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Homework answers / question archive / Please complete the questions from the text book (6th edition): 1
Please complete the questions from the text book (6th edition): 1.7, 1.14, 1.17, 1.21, 1.24, 1.29, 1.39, 1.42, 2.3, 2.13, 2.19, 2.26, 4.9, 4.15, 4.16
CHAPTER 1 Foundations of Engineering Economy
PROBLEMS Basic Concepts 1.1 What is meant by the term time value of money?
1.2 List three intangible factors.
1.3 (a) what is meant by evaluation criterion?
(b) What is the primary evaluation criterion used in economic analysis?
1.4 List three evaluation criteria besides the economic one for selecting the best restaurant.
1.5 Discuss the importance of identifying alternatives in the engineering economic process.
1.6 What is the difference between simple and compound interest?
1.7 What is meant by minimum attractive rate NJ of return?
1.8 What is the difference between debt and equity financing? Give an example of each.
Interest Rate and Rate of Return
1.9 Trucking giant Yellow Corp agreed to purchase rival Roadway for $966 million in order to reduce socalled backoffice costs (e.g., payroll and insurance) by $45 million per year. If the savings were realized as planned, what would be the rate of return on the investment?
1.10 If Ford Motor Company's profits increased from 22 cents per share to 29 cents per share in the April—June quarter compared to the previous quarter, what was the rate of increase in profits for that quarter? 1.11 A broadband service company borrowed $2 million for new equipment and repaid the principal of the loan plus $275,000
Interest after 1 year. What was the interest rate on the loan?
1.12 A designbuild engineering firm completed a pipeline project wherein the company realized a profit of $2.3 million in 1 year. If the amount of money the company had invested was $6 million, what was the rate of return on the investment?
1.13 US Filter received a contract for a small water desalting plant whereby the company expected to make a 28% rate of return on its investment. If the company invested $8 million in equipment the first year, what was the amount of the profit in that year? 1.14 A publicly traded construction company reported that it just paid off a loan that it received 1 year earlier. If the total amount of money the company paid was $1.6 million and the interest rate on the loan was 10% per year, how much money did the company borrow 1 year ago? 1.15 A startup chemical company has established a goal of making at least a 35% per year rate of return on its investment. If the company acquired $50 million in venture capital, how much did it have to earn in the first year?
Equivalence 1.16 At an interest rate of 8% per year, $10,000 today is equivalent to how much (a) 1 year from now and (b) 1 year ago? 1.17 A mediumsize consulting engineering \/ firm is trying to decide whether it should replace its office furniture now or wait and do it 1 year from now. If it waits 1 year, the cost is expected to be $16,000. At an interest rate of 10% per year, what would be the equivalent cost now?
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1.18 An investment of $40,000 one year ago and $50,000 now are equivalent at what interest rate?
1.19 At what interest rate would $100,000 now be equivalent to $80,000 one year ago?
Simple and Compound Interest
1.20 Certain certificates of deposit accumulate interest at 10% per year simple interest. If a company invests $240,000 now in these certificates for the purchase of a new machine 3 years from now, how much will the company have at the end of the 3year period? I.21 /A local bank is offering to pay compound V interest of 7% per year on new savings accounts. An ebank is offering 7.5% per year simple interest on a 5year certificate of deposit. Which offer is more attractive to a company that wants to set aside $1.000, 000 now for a plant expansion 5 years from now? 1.22 Badger Pump Company invested 8500.000 five years ago in a new product line that is now worth $1.000, 000. What rate of return did the company earn (a) on a simple interest basis and (6) on a compound interest basis?
1.23 How long will it take for an investment to double at 5% per year (a) simple interest and (b) compound interest?
1.24 A company that manufactures regenerative thermal oxidizers made an investment 10 years ago that is now worth $1,300,000. How much was the initial investment at an interest rate of 15% per year (a) simple interest and (b) compound interest?
1.25 Companies frequently borrow money under an arrangement that requires them to make periodic payments 4 (only interest and then pay the principal of the loan all at once. A company that manufactures odor control chemicals borrowed $400.000 for 3 years at 10% per year compound interest under such an arrangement. What is the difference in the total amount paid between this arrangement (identified as plan I) and plan 2, in which the company makes no interest payments until the loan is due and then pays it off in one lump sum?
1.26 A company that manufactures inline mixas for bulk manufacturing is considering borrowing $1.75 million to update a production line. If it borrows the money now, it can do so at an interest rate of 7.5% per year simple interest for 5 years. If it borrows next year, the interest rate will be 8% per year compound interest, but it will be for only 4 years. (a) How much interest (total) will be paid under each scenario. and (b) should the company borrow now or I year from now? Assume the total amount due will be paid when the loan is due in either case.
Symbols and Spreadsheets
1.27 Define the symbols involved when a construction company wants to know how much money it can spend 3 years from now in lieu of spending $50,000 now to purchase a new truck, when the compound interest rate is 15% per year.
1.28 State the purpose for each of the following builtin Excel functions:
(a) FV(i%,nd 4.p)
(a) FV(i%,n,A,P)
(b) IRR(First_cell: Last_cell)
(c ) PMT(i%,n,P,F)
(d) PV)(i%n,A,F)
1.29 What are the values of the engineering economy symbols P, F, A, i. and n in the following Excel functions? Use a ? for the symbol that is to be determined.
(a) FV(7%,10,5000,9000)
(b) PMT (11%,20,14000)
(c)PV(8%,15,1000,800)
130 Write the engineering economy symbol that corresponds to each of the following Excel functions. (a) PV
(b) PMT
(c) NPER
(d) IRR
(e) FV
1.31 In a builtin Excel function, If a certain parameter does not apply, under what circumstances can it be left blank? When must a comma be entered in its place?
MARR and Cost of Capital
1.32 Identify each of the following as either a safe investment or a risky one.
(a) New restaurant business
(b) Savings account in a bank
(c) Certificate of deposit
(d) Government bond
(e) Relatives "getrichquick" idea
1.33 Identify each of the following as either equity or debt financing.
(a) Money from savings
(b) Money from a certificate of deposit
(c) Money from a relative who is a partner in the business
(d) Bank loan
(e) Credit card
1.34 Rank the following from highest to lowest rate of return or interest rate: government bond, corporate bond, credit card, bank loan to new business, interest on checking account.
1.35 Rank the following from highest to lowest interest rate: cost of capital, acceptable rate of return on a risky investment, minimum attractive rate of return, rate of return on a safe investment, interest on checking account, interest on savings account.
1.36 Five separate projects have calculated rates of return of 8. 11, 12.4, 14, and 19% per year. An engineer wants to know which projects to accept on the basis of rate of return. She learns from the finance department that company funds, which have a cost of capital of 18% per year are commonly used to fund 25% of all capital projects. Later, she is told that borrowed money is currently costing 10% per year if the MARR is established at exactly the weighted average cost of capital, which projects should she accept?
Cash Flows
1.37 What is meant by the end of period convention?
1.38 Identify the following as cash inflows or outflows to DaimlerChrysler income taxes, loan interest, salvage value, rebates to dealers, sales revenues, accounting services, coat reductions.
1.39 Construct a cash flow diagram for the following cash flows: $10,000 outflow at time zero, $33030 per year outflow in years 1 through 3 and $9000 inflow in years 4 through 8 at an interest rate of 10% per year, and an unknown future amount in year 8.
1.40 Construct a cash flow diagram to find the present worth of a future outflow 01 $40,000 in year 5 at an interest rate of 15% per year.
Doubling the Value
1.41 Use the rule of 72 to estimate the time i would take for an initial investment $10.000 to accumulate to $20.000 at: compound rate of 8% per year.
1.42 Estimate the time it would take (according to the rule of 72) for money to quadruple in value at a compound interest rate 9% per year.
(b) Since than is no A = $550 in year 5, the F/ A factor cannot be used_ The relation F = 550(F/A,I,4) would furnish the future worth in year 4, out year 5.
(c) The first gradient amount G  $100 occurs in year 3. Use of the relation P_{g}  100(P/G,i%,4) will compute P_{G} in year 1, not year 0. (The present wash of the base amount of $1000 is not included here) (d) The receipt values are unequal: thus the relation F= A (F/A,I,3) cannot be used to compute F.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Formulas and factors derived and applied in this chapter perform equivalence calculations for present, future, annual, and gradient cash flows. Capability in using these formulas and their standard notation manually and with spreadsheets is critical to complete an engineering economy study. Using these formulas and spreadsheet functions, you can convert single cash flows into uniform cash flows,gradients into present worth’s, and much more. You can solve for rate of return i or time it. A thorough understanding of how to manipulate cash flows using the material in this chapter will help you address financial questions in professional practice as well as in everyday living.
PROBLEMS
Use of interest Tables
2.1 Find the correct numerical value for the following factors from the interest tables.
I. (F/P, 8%.25)
2. (P/A, 4, 3%,8)
3. (P/G, 9%,20)
4. (F/A.15%, 18)
5. (A/P,30% ,15)
Determination of F, P, and A
2.2 The U.S. Border Patrol is considering the purchase of a new helicopter for aerial surveillance of the New MexicoTexas border with Mexico. A similar helicopter was purchased 4 years ago at a cost of $140,000. At an interest rate of 7% per year, what would be the equivalent value today of that $140,000 expenditure?
2.3 Pressure Systems, Inc., manufactures highaccuracy liquidlevel transducers. It is investigating whether it should update certain equipment now or wait to do it later. If the cost now is $200,000, what will the equivalent amount be 3 years from now at an interest rate of 10% per year?
2.4 Petroleum Products. Inc., is a pipeline company that provides petroleum products to wholesalers in the northern United States and Canada. The company is considering purchasing insertion turbine flow meters to allow for better monitoring of pipeline integrity. If these meters would prevent one major disruption (through early detection of product loss) valued at $600,000 four years from now, how much could the company afford to spend now at an interest rate of 12% per year?
2.5 Sensotech Inc., a maker of micro electro mechanical systems, believes it can reduce product recalls by 10% if it purchases new software for detecting faulty parts. The cost of the new software is $225,000 (a) How much would the company have to save each year 4 years to recover its investment if it uses a minimum attractive rate of return of 15% per year? (b) What was the cost of recalls per year before the software was purchased if the company did exactly recover its investment in 4 years from the 10% reduction?
2.6 Thompson Mechanical Products is planning to set aside $150,000 now for possibly replacing its large synchronous refiner motors whenever it becomes necessary. If the replacement isn't needed for 7 years, how much will the company have in its investment setaside account if it achieves a rate of return of 18% per year?
2.7 French car maker Renault signed a $75 million contract with ABB of Zurich, Switzerland, for automated underbody assembly lines, body assembly workshops, and fine control systems. If ABB will be paid in 2 years (when the systems am ready), what is the present worth of the contract at 18% per year interest?
2.8 Atlas LongHaul Transportation is considering installing Valutemp temperature loggets in all of its refrigerated trucks for monitoring temperatures during transit. If the systems will reduce insurance claims by $100,000 two years from now, how much should the company be willing to spend now if it uses an interest rate of 12% per year?
2.9 GE Marine Systems is planning to supply a Japanese shipbuilder with aeroderivative gas turbines to power II DDclass destroyers for the Japanese SelfDefense Force. The buyer can pay the total contract price of $1,700,000 now or an equivalent amount 1 year from now (when the turbines will be needed). At an interest rate of 18% per year. What is the equivalent future amount?
2.10 What is the present worth of a future cost of $162,000 to Corning, Inc., 6 years from now at an an interest rate of 12% per year?
2.11 How much could Cryogenics Inc., a maker of superconducting magnetic energy storage systems, afford to spend now on new equipment in lieu of spending $125,000 five years from now if the company's rate of return is 14% per year?
2.12 VTek Systems is a manufacturer of vertical compactors, and it is examining its cash flow requirements for the next 5 years. The company expects to replace office machines and computer equipment at various times over the 5year planning period. Specifically, the company expects to spend $9000 two years from now, $8000 three years from now, and $5000 five years from now. What is the present worth of the planned expenditures at an interest rate of 10% per year?
2.13 A proximity sensor attached to the tip of an endoscope could reduce risks during eye surgery by alerting surgeons to the location of critical retinal tissue. If a certain eye surgeon expects that by using this technology, he will avoid lawsuits of $1.25 and $0.5 million 2 and 5 years from now, respectively, how much could he afford to spend now if his outofpocket costs for the lawsuits would be only 10% of the mat amount of each suit? Use an interest rate of 8% per year.
2.14 The current cost of liability insurance for a certain consulting firm is $65,000. If the insurance cost is expected to increase by 4% each year, what will be the cost 5 years from now?
2.15 American Gas Products manufactures a device called a CanEmitor that empties the contents of old aerosol cans in 2 to 3 seconds. This eliminates having to dispose of the cans as hazardous wastes. If a certain paint company can save $75,000 per year in waste disposal costs, how much could the company afford to spend now on the CanEmitor if it wants to recover its investment in 3 years at an interest rate of 20% per year?
2.16 Atlantic Metals and Plastic uses austenitic nickelchromium alloys to manufacture resistance heating wire. The company is considering a new annealingdrawing process to reduce costs. If the new process will cost 51.8 million now, how much must be saved each year to recover the investment in 6 years at an interest rate of 12%per year?
2.17 A green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, can produce hydrogen when temporarily deprived of sulfur for up to 2 days at a time a small company needs to purchase equipment costing $3.4 million to commercialize the process. If the company wants to earn a rate of return of 20% per year and recover it investments in 8 years, what must be the net value of the hydrogen produced each year?
2.18How much money could RTT Environmental services borrow to finance a site reclamation project if it expects revenues of $280,000 per year over a 5year cleanup period? Expenses associated with the project art expected to be $90,000 per year. Assume the interest rate is 10% per year.
2 19 Western Playland and Aquatics Park spends $75,000 each year in consulting services for ride inspection. New actuator element technology enables engineers to simulate complex computercontrolled movements in any direction. How much could the amusement park afford to spend now on the new technology if the annual consulting services will no longer be needed? Assume the park uses an interest rate of 15% per year and it wants to recover its investment in 5 years.
2.20 Under an agreement with the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) Association, SBC Communications reduced the price it charges ISPs to resell its highspeed digital subscriber line (DSL) service from $458 to $360 per year per customer line. A particular ISR which has 20,000 customers, plans to pass 90% of the savings along to its customers. What is the total future worth of these savings over a 5year horizon at an interest rate of 8% per year?
2.21 To improve crack detection in aircraft, the U.S. Air Force combined ultrasonic inspection procedures with laser heating to identify fatigue cracks. Early detection of cracks may reduce repair costs by as much as $200,000 per year. What is the present worth of these savings over a 5year period at an interest rate of 10% per year?
2.22 A recent engineering graduate passed the FE exam and was given a raise (beginning in year 1) of 8% per year. What is the present value of the $2000 per year over the expected 35 year career?
2.23 Southwestern Moving and Storage wants to have enough money to purchase a new tractortrailer in 3 years. If the unit will cost $250,000, how much should the company set aside each year if the account earns 9% per year?
2.24 Vision Technologies, Inc., is a small company that uses ultrawideband technology to develop devices that can detect objects (including people) inside buildings, behind walls, or below ground. The company expects to spend $100,000 per year for labor and $125,000 per year for supplies before a product can be marketed. At an interest rate of 15% per year, what is the total equivalent future amount of the company's expenses at the end of 3 years?
Factor Values
2.25 Find the numerical value of the following factors by (a) interpolation and (b) using the appropriate formula.
1. (P/F, 18%, 33)
2. (A/G), 12%, 54)
2.26 Find the numerical value of the following factors by (a) interpolation and (b) using the appropriate formula. I. (F/A, 19%, 20) 2. (P/A, 26%, 15)
Arithmetic Gradient
2.27 A cash flow sequence starts in year 1 at $3000 and decreases by $200 each year through year 10. (a) Determine the value of the gradient G; (b) determine the amount of cash flow in year 8; and (c) determine the value of n for the gradient.
2.28 Cisco Systems expects sales to be described by the cash flow sequence (6000 + 5k), where k is in years and cash flow is in millions. Determine (a) the value of the gradient G; (b) the amount of cash flow in year 6; and (c) the value of n for the gradient if the cash flow ends in year 12.
2.29 For the cash flow sequence that starts in year 1 and is described by 900 — 100k, where k represents years 1 through 5, (a) determine the value of the gradient G and (b) determine the cash flow in year 5.
2.30 Omega Instruments has budgeted $300,000 per year to pay for certain ceramic parts over the next 5 years. If the company expects the cost of the parts to increase uniformly according to an arithmetic gradient of $10,000 per year, what is it expecting the cost to be in year 1, if the interest rate is 10% per year?
2.31 ChevronTexaco expects receipts from a group of stripper wells (wells that produce less than 10 barrels per day) to decline according to an arithmetic gradient of $50,000 per yea: This year's receipts are expected to be $280,000 (i.e., end of year 1), and the company expects the useful life of the wells to be 5 years. (a) What is the amount of the cash flow in year 3, and (b) what is the equivalent uniform annual worth in years 1 through 5 of the income from the wells at an interest rate of 12% per year?
2.32 Income from cardboard recycling at Fort Bliss has been increasing at a constant rate of $1000 in each of the last 3 years. If this year's income (i.e., end of year 1) is expected to be $4000 and the increased income trend continues through year 5, (a) what will the income be 3 years from now (i.e., end of year 3) and (b) what is the present worth of the income over that 5year period at an interest rate of 10% per year?
2.42 Hughes Cable Systems plans to offer its employees a salary enhancement package that has revenue sharing as its main component. Specifically, the company will set aside 1% of total sales for yearend bonuses for all its employees. The sales are expected to be $5 million the first year, $6 million the second year, and amounts increasing by 20% cash year for the next 5 years. At an interest rate of 10% per year. What is the equivalent annual worth in years 1 through 5 of the bonus package?
2.43 Determine how much money would be in a savings account that started with a deposit of $2000 in year 1 with each succeeding amount increasing by 10% per year. Use an interest rate of 15% per year and a 7year period.
2.44 The future worth in year 10 of a geometric gradient series of cash flows was found to be $80,000. If the interest rate was 15% per year and the annual rate of increase was 9% per year. What was the cash flow amount in year 1?
2.45 Thomasville Furniture Industries offers several types of highperformance fabrics that are capable of withstanding chemicals as harsh as chlorine. A certain midwestern manufacturing company that uses fabric in several products has a report showing that the present worth of fabric purchases over a certain 5year period was $900,000. If the costs were known to geometrically increase by 5% per year during that time and the company used an interest rate of 15% per year for investments, what was the cost of the fabric in year 2?
2.46 Find the present worth of a series of investments that starts at $1000 in year I and increases by 10% per year for 20 years. Assume the interest rate is 10% per year.
2.47 A northern California consulting firm wants to start saving money for replacement of network servers. If the company invests $3000 at the end of year 1 and increases the amount invested by 5% each year, How much will be in the account 4 years from now if it cams interest at a rate of 8% per year?
2.48 A company that manufactures purgable hydrogen sulfide monitors is planning to make deposits such that each one is 5% larger than the preceding one. How large must the first deposit be (at the end of year 1) if the deposits extend through year 10 and the fourth deposit is $1250? Use an interest rate of 10% per year.
Interest Rate and Rate of Return
2.49 What compound interest rate per year is equivalent to a 12% per year simple interest rate over a 15year period?
2.50 A publicly traded consulting engineering firm pays a bonus to each engineer at the end of the year based on the company's profit for that year. If the company's initial investment was $1.2 million, what rate of return has it made on its investment if each engineer's bonus has been $3000 per year for the past 10 years? Assume the company has six engineers and that the bonus money represents 5% of the company's profit.
2.51 Damon Iron Works, Inc., manufactures angular contact ball bearings for pumps that operate in harsh environments. If the company invested $2.4 million in a process that resulted in profits of $760,000 per year for 5 years, what rate of return did the company make on its investment?
2.52 An investment of $600,000 increased to $1,000,000 over a 5year period. What was the rate of return on the investment?
233 A small company that specializes in powder coating expanded its building and purchased a new oven that is large enough to handle automobile frames. The building and oven cost $125.000, but new business from hotrodder has increased annual income by $520,000. If operating expenses for gas, materials, labor, etc., amount to $470,000 per years, what rate of return will be made on the investment if only the cash flows that occur over the next 4 years are included in the calculation?
2.54 The business plan for a startup company that manufactures multigas portable detectors showed equivalent annual cash flows of $400,000 for the first 5 years. If the cash flow in year I was $320,000 and the increase thereafter was $50,000 per year, what interest rate was used in the calculation?
2.55 A new company that makes mediumvoltage soft starters spent $85,000 to build a new website. Net income was $60,000 the first year, increasing by $15,000 each year. What rate of return did the company make in its first 5 years?
Number of Years
2.56 A company that manufactures plastic control valves has a fund for equipment replacement that contains $500,000 if the company spends $75.000 per year on new equipment, how many years will it take to reduce the fund to less than $75,000 at an interest rate of 10% per year?
2.57 An A&E firm is considering purchasing the building it currently occupies under a longterm lease because the owner of the building suddenly put it up for sale. The building is being offered at a price of $170,000. Since the lease is already paid for this year, the next annual lease payment of $30,000 isn't due until the end of this year. Because the A&E firm has been a good tenant, the owner has offered to sell to them for $160,000. If the firm purchases the building with no down payment, how long will it be before the company recovers its investment at an interest rate of 12% per year?
2.58 An engineer who invested very well plans to retire now because she has $2,000,000 in her ORP account. How long will she be able to withdraw $100,000 per year (beginning I year from now) if her account earns interest at a mate of 4% per year?
2.59 A company that manufactures ultrasonic wind sensors invested $1.5 million 2 years ago to acquire pan ownership in an innovative chipmaking company. How long would it take (from the date of the initial investment) for its share of the chip company to be worth $3 million if that company is growing at a rate of 20% per year?
2.60 A certain mechanical engineer plans 10 retire when he has $1.6 million in his brokerage account. If he started with $100,000 in the account, how long will it be (from the time he started) before he can retire if the account makes a rate of return of 18% per year?
From one year (or interest period) to the next, interest rates will very. To accurately perform equivalence calculations for P and A when rates vary signifycantly, the applicable interest rate should be used, not an average or constant rate. Whether performed by hand or by computer, the procedures and factors are the same as those for constant interest rates; however, the number of calculations increases.
PROBLEMS
Nominal and Effective Rates
4.1 Identify the compounding period for the following interest statements: (a) 1% per month; (b) 2.5% per quarter, and (c) 9.3% per year compounded semiannually.
4.2 Identify the compounding period for the following interest statements: (a) Nominal 7% per year compounded quarterly: (b) effective 6.8% per year compounded monthly; and (c) effective 3.4% per quarter compounded weekly.
4.3 Determine the number of times interest would be compounded in 1 year for the following interest statements: (a) 1% per month; (6)2% per quarter, and (c) 8% per year compounded semiannually.
4.4 For an interest rate of 10% per year compounded quarterly, determine the number of times interest would be compounded (a) per quarter. (b) Per year, and (c) per 3 years.
4.5 For an interest rate of 0.50% per quarto, determine the nominal interest rate per (a) semiannual period. (b) year, and (c) 2 years.
4.6 For an interest rate of 12% pa year compounded every 2 months, determine the nominal interest rate per (a) 4 months, (6) 6 months, and (c) 2 years.
4.7 For an interest rate of 10% per year, compounded quarterly, determine the nominal rate per (a) 6 months and (6) 2 years.
4.8 Identify the following interest rate statements as either nominal or effective: (0)1.3% per month; (b) 1% per week, compounded weekly; (c)nominal 15% per year, compounded monthly; (c) effective 1.5% per month, compounded daily; and (r)15% per year, compounded semiannually.
4.9 What effective interest rate per 6 months is equivalent to 14% per year, compounded semiannually? 4.10 An interest rate of 16% per year, compounded quarterly, is equivalent to what effective interest rate per year?
4.11 What nominal interest rate per year is equivalent to an effective 16% per year, compounded semiannually?
4.12 What effective interest rate per year is equivalent to an effective 18% per year, compounded semiannually?
4.13 What compounding period is associated with nominal and effective rates of 18% and 18.81% per year, respectively?
4.14 An interest rate of 1% per month is equivalent to what effective rate per 2 months?
4.15 An interest rate of 12% per year, compounded monthly, is equivalent to what nominal and effective interest rates per 6 months?
4.16 (a) an interest rate of 6.8% per semiannual period compounded weekly, is equivalent to what weekly interest rate?
(b) Is the weekly rate a nominal or effective rate? Assume 26 weeks per 6 months.
Payment and Compounding Periods
4.17 Deposits of $100 per week are made into a savings account that pays interest of 6% per year, compounded quarterly. Identify the payment and compounding periods.
4.18 A certain national bank advertises quarterly compounding for business checking accounts. What payment and compounding periods are associated with deposits of daily receipts?
4.19 Determine the F/P factor for 3 years at an interest rate of 8% per year, compounded quarterly.
4.20 Determine the P/G factor for 5 years at an effective interest rate of 6% per year, compounded semiannually.
Equivalence for Single Amounts and Series
4.21 A company that specializes in online security software development wants to have $85 million available in 3 years to pay stock dividends. How much money must the company set aside now in an account that earns interest at a rate of 8% per year, compounded quarterly?
4.22 Because testing of nuclear bombs was halted in 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy has been developing a laser project that will allow engineers to simulate (in a laboratory) conditions in a thermonuclear reaction. Due to soaring cost overruns, a congressional committee undertook an investigation and discovered that the estimated development coat of the project increased at an average rate of 1% per month over a 5year period. If the original cost was estimated to be $2.7 billion 5 years ago, what is the expected cost today?
4.23 A present sum of $5000 at an interest ram of 8% per year, compounded semiannually, is equivalent to how much money 8 years ago?
4.24 In an effort to ensure the safety of all phone users, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires cell phases to have a specific absorbed radiation (SAR) number of 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/Kg) of tissue or less. A new cell phone company estimates that by advertising its favorable 1.2 SAR number. It will increase sales by $1.2 million 3 months from now when its phones go on sale. At an interest rate of 20% per year, compounded quarterly, what is the maximum amount the company can afford to spend now for advertising in order to break even?
4.25 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is technology that is used by drivers with speed passes at toll booths and ranchers who track livestock from farm to fork. WalMart expects to begin using the technology to track products within its stores. If RFIDtagged products will result in better inventory control that will save the company $1.3 million per month beginning 3 months from now, how much could the company afford to spend now to implement the technology at an interest rate of 12% per year, compounded monthly, if it wants to recover its investment in 2½ years?
4.35 Magnetek Instrument and Controls, a manufacturer of liquidlevel sensors, expects sales for one of its models to increase by 20% every 6 months into the foreseeable future. If the sales 6 months from now are expected to be $I50.000, determine the equivalent semiannual worth of sales for a 5year period at an interest rate of 14% per year, compounded semiannually.
4.36 Metal fab Pump and Filter projects that the cost of steel bodies for certain valves will increase by $2 every 3 months. If the coat for the first quarter is expected to be $80, what is the present worth of the costs for a 3year period at an interest rate of 3% per quarter?
4.37 Fieldsaver Technologies, a manufacturer of precision laboratory equipment, borrowed $2 million to renovate one of its testing labs. The loan was repaid in 2 years through quarterly payments that increased by $50,000 each time. At an interest rate of 3% per quarter, what was the size of the first quarterly payment?
4.38 For the cash flows shown below, determine the present worth (time 0), using an interest rate of 18% pa year, compounded monthly.
Month 
Cash Flow, S/Month 
0 112 1328 
1000 2000 3000 
4.39 The cash flows (in thousands) associated with FisherPrice's Touch learning system are shown below. Determine the uniform quarterly series in quarters 0 through 8 that would be equivalent to the cash flows shown at an interest rate of 16% per year, compounded quarterly.
Quarter 
Cash Flow, S/ Quarter 
1 23 58 
1000 2000 3000 
Equivalence When PP < CP
4.40 An engineer deposits $300 per month into a savings account that pays interest at a rate of 6% per year, compounded semiannually. How much will be in the account at the end of 15 years? Assume no interperiod compounding.
4.41 At time t= 0, an engineer deposited %10,000 into an account that pays interest at 8% per year compounded semiannually. If she withdrew $1000 in months 2, 11, and 23, what was the total value of the account at the end of 3 years? Assume no interperiod compounding.
4.42 For the transactions shown below, determine the amount of money in the account at the end of year 3 if the interest rate is 8% per year. Compounded semiannually. Assume no interperiod compounding.
End of Quarter 
Amount of Deposit, s/Quarter 
Amount of Withdrawal. S/Quarter

1 24 7 11 
900 700 1000  
2600 1000 
4.43 The New Mexico State Police and Public Safety Department owns a helicopter that it uses to provide transportation and logistical support for highlevel state officials. The $495 hourly rate coven operating expenses and the pilot's salary. If the governor uses the helicopter an average of 2 days per month for 6 hours each day, what is the equivalent future worth of the costs for 1 year at an interest rate of 6% per year, compounded quarterly (treat the costs as deposits)?
Continuous Compounding
4.44 What effective interest rate per year, compounded continuously, is equivalent to a nominal rate of 13% per year?
4.45 What effective interest rate per 6 months is equal to a nominal 2% per month, compounded continuously?
4.46 What nominal rate per stunner is equivalent to an effective rate of 12.7% per year, compounded continuously?
4.47 Corrosion problems and manufacturing defects rendered a gasoline pipeline between El Paso and Phoenix subject to longitudinal weld seam failures. Therefore, pressure was reduced to 80% of the design value. If the reduced pressure results in delivery of $100, 000 per month less product, what will be the value of the lost revenue after a 2year period at an interest rate of 15% per year, compounded continuously?
4.48 Because of a chronic water shortage in Santa Fe, new athletic fields must use artificial turf or xeriscape landscaping. If the value of the water saved each month is $6000, how much can a private developer afford to spend on artificial turf it he wants to recover his investment in 5 years at an interest rate of 18% per year, compounded continuously?
4.49 A Taiwanbased chemical company had to file for bankruptcy because of a nationwide phaseout of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). If the company reorganizes and invests $50 million in a new ethanol production facility, how much money must it make each month if it wants to recover its investment in 3 years at an interest rate of 2% per month, compounded continuously?
4.50 In order to have $85,000 four years from now for equipment replacement, a construction company plans to set aside money today in governmentinsured bonds. If the bonds earn interest at a rate of 6% per year, compounded continuously, how much money must the company invest?
4.51 How long would it take for a lumpsum investment to double in value at an interest rate of 1.5% per month, compounded contenuously?
4.52 What effective interest rate per month, compounded continuously, would be required for a single deposit to triple in value in 5 years?
Varying Interest Rates
4.53 How much money could the maker of fluidizedbed scrubbers afford to spend now instead of spending $150,000 in year 5 if the interest rate is 10% in years 1 through 3 and 12% in years 4 and 5?
4.54What is the future worth in year 8 of a present sum of $50, 000 if the interest rate is 10% per year in years 1 through 4 and 1% per month in years 5 through 8?
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