. Stratified


B. Proportional stratified


C. Systematic


D. Area


14.   In a _______ measurement scale   the responses fall into a pattern in which endorsement of an extreme item   results in endorsing all items that are less extreme.



A. unidimensional


B. summated rating


C. semantic differential


D. cumulative


15.   The term _______ validity refers   to the degree to which a measuring instrument provides adequate coverage of   the questions in the study.



A. construct


B. internal


C. content


D. criterion-related



16.       In a survey of football fans, each respondent is asked to indicate     whether he or she has ever attended an NFL game. This question can be     categorized as a/an _______ scale.



A. nominal


B. ordinal


C. ratio


D. interval


17.       Which of the following goals should a good survey instrument     accomplish?



A. Encourage participants to be succinct       in their responses


B. Encourage participants to end the       survey when they feel they've contributed enough information


C. Encourage participants to answer only       those questions they're comfortable answering


 D. Encourage each participant to       provide accurate responses


18.       A _______ scale measures the psychological meanings of an attitude     object using bipolar adjectives.



A. constant-sum


B. semantic       differential


C. Stapel


D. summated rating


19.   Which of the following statements   is true concerning the applicability of attitudes in understanding   behavior?



 A. Cognitive attitudes influence     behavior better than affective-based attitudes.


B. Behavior is affected equally by those     attitudes formed via social learning and those formed via behavioral     learning.


C. A single, global measure of attitude is     necessary to predict behavior.


D. General attitudes are the best     predictors of behavior.


20.   An attitude scale that correctly forecasts   the outcome of a purchase decision has _______ validity.



A. discriminant


B. concurrent


C.     predictive


D. content

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