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Homework answers / question archive / Description Chapter 6 Outline Assignment

Description Chapter 6 Outline Assignment


Description Chapter 6 Outline Assignment. Complete your work and attach/upload here. You can type your outline and save as a doc, docx, or pdf. You can handwrite your outline and take photos. You can then upload the photos. Make sure your handwriting is legible and that the upload shows your work in the correct order. You can use jpeg, jpg, png, tif, tiff. Though this shows up to 40 points, this will be graded on a 50 point scale - thus the built in bonus points! You are ENCOURAGED to Outline the Chapter. It is a much better way to learn than reading the chapter and taking the quiz. Besides, you should be doing a Chapter Outline anyways to take a Quiz! :) BRAVO if you are choosing the Outline Option! Friendly Reminders: 1. Outline MUST MIRROR headings/sub- Friendly Reminders: 1. Outline MUST MIRROR headings/sub- headings/sub-sub-headings, etc. of textbook by using some sort of formatting. 2. OUTLINE THE ENTIRE CHAPTER, All Sections! (This is how you achieve breadth) • This means to include the Chapter Introduction, all Heading Introductions, the Chapter Summary, etc. • You MUST include The Building Skills Section that follows the Chapter Summary. o Write the "Building Skills" in the first person 3. OUTLINE MUST INCLUDE 1-2 sentences of your paraphrasing PER PARAGRAPH of textbook. (This is how you achieve depth) • Use bullets to represent each paragraph of the textbook (Some bullets/paragraphs will require sub-bullets and sub-sub • Use bullets to represent each paragraph of the textbook (Some bullets/paragraphs will require sub-bullets, and sub-sub bullets, etc.) • Include ALL CONCEPTS and EXAMPLES that the textbook uses • Italicize and define all terms/concepts 4. For a chance at al A+/A, do all of the above AND include the "extras" (sidebars, photos, etc.) • Include these at the END of the Outline. DO NOT integrate into the outline. It is too distracting. 5. Other miscellaneous Notes/Reminders • Follow the concept of the template | provided you for Chapter 1 as an example • While you are invited to provide commentary/personal experiences into your outline to reinforce your learning, ONLY DO SO AFTER COMPLETING ALL OF 1-4 ABOVE! o Personal commentary/experiences • Follow the concept of the template | provided you for Chapter 1 as an example • While you are invited to provide commentary/personal experiences into your outline to reinforce your learning, ONLY DO SO AFTER COMPLETING ALL OF 1-4 ABOVE! o Personal commentary/experiences are not a requirement & will not earn automatic bonus points o If you do provide commentary/experiences, USE A DIFFERENT COLOR FONT to delineate. • NO WORKS CITED in outlining a textbook. (Wouldn't make sense, right?) • USE THE TOOLS IN CANVAS to help you format! • Do a good job on the outline, it will help you in future assignments! :) REMEMBER, the OUTLINE can earn you up to 10+ extra credit points...or up to 50+/40. For example, a 70% on a quiz earns you 28 points; a 70% on an outline earns you 35! CHAPTER SIX 6. Nonverbal Communication Issues CHAPTER OUTLINE Defining Nonverbal Communication Comparing Verbal and Nonverbal Communication What Nonverbal Behavior Communicates Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Behavior Nonverbal Codes Cultural Variation or Stereotype? Defining Cultural Space Cultural Identity and Cultural Space Changing Cultural Space The Dynamic Nature of Cultural Spaces Summary STUDY OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Define nonverbal communication. 2. Understand the difference between verbal and non- verbal communication. 3. Describe what nonverbal behavior communicates. 4. Identify cultural differences in nonverbal behavior. 5. Understand how nonverbal communication can reinforce cultural stereotypes. 6. Define and give examples of cultural space. 7. Describe the relationship between cultural identity and cultural space. Building Intercultural Skills 8. Describe the dynamic nature of cultural spaces. Activities Endnotes KEY TERMS neighborhood noncontact cultures nonverbal communication adaptors contact cultures cultural spaces deception emblems eye contact facial expressions gestures home illustrators migration monochronic personal space polychronic regionalism regulators relational messages silence status traveling 160 162 Part II Intercultural Communication Processes any Comparing Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Both verbal and nonverbal communication are symbolic, both communicate mean- ing, and both are patterned--that is, are governed by rules that are determined by particular contexts and situations. And just as different societies have different spo- ken languages, so they have different nonverbal languages . However , there are some important differences between nonverbal and verbal communication in culture. Let's look at some examples of these differences. The following incident happened to Judith when she was teaching public speaking to a group of Japanese teachers of English. She explained how to write a speech and gave some tips for presenting the speech. The teachers seemed attentive, smiling and occasionally nodding. But when the time came for them to present their own speeches, she realized that they had many questions about how to prepare a speech and had not really understood her explanations. What she learned was that it is customary for students in Japan to not speak up in class Surf's Up! unless they are called upon. In Japan, a nod means that one is listening—but not John Bulwer was one of necessarily that one understands. As this example illustrates, rules for nonverbal the first people to study communication vary among cultures and contexts. nonverbal communica- Let's consider another example. Two U.S. American students attending tion, way back in 1649. He school in France were hitchhiking to the university in Grenoble for the first day is quoted as arguing that of classes. A French motorist picked them up and immediately started speaking facial expressions are English to them. They wondered how he knew they spoke English. Later, they important to understand took a train to Germany. The conductor walked into their compartment and because "they are the scolded them in English for putting their feet on the opposite seat. Again, they neerest and immediate organs of the voluntaire or wondered how he had known that they spoke English. As these examples show, impetuous motions of the nonverbal communication includes more than gestures. Even our appearance can communicate loudly; in fact, the students' very appearance no doubt was a good site http://mambo.ucsc clue to their national identity. As these examples also show, nonverbal behavior .edu/psl/bulwer.html to operates at a subconscious level. We rarely think about how we stand, what hand see some of Bulwer's early gestures we use, what facial expressions we're using, and so on. Occasionally, explorations into non- someone points out such behaviors, which brings them to a conscious level. verbal communication. Do When misunderstandings arise, we are more likely to question our verbal you agree that nonverbal communication than our nonverbal communication. We can use different words to explain what we mean, or look up words in a dictionary, or ask someone to internal feelings? Are his explain unfamiliar words. But it is more difficult to identify and correct nonver bal miscommunications or misperceptions. Learning Nonverbal Behavior Whereas we learn rules and meanings for lan- guage behavior in grammar and spelling lessons, we learn nonverbal meanings and behaviors more unconsciously. No one explains, "When you talk with some one you like, lean forward, smile, and touch the person frequently, because that will communicate that you really care about him or her.” In the United States, these behaviors often communicate positive meanings. But if someone does not display these behaviors, we are likely to react quite differently. Sometimes we learn strategies for nonverbal communication. For example, you may have been taught to shake hands firmly when you meet someone, of mind." Check out the web- communication reflects ideas relevant in cross- cultural situations? N onverbal communication, just like language, can vary dramatically across cultures. These differences can sometimes lead to misunderstandings. One of our Chinese students, Jian, describes one of these differences: When I first met my host family, Barbara and Tom, I was a little surprised when Barbara greeted me with a big hug; I felt awkward since we do not usually hug each other in China. What was even more surprising was when Tom also gave me a warm hug! I was shocked since hugging some- one of the opposite sex means a totally different thing in China. If I would greet my female friend's boyfriend/husband by hugging him, she would think I was crazy. Even after Jian learned the meaning and expectations of hugs, she still feels uncomfortable sometimes: “I have been in the U.S. for 3 years, but still haven't quite figured out when to hug people and when not. When other people hug What Do You Think? me, I always feel a little bit embarrassed and hope people will not interpret it as being impolite.” This shows how deeply ingrained nonverbal communication is, How would you catego- and how it functions at a fairly unconscious level. rize gang signs in terms On the other hand, sometimes nonverbal communication can help us get of nonverbal communi- our message across when we don't understand a foreign language. For example, cation? What kinds of our student Yadira was camping with friends in Greece and wanted to ask per- things do they commu- mission to pitch their tent in a local farmer's meadow, but she didn't speak nicate? Do they mean Greek. By drawing a picture of a tent and using lots of hand gestures, she was different things to differ- able to obtain permission. ent kinds of people? To You may never be a tourist in Greece or an international student, but you new gang members? To certainly will find yourself in many intercultural communication situations. In rival gang members? this chapter, we discuss the importance of understanding nonverbal aspects of To teachers and parents? intercultural communication. We also explore specific nonverbal communica- To police officers? tion codes (personal space, gestures, facial expressions, and so on) and expres- sions of power in intercultural contexts. Finally, we investigate the concept of cultural space and the way people's cultural identities are shaped by the spaces (home, neighborhood, and so on) they occupy. DEFINING NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION What is not said is often as important as what is said. Nonverbal communica- tion is communication through means other than language-for example, facial expression, personal space, eye contact, use of time, and conversational silence." Nonverbal communication also involves the notion of cultural space. Cultural spaces are the contexts that form our identity-where we grow up and where we live (not necessarily the actual homes and neighborhoods, but the cultural meanings created in these places). 161 Chapter 6 Nonverbal Communication Issues 163 you may have learned that a limp handshake indicates a person with a weak char- acter. Likewise, many young women learn to cross their legs at the ankles and to keep their legs together when they sit. In this sense, we learn nonverbal behav- iors as part of being socialized about appropriate behavior. y ce ny 110 ite ed em but nat lass not rbal ding day king they and they show, Coordinating Nonverbal and Verbal Behaviors Nonverbal behaviors can rein- force, substitute for, or contradict verbal behaviors. When we shake our heads and say “no," we are reinforcing verbal behavior. When we point instead of say- ing "over there,” we are substituting nonverbal behavior for verbal communica- tion. In the example of Yadira and the tent, Yadira's drawing and gestures substituted for verbal communication. When we tell a friend, "I can't wait to see Info Bites you," and then don't show up at the friend's house, the nonverbal behavior is con- It is important for teachers tradicting the verbal behavior. to understand the nonver- Because nonverbal communication operates at a more subconscious level, bal messages they are we tend to think that people have less control over their nonverbal behavior. sending and receiving in Therefore, we often think of nonverbal behaviors as containing the “real” mes- the classroom, particularly sage. Have you ever received a compliment from someone you thought was not in a multicultural class- being sincere? You may have thought the person insincere because her nonver- room. Body movements bal communication contradicted the spoken words. Perhaps she did not speak alone have no exact uni- very forcefully or was not smiling very much. Perhaps she was giving other non- versal meaning and can verbal clues indicating that she did not really mean what she was saying. also be misunderstood easily. Therefore, teachers What Nonverbal Behavior Communicates should devote time and Nonverbal behavior sends relational messages and communicates status and energy to developing their deception. Although language is effective at communicating specific informa- cross-cultural nonverbal tion, nonverbal communication often communicates relational messages about communication skills, just how we really feel about the person, and so on. For example, when you first as they do their teaching meet someone, he may say “Glad to meet you,” but he also communicates non- skills. (SOURCE: "Body verbally how he feels about you. He may smile, make direct eye contact, and Language in the Classroom," mirror your body language—all very positive messages in U.S. culture. Or per- by P. W. Miller, 2005, haps he does not make direct eye contact, does not smile, and does not give any Technique, 80, 28-30) other nonverbal cues that indicate enthusiasm. One difficulty is that nonverbal clues are not always easy to interpret. And it is dangerous to assume that, every time someone doesn't smile or make direct eye contact, he is communicating lack of interest. It may be that he is preoccupied, and his nonverbal message is not meant the way you interpret it. There are three guidelines to prevent hasty interpretations of nonverbal behaviors. The first is to think about the context. What is going on in the situ- ation that might help you interpret someone's nonverbal message? For example, if someone has her arms folded and does not make eye contact after meeting you, it may mean that she is not enthusiastic about meeting you. But it also may mean that the room is cold or that she is focusing on something else at the moment. So always remember to think about the context. The second guideline is to consider the person's other nonverbal behaviors. Don't interpret nonverbal behaviors in isolation. If the person has her arms e can good navior hand onally , 1. verbal words one to onver- or lan- eanings > some- use that States, loes not example, or eone, 164 Part II Intercultural Communication Processes Tattoos and body piercing communicate different meanings to different audiences. Think about the infer- ences people can draw from these nonverbal communication mark- ers about social status. For example, most of us would be shocked if the president was tattooed and pierced preting this folded but is also smiling, making direct eye contact, and leaning toward you, then she probably is sending a positive message. So, while each message carries some relational meaning, we must be cautious about being too hasty in inter- message. A third guideline is to remember to consider the verbal messages along with the nonverbal messages. If a person is talking in a pleasant voice and standing with arms folded, the overall relationship message is likely positive. On the other hand, if the person is saying negative things to you, standing with arms folded, and averting eye gaze, then it is likely that the overall message is a more negative one. Thus, you really have to read the whole message and not just part Nonverbal behavior also communicates status--the relative position a per son occupies in an organizational or social setting. For example, a supervisor of it.4 may be able to touch subordinates, but it usually is unacceptable for subordi- ciated with high status; conversely, holding one's body in a tight, clenched Chapter 6 Nonverbal Communication Issues 16 someone? That in Iran American business contexts, the people who make the grandest gestures and who take up the most space generally are the ones who have the highest status. This might be one reason women generally carry books close to their bodies and sit with their feet and legs together; by contrast, men generally carry books under their arms and tend to sprawl when sitting. Info Bites Nonverbal behavior also communicates deception. Early researchers Roger E. Axtell, in his book believed that some nonverbal behaviors-such as avoiding eye contact and Gestures: The Do's and touching or rubbing the face—indicated lying. But more recent research exam- Taboos of Body Language ining hundreds of studies shows that it is very difficult—even for professional lie Around the World, lists catchers, like police interrogators—to detect deception with accuracy better some nonverbal do's and than chance. While liars have a tendency to speak with a higher pitched voice, don'ts in different cultures. include fewer details in their explanations, and make fewer gestures, there Did you know that in appears to be no one single nonverbal cue that is uniquely related to deception. And Australia it is rude to place the clear cues of nervous behavior-such as avoiding eye contact and fidgeting- your hands in your lap do not appear to be related. Each individual has his or her own distinct way of during a meal? That in communicating deception. It is important to remember that most nonverbal Turkey it is rude to have communication about relational messages, status, and deception happens at a your hands in your pocket subconscious level. For this reason, it plays an important role in intercultural when conversing with interactions. We may communicate messages that we aren't even aware of—as in the examples at the beginning of this section. people rarely exhibit signs of affection in public? Or that in Pakistan you can CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR eat only with the right hand because the left How do culture, ethnicity, and gender influence nonverbal communication pat- hand is used for bodily terns? How universal is most nonverbal communication? Do people in most hygiene and is considered countries communicate in the same way nonverbally? In this section, we look for unclean? Think about the cultural variations in nonverbal behavior that may serve as tentative guidelines important role of nonver- to help us communicate better with others. bal behavior in communi- There is something very basic, and perhaps universal, about much of our cating across cultures and nonverbal behavior-particularly our facial expressions, facial gestures that the importance of learning convey emotions and attitudes. For example, smiling and laughing probably fill nonverbal meanings as a universal human need for promoting social connections or bonding—an well as the language of attempt to influence others, to make them feel more positive toward the sender. various cultures. Researchers point out that people in all cultures use these nonverbal behaviors to influence others and that , over time, these behaviors that contributed to pos- were favored and eventually became automatic and noncon- scious. The more researchers learn about animal behavior, particularly that of ard you, se carries in inter- ong with standing On the vith arms is a more t just part itive relationships nonhuman primates like chimps and gorillas, the more similarities they find between them and humans, although animal communication appears to be less ion a per- supervisor subordi- e are asso- clenched most U.S. Simplex.? That is, humans are capable of many more gestures and facial expres- afers than are animals. Apparently, there are also some nonverbal behaviors that are innate, that we don't have to learn. For example, children who are blind usu- can't see to learn how to make these expressions. 8 166 Part II Intercultural Communication Processes There are many universal facial gestures, including the eyebrow flash (rais. slight social distancing), and the "disgust face” (sending a strong signal of social Surf's Up! repulsion). In fact, at least six basic emotions—happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, Take a look at the anger, and surprise-are communicated by facial expressions in much the same Automated Face Analysis way in most societies. The fact that facial expressions for these emotions are rec- website (http://www.cs ognized by most cultural groups as having the same meaning seems to suggest some innate, universal basis for these behaviors. .htm). Do you believe that However, nonverbal communication also varies in many ways from culture these kinds of facial to culture. The evoking stimulus, or that which causes the nonverbal behavior , expressions not only are may vary from one culture to another. Smiling, for example, is universal. But similar across cultures but what prompts a person to smile may be culture-specific. In some cultures, see- also can be accurately deci- ing a baby may cause people to smile; in other cultures, one is not supposed to phered by a computer? smile a lot at babies. Judith's Diné (Navajo) friend told her that in the Navajo Nation the first person to cause a baby to smile has to throw a party for baby and family, so people don't always want to cause a baby to smile! There are variations in the rules for nonverbal communication and the con- texts in which it takes place. For example, people kiss in most cultures, but there is variation in who kisses whom and in what contexts. When French friends greet each other, they often kiss each other on both cheeks but never on the mouth. Friends in the United States usually kiss each other on greeting only after a long absence, and this is usually accompanied by a hug. The rules for kiss- ing also vary along gender lines. In this section, we examine how nonverbal communication varies from culture to culture. dis- Nonverbal Codes Personal Space Personal space is the "bubble” around each of us that marks the territory between ourselves and others . How big your bubble is depends on your cultural background. In some cultures, people stand very close together to talk, while in others, they feel a need to be farther apart when talking. This dif- comfort in intercultural interactions. For example, in one university there were reports of miscommunication between Arab and U.S. American students. The while the U.S. American students characterized the Arab students as pushy, with different rules concerning personal space. The Arab students were accus- tomed to standing closer together when talking, while the U.S. American stu- dents had been raised to do just the opposite. In fact, some cultural groups are identified as contact cultures, and others as noncontact cultures. Contact cultures are those in which people stand closer together while talking, make more direct eye contact, touch frequently, and speak in louder voices. Societies in South America and southern Europe identified as contact cultures. By contrast, those in northern Europe, North are Chapter 6 Nonverbal Communication Issues 167 Finland Sweden Norway Germany Russia Eastern Europe Mediterranean Region de China Japan South Korea Taiwan Hong Kong Philippines Northern Africa Mexico Latin America o Middle East Myanmar Thailand Vietnam Indonesia South America Noncontact Cultures Myanmar Taiwan (formerly Burma) Thailand China Vietnam Hong Kong Norway Japan Sweden South Korea Finland Philippines Germany Contact Cultures Mediterranean region, Northern Africa including: Eastern Europe France (including Russia) Greece Indonesia Israel Middle East Italy Latin America Portugal (including Mexico) Spain South America Figure 6.1 Immediacy orientations of selected countries and regions. S n TO f- IS- cre he de, hy, ing America, East Asia, and the Far East are noncontact cultures, in which people tend to stand farther apart when conversing, maintain less eye contact, and touch less often. Jolanta, a Polish student of ours, talked about her first experi- ence abroad, as the guest of an Italian family, and being overwhelmed by the close physical contact and intense nonverbal behavior: “Almost every aspect of this family's interactions made me anxious and insecure. This included the extreme close personal distance, touching and speaking loudly, all of which was quite overwhelming.” Figure 6.1 shows the "immediacy orientations” of selected countries and regions. Is it possible that the degree of contact is affected by geography and cli- mate? It is interesting that many high-contact cultures are in warmer places, located closer to the equator. In contrast, most low-contact cultures are in cooler climates . And even within many northern countries , southerners are more non- verbally expressive and interpersonally oriented than northerners. Think of the general impression of U.S. southerners as being warmer, hospitable, and open, whereas New Englanders have the reputation for being more reserved and less demonstrative. The same is true for people in the south and north of France. US- Stu- sas Oser and are orth One explanation might be that where it's colder, people spend more time there is variation in many aspects of facial expressions. A smile may universally indicate pleasure and happiness, and a frown may indicate sadness, but there is a lot of variation in what causes someone to smile or frown. For example, in the United States, meeting someone for the first time may call for a smile, while in other cultures, it is better to look serious. By contrast, a snake may call for a facial expression of disgust in some cultural contexts, and in others may call for a smile at the prospect of a delicious meal. The rules that regulate facial expressions also may vary. Thus, a greeting may call for a wide smile in some cultures and a much more subdued or less expressive smile in others. Europeans often remark that U.S. Americans seem to smile too much. Some Asians make the same observation of U.S. Americans. For them, smiling is even considered a bit "immature.” As one of our Chinese stu- dents noted: Most of my American colleagues and friends have very vivid facial expres- sions most of the time. However, in China people usually don't display that much facial expression. What's more, it is seen as being more mature and experienced if you don't disclose your inner emotions through your facial expressions (especially for men!). However, I guess that would be considered a “poker face” by most Americans. Gestures Gestures are simply arm and hand movements that communicate nonverbally. There are at least four different kinds of gestures: emblems, illus- trators, regulators, and adaptors.12 Emblems are those gestures that have a spe- cific verbal translation. For example, when you wave your hand as someone is Surf's Up! leaving, it means good-bye. Or when you give “the finger," it is interpreted as Take the quiz at http:// an insult. There are at least a hundred identifiable gestures in our culture. Of course, other cultures have their own emblems. For example, in India, a slow interviews/nvc.htm to shaking of the head means “yes” (not “no”). You might think that there are some learn how to manage your universal gestures or at least some universal categories of gestures (e.g., every cul- nonverbal communica- ture must have an obscene gesture), but this appears not to be true. There are a tion in interviews. Think number of societies (e.g., the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland) that have no about how many of these obscene gesture. 13 And in some ways, emblems are the easiest gestures to under- suggestions apply only to stand cross-culturally, because they are easy to reproduce; when emblems have a U.S. American context. the same meaning cross-culturally, there is no problem. When people are in a Think about how you foreign country and do not know the language, they often resort to emblems. would manage your non- For example, our student Dave was visiting in Mexico with some friends, none verbal interview behavior of whom spoke much Spanish. They were trying to find a hotel. “We were try- when applying for a posi- ing to communicate that we needed somewhere to stay and the man couldn't tion in a multinational understand us and started acting very frustrated. We started using nonverbal corporation overseas. gestures-showing signs of sleep—and he understood and showed us a place to stay. Everything turned out okay. However, if an emblem varies slightly from culture to culture, there can be misunderstanding. For example, in Germany and many other European cultures, gesture for "stupid” is a finger on the forehead; the American gesture for the Part II Intercultural Communication Processes 8 dressing, storing food, and planning for winter (being task-oriented), whereas every- or far people in warmer climates have access to each other all year round. 10 Of course, we cannot say categorically that these patterns are found where. Many countries in Asia, for example, have warm climates and are con sidered low contact . Here, the influence of Confucianism with emphasis on self-control and proper behavior may be a greater influence. Of course, many other factors besides culture determine how close together apart people stand. Gender, age, ethnicity, the context of the interaction, nat Do You Think? and the topic of discussion all influence the use of personal space. For example, in Algeria (a contact culture), gender might be more important than nationality ou like someone in an in determining amounts of personal space. Unmarried young women and men rnet chatroom, how rarely stand close together, touch each other, or maintain direct eye contact with ht you let that person w? In cyberspace we each other. However, young men commonly hold hands with their male friends, e adapted to a lack of and young women will do the same with their female friends."1 Similarly, in al cues by creating China (a noncontact culture) it's quite normal for girls to hold each other's hands verbal codes that act or arms. As one of our Chinese students describes it: cial expressions for things as kissing and It's a sign of good friendship. I did it all the time with my good female wing other forms of friends when I was in China. After I came to the U.S., somehow I found tion. Many of us are out that people of the same sex don't do this unless they are in a romantic nning to recognize relationship. So I don't hold other girls' hands anymore, even with my such as :-) and :-), Chinese friends here. What's more interesting is that when I go back to h can be read as "I'm China on vacations, I am not used to holding other girls' hands anymore! ng right now" and sending you a kiss." ou recognize or inter- Eye Contact Eye contact is often considered an element of personal space chese signs similarly? because it regulates interpersonal distance. Direct eye contact shortens the dis- about (O):**, tance between two people, while a lack of eye contact increases the distance. Eye his often interpreted contact communicates meanings related to respect and status, and it often reg- ulates turn taking in conversations. ending you lots of and kisses." Do you Patterns of eye contact vary from culture to culture. In many societies, avoid- of any special kinds ing eye contact communicates respect and deference, although this may vary oticons used only in from context to context. For many Americans, maintaining eye contact commu- nicates that one is paying attention or showing respect. But a Diné (Navajo) stu- facial expressions online communities, dent told us that the hardest thing for her to learn when she left the Navajo e Internet universal? Nation to study at Arizona State was to remember to look her professors in the t C 1 a ? s S. u tu ni OL st: eye. Her whole life, she had been taught to show respect by avoiding eye contact. th fo from their away Fc of ing some un When they speak with others, most U.S. Americans look listeners most of the time. They might look at their listeners every 10 or 15 sec onds. And when a speaker is finished taking a turn, he or she looks directly at the listener to signal completion. However, some cultural groups within the United States use even less eye contact while they speak. For example, Native Americans tend to avert their eyes during conversation. Facial Expression As noted previously, some facial expressions seem to express the same emotions all over the world. However, it's important to recognize that ges sta mis the Holidays are often filled with nonverbal symbols that commu nicate important meanings to the part ipants. The objects ir this Latino/a family's offrenda or altar are an important part of their “Dia de los Muertos” (All Souls Day) holiday and hel them remember fami members who have died. How does your family remember tho who have died? le ? K- or en to m- at a act, can differences" in nonverbal behavior. On a practical note, he urged travelers to practice “gestural humility": (1) assume that the familiar gestures of our home culture will not mean the same things abroad, and (2) do not assume that we can interpret the meaning of any unfamiliar gestures we observe in other cultures. 15 Time Orientation There are many cultural variations regarding how people mes. our S, or ngry. ptors e may understand and use time. One way to understand these variations is to look at the differences between monochronic and polychronic time orientations. 16 People who have a monochronic concept of time, like most people in the d the ultural wisted, or saved. In this orientation, time is linear , with events happening one after another. In general, monochronic cultures value punctuality, completion of 170 Part II Intercultural Communication Processes President “smart” is nearly identical, but the finger is held an inch to the side, at the tem- ple. If the emblem has a different meaning, it can be very confusing, as George W. Bush discovered when he gave the "hook 'em horns” greeting to the University of Texas Longhorn marching band during his inauguration. In Norway, this gesture is considered a salute to Satan, and Norwegians were con- fused when they saw photos of this greeting at the inauguration.14 Even more difficult types of gesture to understand in intercultural commu- nication are the illustrators and regulators. Illustrators are all those gestures that go along with our speech. Have you ever noticed that there seems to be a "flow" to people's verbal communication—when they are talking, their gestures are usually very synchronized? For example, when emphasizing a point by shak- ing a finger, the speaker stops shaking the finger at the end of the sentence. And it all seems very natural. In fact, symptoms of mental illness are sometimes revealed in people's gesturing behavior; their gestures may seem “jerky” or seem Info Bites not to go with their speech. Did you know that in Of course, different cultural groups use different types and amounts of illus- Mexico it is considered a trators. Italians are often characterized as “talking a lot with their hands,” or challenge when you put using a lot of illustrators. Another student, Marjorie, who traveled to Italy, your hands on your hips? noticed this: “In watching people in the streets, it always seemed like they must That in France, when you be angry at each other-all the waving of hands and gesturing.” Actually, it is kiss someone's cheeks, merely the custom there to use a lot of illustrating gestures. Other cultural you should start on the groups, like the Chinese, may use fewer illustrators. Of course, the number of right side? That in illustrators used may also be related to a person's family background or individ- Britain and Thailand, people point with their ual preferences. The important thing to remember is that, if you encounter heads? That in Poland, someone who uses many illustrators, it doesn't mean that he's angry; and if some- it is acceptable for one uses few illustrators, it doesn't mean that she's not into the conversation. stranger to join you at We rarely think about it, but much of our conversation is regulated by non- your restaurant table for verbal gestures, called regulators. Thus, when someone tries to interrupt while we are talking, we may put out our hand, indicating that we aren't finished speak- no meaning in Japan? Or dinner? That winking has ing. Greeting and leave-taking are usually indicated by regulating gestures. For that yawning is consid- example, when we greet someone, we may shake their hands or hug them. When ered rude in Argentina? we get ready to leave, we often gather our stuff together. It is important to remember that each language has a somewhat unique set of regulators. For exam Etiquette) pause ple, in Japan, turn taking is regulated more by pauses than by gestures, so that a Japanese people remark that it is sometimes difficult to jump into an American (Source: The Complete Idiot's Guide to Cultural brief pause in the conversation indicates that the next person may talk. In fact, conversation because they are waiting for the regulating “pause” that never comes The final type of gesture is adaptors, which are related to managing our emotions. For example, we may tap our feet or fingers when we're nervous, or rub our eyes when we feel like crying, or clench our fists when we're angry Again, from a cultural perspective, it's important to recognize that the adaptors we use are part of our particular cultural upbringing, and that other people may use other types of adaptors to manage or reflect their emotions. A researcher, after studying the many variations of gestures around the world, said he was amazed by the “power, nuances, and unpredictability of cultural Part II Intercultural Communication Processes Take a test to assess the created communication encounters with others. 172 tasks, and adherence to schedules. For instance, most college staff and faculty in the United States maintain a monochronic orientation to time. Classes, meet- ings, and office appointments start when scheduled. Faculty members see one student at a time, hold one meeting at a time, and keep appointments except when faced with an emergency. Typical family problems are considered poor Surf's Up! reasons for not fulfilling academic obligations—for both faculty and students . By contrast, people with a polychronic orientation conceptualize time as degree to which you have more holistic, perhaps more circular: Many events can happen at once. U.S. a monochronic or poly- American businesspeople often complain that meetings in the Middle East do chronic approach to time not start "on time,” that people socialize during meetings, and that meetings at http://www.innovint may be canceled because of personal obligations. Often, tasks are accomplished .com/downloads/mono _poly_test.asp. Think about because of personal relationships, not in spite of them. occasions when your Schedules are less important than personal obligations in polychronic cul- views on time might have tures. Sandra discovered this when she was an international student in India. She did not have a computer and had to use the university computer room. So she challenges in your arrived there at 8 A.M., but the room was not open. An assistant told her to come back at 9 A.M. She went back at 9 A.M., but the room was still not open. She asked the same person and he said to return at 12 P.M.-but the room was still not open then. Later she found out that the schedule for the computer room depended on the schedule and the varying obligations of the computer lab director. It some- times opened at 3 P.M., and other times she had to come back the next day. While this may seem inconvenient to a monochronic-oriented person, a polychronic person takes a more flexible approach and understands that keeping a strict schedule should not be the most important obligation in life. Many international business negotiations, technical assistance projects, and team projects fail because of differences in time orientation. International stu- dents and business personnel often complain that U.S. Americans seem too busy and too tied to their schedules; they suggest that U.S. Americans do not care enough about relationships and about the personal aspects of living. An inter- national student of ours complained, "It is so hard to get used to the fast pace college life here. It seems that people are too busy to enjoy other people and getting things done. relationships; they are just anxious and always worried about being on time and Some ethnic groups in the United States may also have a polychronic time orientation. Chicano/a college students often find that their family and social obligations, viewed as very important at home, are not as important at the uni- ily is taken care of and to get my school work done at the same time. Sometimes of fam- versity. As one student, Lucia, said, “It's hard to make sure everyone in my I have to take my grandmother to the doctor, go grocery shopping with my mom, help my aunt with her Medicare problems, and still somehow find the time to attend class and get my homework done." The implications for intercultural misunderstandings between people with these different time orientations are significant. In technical assistance projects overseas, for example, coworkers with different time orientations can become a SE very frustrated with one another, as revealed in this summary of how monochronic O Chapter 6 Nonverbal Communication Issues 173 Western workers and polychronic workers from Madagascar (Africa) viewed each other.!? Monochronics on Polychronics Polychronics on Monochronics They never plan for the future. They are always in a hurry. They are losing time and money. They don't give priority to the art of They fail to plan and so cause living problems. They are obsessed with money. They do not give priority to people. It takes a great deal of patience and cross-cultural understanding to work together in these situations. t d 1- Silence As we noted in Chapter 5, cultural groups may vary in the relative emphasis placed on speaking and on silence. In most U.S. American contexts, silence is not highly valued. Particularly in developing relationships, silence communicates awkwardness and can make people feel uncomfortable. One of Surf's Up! the major reasons for communicating verbally in initial interactions with people Nonverbal behaviors that is to reduce uncertainty. In U.S. American contexts, people employ active uncer- are not offensive in your tainty reduction strategies, such as asking questions. own culture may be seen However, in many other cultural contexts, people reduce uncertainty by as rude in other cultures. more passive strategies, such as remaining silent, observing, and perhaps ask- Visit this website (http:// ing a third party about someone's behavior. And silences can be as meaning- ful as language. For example, silence in Japan is not simply the absence of Buscomm/nonverbal/ sound or a pause in the conversation that must be filled. Silence can convey Culture.htm) to learn respect for the person who has spoken, or it can be a way of unifying people. of unifying people. more about cultural Silence in Japan has been compared to the white space in brush paintings or variations in nonverbal calligraphy scrolls: “A picture is not richer, more accurate or more complete behaviors. if such spaces are filled in. To do so would be to confuse and detract from what is presented.”18 People from Finland also value silence in certain contexts. For example, researchers have described the Asaillinen (matter of fact) nonverbal style among Finnish people. This style involves a rather fixed and expressionless face and a belief that talkativeness is a sign of unreliability. Silence, on the other hand, for Finns reflects thoughtfulness , appropriate consideration, and intelligence- particularly in public discourse, or in educational settings, like a classroom. 19 Silences can have many meanings in various contexts. In a classic study on the rules for silence among the Western Apache in Arizona, researcher Keith Basso identified five contexts in which silence was appropriate: meet- ing strangers, courting, seeing friends after a long absence, being with people who are grieving, and getting cursed out. Some of these patterns hold true for is sy ire er- of and and ime ocial uni- fam- times h my d the other Native American groups, like the Diné and the Yaqui, as well. Being shy ships is a serious matter that calls for caution, careful judgment, and plenty e with rojects ecome chronic of time. 174 Part II Intercultural Communication Processes TABLE 6.1 Interesting Nonverbal Behaviors Brazil: The Brazilian considers the OK sign in the United States (made with the thumb and forefinger) as obscene, China: Chinese always use both hands when passing a gift or food. Kenya: Pointing with an index finger is very insulting. Samoa: It is rude for a person standing to sway while having a conversation. Fiji: Crossed arms is a sign of respect when talking. Italy: The American gesture for one (raising the index finger) means two in Italy. Greece and Turkey: When saying "no," it is expressed with a small nod of the head upward. Japan: Laughter may signify embarrassment instead of amusement in certain situations. on the doorsill. Thailand: Thais believe a spirit lives at the doorsill of a house, so one never pauses Source: Selling Destinations: Geography for the Ttravel Professional, 4th ed., by M. Mancini, 2003, Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/Delmar Learning. 1 f e Basso and others hypothesize that the underlying commonality in all social situations is that participants see their relationships in these contexts as ambigu- ous or unpredictable, and silence is an appropriate response to uncertainty and unpredictability . He also hypothesizes that this same contextual rule may apply to other cultural groups. It is also possible that in many communities silence is associated not just with uncertainty, but also with social situations in which a known and unequal distributing of power exists among participants.20 For exam- ple, in work contexts in Japan, being silent and listening very respectfully to one's boss would be the appropriate response, whereas a U.S. American super- visor might admire the subordinate who “speaks right up.' Table 6.1 lists some cultural variations in nonverbal behaviors, but we must be careful not to assume that every member of that cultural group exhibits the same nonverbal behaviors, nor that we don't have to consider the context in which these nonverbal behaviors may be used. O 1 Info Bites The Nazis believed that different races had differ- ent genetically determined gestural repertoires. For example, they thought that they could ferret out per- sons with some Jewish blood simply by observing their gestures. In response, Franz Boaz and his col- leagues at Columbia Uni- versity began to study gestural patterns to com- bat the Nazi idea. This was the beginning of serious work on nonverbal com- munication in the United States. (SOURCE: Randall Harrison, Beyond Words) ?. d c si C ? ca Cultural Variation or Stereotype? fo sig to stereotype groups of people. For example, we have to be careful when very wi be cia As noted previously, one of the problems with identifying cultural variations in nonverbal codes is that it is tempting to overgeneralize these variations and comparing Japanese and Western attitudes toward silence. Those familiar with life in Japan have observed that the television is on nonstop in many Japanese homes, and Zen gardens offer tape-recorded messages about the beauty to be seen. So, although silence might be a cultural ideal, things may differ in prac- tice. In specific situations, such as mother-daughter relationships, there may WE tha wh Chapter 6 Nonverbal Communication Issues 175 seriously.21 Info Bites Still, we be more emphasis on silence than in comparable U.S. American situations. we should take these warnings about the dangers of overgeneralizations Cultural variations are tentative guidelines that we can use in intercultural interaction. They should serve as examples, to help us understand that there is a great deal of variation in nonverbal behavior. Even if we can't anticipate how someone's behavior may differ from our own, we can be flexible when we do encounter differences in, say, how close a person positions himself or herself, uses eye contact, or conceptualizes time. Prejudice is often based on nonverbal aspects of behavior. That is, the neg- ative prejudgment is triggered by physical appearances or physical behavior. For example, even college students' evaluations of professors' teaching may be sub- tly influenced by their professors' physical appearances. A recent research study showed that college students consistently rate less attractive professors as less skilled in teaching. Perhaps more interesting was that students rated both female and minority professors lower overall than their White, male peers. As one psy- chologist explained, “It just shows that white, native-speaking males are still the norm for professors in students' eyes. Teachers also may be influenced by the physical appearance of their stu- dents. Some educators suggest that decisions to place African American students in special education classes may be partially related to administrators' negative evaluations of their posture and walk. When African American high school stu- dents don't walk the typical “White walk” (erect posture and steady stride), and instead deliberately swagger with bent posture, head tilted to one side, and one foot dragging, White teachers tend to perceive them as aggressive, low achiev- ers and potential candidates for special education programs. In fact, 21 percent of African Americans are in special education even though they represent only 16.8 percent of the U.S. public school population. Similarly , immigrant Asian children and some Asian Americans are sometimes negatively evaluated and discriminated against because of their cultural practice of remaining quiet in the classroom to show respect for the teacher.24 An extreme example of the importance of physical appearance in expres- sions of prejudice is hate crimes. For example, in fall 2005, in Marysville, California, Daniel J. Farris, 18, was charged with assault with a deadly weapon, causing pain, suffering, or injury to an elder or dependent adult, and hate crime for allegedly beating an elderly Black man while yelling racial slurs.25 As in many other instances of hate crimes, the victim's appearance was more significant than his specific cultural heritage. From these kinds of experiences with prejudice, people start to develop “a map” that tells them where they belong and where they are likely to be rejected. Victims can often spot prejudi- cial behavior and people with surprising accuracy. In an interesting study, Blacks were able to detect prejudiced people (identified previously by objective survey measurement) after only 20 seconds of observation, with much higher accuracy than Whites.26 For this reason, members of minority groups may avoid places where and situations in which they do not feel welcome. If you are standing in the doorway to a home or office, are you inside or outside? Germans con- sider the doorway part of the interior space, so an intrusion into these areas will cause problems. By contrast, in an Arab country, it is perfectly acceptable to push and elbow someone out of a desired spot in a public place. How do you think a typical German tourist would fare in Egypt? "22 social bigu- ? apply nce is hich a exam- ully to super- e must bits the

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