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Homework answers / question archive / The Puppy in Hittite Ritual Author(s): Billie Jean Collins Source: Journal of Cuneiform Studies , Autumn, 1990, Vol

The Puppy in Hittite Ritual Author(s): Billie Jean Collins Source: Journal of Cuneiform Studies , Autumn, 1990, Vol


The Puppy in Hittite Ritual Author(s): Billie Jean Collins Source: Journal of Cuneiform Studies , Autumn, 1990, Vol. 42, No. 2 (Autumn, 1990), pp. 211-226 Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The American Schools of Oriental Research Stable URL: JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at The American Schools of Oriental Research and The University of Chicago Press are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Cuneiform Studies This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to THE PUPPY IN HITTITE RITUAL' Billie Jean Collins New Haven Dogs in Hittite society were valued for their usefulness in hunting, shepherding, and guarding.2 Even as pariah-dogs they had their uses Some believe that the domestication of the dog was motivated largely by the recognition of the useful sanitation services that these scavenger provide to human communities.3 The dog's contribution to Hittite culture did not end there, however. Young dogs also played an extensive and apparently vital, role in ritual. Indeed, puppies are exploited for ritual use to the exclusion of adult dogs.4 The reasons for this are never ex- plained in ancient sources, although we may speculate that dogs were more easily available to the common populace that practiced these rituals than other animals, and that puppies were otherwise valueless, since they had not yet been trained as sheepdog, watchdog, or hunting dog. It seems very likely as well that some symbolic or religious significance was attached to puppies that was not attached to fully grown animals. Puppies had two primary uses in Hittite ritual, namely, prevention and purification. To achieve these goals a number of methods might be 1. Abbreviations follow the Hittite Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Other abbreviations include: APA Acta Prdhistorica et Archaeologica ClAnt Classical Antiquity Hutter, Behexung Manfred Hutter, Behexung, Entsiihnung und Heilung. Das Ri Tunnawiya fiir ein Konigspaar aus mittelhethitischer Zeit (KBo X 1-KUB IX 34-KBo XXI 6), G6ttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (198 SO Symbolae Osloenses VT Vetus Testamentum Wright, Disposal David P. Wright, The Disposal of Imp Bible and in Hittite and Mesopotamian Lit Scholars Press (1987) I am very grateful to Gary Beckman for his insights and c aration of this paper. I also wish to thank F.-H. Mutschler f 2. Hittite laws ??87-89 deal with dogs in this order of value placed on each type. 3. Michael W. Fox, The Dog Its Domestication and Beh scholars who argue that wild dogs such as the dingo, wh of C. familiaris, are virtually untrainable, even when ha scavenging and watchdog capabilities would have been its More than likely, they assert, only after selective breedi a hunter, shepherder and protector. 4. See n. 45 for one possible exception. 211 JCS This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to 42/2 1990 212 BILLIE JEAN COLLINS used, including analogy, appeasement, apotropais passages elude categorization. I. Prevention a. Apotropaism. In the Hittite Ritual of Huwarlu, a puppy of tallow is used to protect the king and queen from evil: "[And] they make [a pu]ppy of tallow, and they set it on the wood of the palace's door bolt, and she (the old woman) says as follows: 'You (are) the puppy of the table of the king and queen, and as by day you do not allow a strange person into the palace, on this night you must not allow in an evil word.'"'6 The phrase "puppy of the table" has a parallel in Book 23 of the Iliad, which largely concerns the funeral of Patroklos. Here we find a reference to nine "dogs of the table" (rpaniesCqs), belonging to Patroklos. Two of these are killed by Achilleus and placed on Patroklos' funeral pyre: ... And there were nine dogs of the table that had belonged to the lord Patroklos. Of these he cut the throats of two, and set them on the pyre (I1. 23:172-174)7 The reference to Patroklos' dogs as "dogs of the table" is presumably a reference to dogs fed from table scraps, that is, pet dogs, and such a meaning is probably also to be attributed to the tallow puppy of the Hittite text. The instructions regarding the tallow puppy are resumed in the next column: "Afterward they lift the puppy of tallow which8 was sitting on the wood of the door bolt-they lift that one, and she says as follows: 'As during the night you did not allow an evil word into the palace, now such evil (and) malign words as the scepter bearers of the gods have driven out, you must not allow them back into the palace.'"9 5. Cf. Wright, Disposal (1987) 31-60, who discusses at length Hittite ritual motifs for the disposal of impurity. 6. KBo 4.2 i 22-26 (CTH 398. [nu U]n.TUR.RA ap-pu-uz-zi-ya-aJ i-en-zi na-an-Ja-an ?A E-TIM I["]Sha-tal-wa-aa GgI-ru-i ti-an-zi nu ki-iI-Ia-an me-ma-i zi-ik-wa-az SA LUGAL SAL LUGAL ClrBAN?UR-a? URTUR nu-wa-kdn UD.KAM-az ma-ah-ha-an da-ma-a-in an-tu-uh-Ja-an pdr-na-ag an-da 06-uo tar-na-ji ke-e-ti-ma-wa-kcin GE6-an-ti kal-la-ar ut-tar an-da le-e tarna-at-ti. Edited by H. Kronasser, Sprache 8 (1962) 89-107. 7. Translated by Richmond Lattimore, The Iliad of Homer, Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1961). 8. A neuter relative pronoun is apparently used here to refer to URTUR, a common noun. 9. KBo 4.2 ii 14-21 (CTH 398): EGIR-an-da-ma UR.TUR ap-pu-uz-zi-ya-as Ja-ra-a da-an-zi c~ ha-at-tal-wa-aS-Ja-an cGI-ru-i ku-it ki-it-ta nu a-pu-u-un-na a-ra-a da-an-zi me-ma-i-ma This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to THE PUPPY IN HITTITE RITUAL 213 b. One passage concerning the army addresses the omen, an event that calls for a preventative ritual usi goat: "If you are marching on campaign, and (someone (i.e., a bird of ill omen) then you will drive outside puppy, and they will sever the puppy. He will set hal will do likewise (with) the billy-goat. The cooked a mix up, and h[e] will throw it away."10 The ritual is a with this action. No mention is made of passing betwee two animals as is the case with the severing rituals di II. Purification a. Analogy. Wright defines purification by analogy as "the invoking of a comparison between the impure condition of the patient and an external and essentially unrelated phenomenon whose character symbolizes analogically the desired resultant state of purity or invigoration for the patient."11 A single ritual fragment contains an analogic purification using a puppy: "[... t]hen [they] cut [up] a puppy [...] the barbarians' devour [...] but [...] to the right side of the gate they bury (it). [...] the old woman (says)? 'of this man let the [...] likewise be buried!'"12 Unal interprets this passage as involving the ritual eating of a puppy by barbarians(?) (dampupi-).13 Evidence for such a practice is otherwise nonexistent in Hittite sources, and therefore this interpretation must remain uncertain. The burial of the puppy at the gate is also a unique phenomenon in Hittite ritual. b. Appeasement. This procedure involves the presentation of offerings to a deity in the hope of gaining that deity's aid against an evil. The ki-is-ga-an // GE6-az-wa-kdn ma-ah-ha-an I-NA -TIM kal-la-ar ut-tar an-da O-uiL tar-na-ag ki-nu-na-wa-kdn ku-e kal-la-ar i-da-a-lu ud-da-a-ar LTr.ME: GI9PA ?A DINGIRMES pa-ra-a pfnirir nu-wa-ra-at EGIR-pa I-NA J-TIM le-e tar-na- i. 10. KBo 23.8 obv. 9-18: ma-a-an KASKAL-an na-an-na-at-ti nu i-da-a-lu-un MU?EN-in a-Uw- zi nu a-ra-ah-za [M]A?.GAL URTUR-na p6-e-da-at-ti // nu URTUR ar-ha ku-ra-an-zi ke-e-ez ke-e-ez-zi-ya MA?-gU da-a-i MAO.GAL-an-na QA-TAM-MA i-ya-az-zi z6-e-ya-an hu-i-gu-ya UZUl an-da im-mi-ya-az-zi na-at ar-ha p6-e?-3i-i?-ki-iz-zi. 11. Disposal, 39. 12. KUB 9.7 obv. 3-7 (CTH 763): [n]am-ma-kdn URTUR mar-k[dn-zi...] ar-ha dam-pu-u- pe-e-eg [...-m]a-a-u-wa-ar a-da-an-zi. ....]--er-ma KA-a9 ZAG-az ha-a-ri-ya-an-zi [...]StBoT SALU.GI ke-e-el-wa uh-*a-as QA-TAM-MA ha-a-ri-ya-an e-es-du. Cf. F. Starke, 30 (1985) 167f. 13. Or 54 NS (1985) 438, Korrekturzusatz. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to an-tu- 214 BILLIE JEAN COLLINS offering is usually preceded by an entreaty to a ritual performed by Maddunani the augur agains (CTH 425). He uses a goat, a piglet and a puppy are underworld deities: "Then afterward he tak piglet and one puppy, and over in another plac Heptad, and afterward a bit of beer (and) win the Heptad."16 This is the only case in Hittite r as an offering. c. Transfer. Within the transfer rituals we find a number of specific procedures for achieving the purification. These procedures are touching the puppy to the body of the patient, applying medicine made with dog excrement, waving the puppy over the patient, spitting into the puppy's mouth, and passing through the divided carcass of a puppy. Cases where this last procedure is used I refer to as severing rituals for reasons that will be explained in section 4. 1. Touching the puppy to the body of the patient. A belief in the dog's medicinal powers has been widely held from ancient times to modern and the Hittites were not exceptional in this regard. In the Ritual of Zuwi, such a view is clearly outlined in a procedure in which the puppy, by being held up to the patient, is expected to cure him: "I hold it (the puppy) to him with the right hand (saying) 'just as the puppy licks its own nine body parts'-and I call the person by name-'in the same way let it lick up the illness in this one's body parts! Let it lick up the ill- ness of (his) shoulder! Let it lick up the illness of his shoulderblade?!' "And I make it run behind (his) back. I hold the puppy to (his) head, (specifically) to (his) mouth, (saying) 'let it lick up the illness [of (his)] h[ead]! The illness [of his] meli- likewise. The illness of (his) shoulder (and) bac[k] likewise. The ill[ness] of his anassa- [likewise]. The illness of his anus likewise. [The illness of his... likewise]. The illness of his 14. See Disposal, 38. 15. See section II.C.4 for a discussion of the translation of the Hittite verb arha kuer-. The use of this verb and the killing of a kid, piglet and puppy suggests a connection with the severing rituals discussed in section II.C.3. 16. KUB 7.54 ii 20-24 with duplicate KUB 56.59 ii 16'-20': nu-za [dupl. ii 16' omits -za] EGIR-an-da 1 MA.TUR 1 SAH[(.TU)]R 1 UR.GCI7.TR-ya [dupl. ii 16' URTUR-yal da-a-i na-a [dupl. 17' na-atj dam-me-li [p]idi {dupl. ii 17' p6-e-di] pa-ri-ya-an A-Na dIMIN.IMIN.BI ar-ha ku-raan-zi nfu Ec[(IR-an-d)la [(KAS GETIN)] ku-it-ta 3-960 dupl. ii 19' 3-8uJ [(A-NA dIMIN.IMIN.BI SJipa-an-ti. Cf. H. Otten, ZA 72 (1982) 139-41. At the beginning the text had called for two puppies (KUB 7.54 i 5-9; see H. A Hoffner, AlHeth [1974] 71). The fate of the second puppy is not preserved. On the nature of the Heptad, see H. Klengel, AoF 11 (1984) 175, n. 10; V. Haas, WZKM 69 (1977) 145, n. 9. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to THE PUPPY IN HITTITE RITUAL 215 knees likewise. [... Let it] lic[k] up the illness of his para mother,17 to the ox, to the dark ea[rth?...].' 11. 32-43: "[I hold] the puppy [with] the left (hand) [... ( lick up the [il]lness [of his] shoulderblade?! Just as the p own [nine b]ody parts, in the same way [let it lick up] (th m[an's] nine body parts!' Then I hold the puppy by (it say as follows: 'He is treated!? He is treated!? The penned'18 on[es] perform, the ga perfor[m]. The cow they penned? in the stall?, the sh[ee in the court, the dog like[wise] in the kennel?, [the pi]g sty. The [person] whom I am treating (ritually)'-[an name-'into battle he has gon[e]!'"'19 The Hittite Ritual of the Ox (CTH 760.I.2-3)20 utiliz animals for the purpose of purifying the king and queen puppy in the above passage, is matched with the particip by body part. A sheep is held over the participant while tion is repeated for it. A piglet of dough and a live pigl gether. The live piglet is waved at a distance and the held against the participant while an incantation is p puppy appears in Tablet Five of this ritual where, unlik mals, it is enjoined to lick off various evils. The practice of holding a puppy against the afflicted p originated in Mesopotamia, where it can be found in Bab texts, and made its way to Anatolia via Kuzzuwatnean rituals 17. Or perhaps "to the god" (read instead DINGIR-ni). 18. See E. Neu, StBoT 5 (1968) 162 for this translation. 19. KUB 35.148 iii 14-28 (CTH 412): na-an-fi-pa an-da ZAc-az e-e ma-ah-ha-an 9 tzuha-ap-pd-es-jar-se-et li-ip-zi nu-kdn an-tu-uh-sa-an ki-i-el-la ha-ap-pd-eg-na-as i-na-an QA-TAM-MA li-ip-du ZUZAG.UDU-a ak-kar-ta-an(-ni)-ya-ag-sa-as i-na-an li-ip-du // na-an-ti EGIR-pa ig-ki UR.TUR SAC.DU if-gi an-da e-ep-mi s[AC.DU-asl i-na-an li-ip-du me-liKI.MIN UZAC.UDU-as i -ki- a-a[ ] i-na-an KLMIN a-na-ag-ga-a -'a-av i-n as'-a-ag i-na-an KI.MIN UZUX[... i-na-an KI.MIN] ge-e-nu-wa-as'-a-a-a i-n al-na-a-sga-as i-na-an li-i[p-du ...] an-ni CUD-i da-an-ku-i da-g[a-an-zi-p TUR CGB-la-za [e-ep-mi ...]x[...] ga-ak-kar-ta-ni-y[a-af-ja-as i-n]a-an li- ma-a[h-ha-an 9 U]zUjR.HI.A li-i[p-zi] ki-i-el-la L[U?-as] 9 UZU(R.HIA QA-TA ug-sa-an UR.TUR IGL.HIA-wa-it e-ep-mi x[...j nu kis-an me-ma-ah-hi // da-ak-ku-wa-a[n-te-esl i-ya-an-zi Ja-ra-ku-wa-an-te-es i-ya-an-[zil CUD da-ak-ku-da-ku-wa-a-i[r] UD[U-u]n hi-i-la-at da-ak(-ku)-da-ku-wa-a-ir U ?A]H hu-u-um-mi KI.MIN nu an-ni-if-ki-mi ku-in [UN-an na-an-kdn] vu ah-hi-ya-wa-ra-as pa-i[ t]. 20. Edited by G. Beckman, Or 59 NS (1990) 34-55. 21. See O. R Gurney, Schweich (1977) 54; V. Haas, Or 40 NS (1971) 424 This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to 216 BILLIE JEAN COLLINS This practice has parallels in later cultu Greece, dogs were thought to cure various illn ted area, and were associated with the cult of cal healer, and with Eileithyia, goddess of chil used to diagnose disease. The animal was put in ted person and, since it was thought to take killed and examined. The Roman Pliny wrote o of the stomach that involved pressing a blind abdomen for three days. The illness was absor then died as a result of it,23 2. Medicine. In addition to cures involving and body parts could be used to make medic the Ritual of Hebattarakki (CTH 397). This t against sorcery as follows: "I take the dough o into it the excrement of a dog."24 Other ritua old woman makes two images of a duck and pu shoulders, then recites the following incantat deity) Agalmati from you. I have pushed (th your head. I have extinguished fire from your sorcerer's head. I drove away the stench of th dog's excrement,2 the dog's flesh and the dog 3. Waving. The Ritual of Huwarlu, in addi discussed above (section I.a), uses a live puppy king and queen. First the live puppy, like t preventatively: "She (the old woman) will sleep 22. L P. Day, AJA 88 (1984) 28; S. H. Lonsdale, Greece a tion (but not unrelated) to its connections with healing de cate, a chthonic deity, and puppy burials found at Kavous (L P. Day, AJA 88 [19841 27.) 23. M. O. Howey, Cults of the Dog, Essex (1972) 523. 24. KUB 24.14 i 3-4 with duplicate KUB 24.15 i 22: nu ?A URcI7-aI [dupl. i 22 ?A uR.cI7-maj Jal-pa-an me-na-ah-haya-mi. For this passage see also J. Puhvel, HED (1984) 361f 25. The use of dog excrement in medicine was practic RLA IV [1972-75] 497a). On the magical power of exudat tions in the Study of Language, E Lenneberg, ed. (1966) 3 26. KUB 24.14 i 18-24: dA-gal-ma-ti-in-ta a-wa-an ar-ha t li-in-ma-tdk-kdn SAG.DU-aZ a-ta-an ar-ha su-wa-nu-un A- pa-ah-hur ki-il-ta-nu-nu-un na-at-ia-an al-wa-z6-ni UN UR.GI7-ma-at-ta wa-ar-lu-la-an a-wa-an ar-ha par-hu-un SA zUc'GI.RPAD.DU UR.CI7-ya Cf. A. Unal, Or 54 (1985) 429; D. "Hittite Magical Practices," Ph.D. ?i-mi-si-ya-nu-un. diss., Brandeis (1970) 168. For the verb gimisiya-, compare the Hurrian sime51 inen in KUB 4526 + KBo 27.159 ii 10': [rsSU.GI-m]a hur-li-li i-el-me i-me-e?-?i-n[i-e]n me[-mi-is-ki-iz-zi]. Cf. M. Hutter, Behexung, 130. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to H. Engelhard, THE PUPPY IN HITTITE RITUAL 217 them (the king and queen) by night, and a living pupp palace also (will sleep)."27 Later, the live puppy is used to perform a purificatio waving the puppy over the royal pair: "They take the wa[ve] it over the king and queen. She waves it wit the [old wo]man says [as follows:] 'For the king and word (exists) in their! body-and (it [the puppy] is) puppy] is large as to his penis, his heart is big, so [let carry them off. He has overcome it (the evil). Let it ("t the evil (and) [malign word]. Where the gods have a bring it there!' Then as they carry away the live pu the puppy is killed: "[They wave] the puppy [over] and [they] se[ver] that one."30 The Ritual of Tunnawi (CTH 409) also uses a puppy, a let, in a waving ritual. First the necessary ritual impl "If (it is) a man, then they take a black ram, but if it they take a black ewe,31 one black piglet (and) one bla a man then it is a male piglet, but if a woman then (i list continues for ten lines more and includes a sheep in the ritual a purification is performed with each ob piglet and puppy: "Afterwards she lifts the piglet over pronounces the charm of the piglet. Afterwards she li him/her, and she pronounces the charm of the puppy 27. KBo 4.2 i 37 (CTH 898): cE6-an-ta-az-al-ma-a?-kdn an-da-pdt TI-an-za A E-pdt KI.MIN. 28. This is a metaphor referring to the puppy. See Wright, Dispos 29. KBo 4.2 ii 5-14: nu UoTnUR TI-an-ta-an da-an-zi [...] na-an-kdn A GAL ?e-er ar-ha wa-a[h-nu-an-zi] A-NA i -Ti-ya-an-kdn an-da wa-ah an] me-mi-i?-ki-iz-zi A-NA LUGAL SALLUGAL-wa-kdn ku-it [kal-la- I-NA 9-TI-ya-wa nu ka-a[-a? UR.TUR] UZUUR-za sal-li-il ,A-gu-wa AN9E-aS kar-pi-ya[-dul nu-wa-ra-at-za tar-ah-ha-an har-zi nu-wa- ut-tar]ar-nu-ud-du p6-e-da-a-ui nu-wa-ra-at ku-wa-pi DINGIR.ME_ a-pt-ya nu-kdn cIM-an UR.TUR TI-an-ta-an pa-ra-a lam-ni-ya-an pe`-e-da-an-zi har-kdn-zi nu-wa-ra-at 30. KBo 4.2 ii 61-62 with duplicate KBo 9.126 : 14-15: URTUR-kdn [(A-NA LUGCAL SAL. LUG)AL wa-ah-nu-wa-an-zil a-pu-u-na k)u-ra-an-zil. 31. On ,e-er genderar-ha distinctions in offering lists nu of animals see H.[(ar-ha A. Hoffner, Jr., JBL 86 (1967) 400. 32. KUB 7.53 i 11-13: ma-a-an LT5-a f nu UDUIR GE6 da-an-zi ma-a-an SAL-za-ma nu UDU.SfG.SAL GE6 da-an-zi 1 9AH.TUR GE6 1 UR.TUR GE6 nu ma-a-an LUJ-as nu AH.TUR.NITA ma-a-an SAL-za-ma na-at SAL-TIM. Edited by A. Goetze, Tunn. (1938) 4f. Cf. O. Masson, RHR 137 (1950) 9, n. 5; H. Hauptmann, in K. Bittel et al., Yaz2, Berlin (1975) 65f. 33. KUB 12.58 i 36-38: EGIR-an-da-ma-a-Ai-is-sa-an AH.TUR ?e-er e-ep-zi nu ?A 9AH.TUR hu(-uk)-ma-in hu-uk-zi EGIR-an-da-ma-a3-'i-Ja-an UR.TUR ?e-er e-ep-zi nu A UR.TnUR hu-ukma-in hu-uk-zi. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to 218 BILLIE JEAN COLLINS puppy and piglet are disposed of, taking the ev through this ritual with them: "[And] they ca piglet to another place [and] they burn [them and lamb, in contrast, are sacrificed for the Su In the Ritual of Ma'tigga (CTH 404.1) the pup (tarpalli-)36 for the king and queen: "[Afterwa [waves it over] the two offerants. Then she say substitute for (your) en[tire bodi]es.' Then [the she says as follows: '[You have spit out] the cu the puppy, then they bury it."38 Here we find the only instance of ritual spitting involving thereby transferred to the puppy, which is th 4. Severing. The most common form of pu pies is severing rituals. I have applied this d fact that, without exception, the Hittite verb scribe the act of dividing the puppy. Whether arating the head from the body or cutting th middle to make two halves the texts do not te ever, the verb seems to refer specifically to th the animal in two halves. At the least, we can d exclusive use in these Hittite rituals precludes exchangeable with any of the numerous verbs 34. KUB 12.58 iii 17-18: [nu URTU]R AH.TUR dam-mi-li p wa-ar-nu-wa-an-zi 35. KUB 12.58 iv 24f. Cf. Goetze,,Tunn. (1938) ?36. 36. On tarpalli- as a living substitute see N. van Brock, RHA 17 (1959) 119-46. Cf also A. Kammenhuber, ZA 238 (1965) 205. 37. For a discussion of ritual spitting see A. Kammenhuber, Or 54 (1985) 78-88. 38. Maltigga ?23 with duplicates: [EGIR-an-da-ma-za URTUR da-a-i (n)a-a(n-kdn A-N)JA 2 BE-EL SISKURSISKUR [dupl. KUB 15.39 ii 29+ 2 EN SISKURI [ge-er ar-ha wa-ah-nu-zi n]u ki-l[(-?a-an me-m)]a-i tar-pa-al-li-if-wa [tu-ig-ga(-a? [dupl. IBoT 2.110 : 1' [NIf.TE-as" hu-)uma-a]n-da-a-af [dupl. KUB 15.39 ii 31+ places ? break here) nu-uy-A[(i-k4n iS-fi-)]i an-da [(alla-)pa-ah-ha-an-zil nu ki-ig-ga-an [t]e-ez-zi Idupl. IBoT 2.110: 38' and 2486/e : 4' me-ma-a-i] [(p)la-[(r)la-a-wa-kdn [al-la-pa-ah-te-e]n a-pt-el [dupl. KBo 2.3 ii 26' a-pd-e-el UD-aw [dupl. IBoT 2.110: 4' [U]D.KAM-as] hu-ur-ti-ya-aS [dupl. IBoT 2.110: 4' hur-ti-ya-a , 2486/e : 5' hu-uu[r-]J nu-kdn [u(nRTuR ku-na-an-z)]i nam-ma-an ha-ri-ya-an-zi Edited by L Rost, MIO 1 (1953) 359. Cf. H. Otten, ZA 51 (1955) 127. On the use of the dog in this ritual, cf. H. Hauptmann, in Yaz2 (1975) 66; A. Kammenhuber, ZA 57 (1965) 204-7. 39. These include ark- "carve, cut up"; (arha) happesnai- "dismember, divide up"; hatta"slit open, slaughter"; hazziya- "strike, chop"; huek- "slaughter"; kuen- "kill"; mark- "butcher, cut up"; arha par'- "break up, chop up"; sai-/Miya- "pierce, skewer?"; arha Jarra- "divide, break up"; and walh- "strike." Cf. A. Unal, Or 54 (1986) 431f. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to THE PUPPY IN HITTITE RITUAL 219 This ritual procedure is a subset of a larger group o gates. Severing rituals resemble "gate rituals"40 in al porate, as well, the killing of animals. The small num that do not involve the severing of animals includes nawi, which, however, does include a puppy and pigl text; the Ritual of Agdu (KUB 45.26 + KBo 27.159 ii 9 a hawthorn gate to which birds are attached and thr pass (cf. n. 26); and KUB 45.24 i 1, which refers to a g The purpose of the gate in these rituals is to extract the offerant as he passes through. This function is e from the Ritual of Tunnawi, in which the ritual pra the gate of hawthorn with the following words: "(A by you and you pull hair? off of it (and as) the bull g hair off of it, in the same way pull off of this offerant cery, sin, divine anger, perjury, common gossip, (an the thorns of the plant snag the hair of animals, so it pull away the misfortunes besetting the offerant. Several elements are standard in these rituals: 1) Th a puppy in half, often along with one or two other tain cases, with a human. 2) Almost always they invo quently made of hawthorn (GcIhatalkesna-). 3) The h the left and right sides of the gate, if one is being then walks between the halves and through the g plete the purification. Two other features are held i rituals: 1) They are part of the popular religion, perf or the common people (never, it seems, for the royal primarily of Luwian/Kuzzuwatnean origin.43 A Ritual for a Routed Army (CTH 426) represent ritual: "If the troops are defeated by the enemy, th offerings behind the river as follows: Behind the ri man, a billy-goat, a puppy (and) a piglet. On one side on the other side they set the (other) halves. But in f 40. See Wright, Disposal, 34 with n. 60. 41. For the latter two examples, see also Hutter, Behexung, 130. 42. KUB 7.53 iii 1'-8': [ A]M.NrrA-tdik-kdn kat-ta-an ar-ha pa-iz-zi tar hu-it(-ti>-ya-Si cGUD-k[dn I kat-ta-an ar-ha pa-iz-zi nu-us-si-ki ya-4[i] H ke-e-da-ni-ya-kdn A-NA EN SISKUR i-da-lu pa-ap-ra-tar alDINGIR.MES-a' kar-pi-in NI-Ig DINGIR-LIM pa-an-ga-ua--as EME-an an Mu-an ar-ha QA-TAM-MA hu-it-ti-ya. Cf. KUB 17.10 iv 1-3 (CTH 3 48. See Hutter, Behexung, 127-33, on Luwian elements in Hittit This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to 220 BILLIE JEAN COLLINS make a gate of hawthorn and stretch a tiyamar side they burn a fire before the gate (and) on th fire. The troops go through, but when they come sprinkle water over them(selves)."44 Since this ritual is performed for the military, probably a prisoner. It is the only certain refere sacrifice in Hittite texts. Another possible occur sage where a human is listed together with a pig may surmise from the fact that the human in q (LU'U.DIB) that this text, like the Ritual for a Ro benefit of the military.46 A number of other fra a human with a dog and pig.47 The sacrifice of h served for times of extreme need, such as a milit In another ritual passage, horses are purified in "The[y] sever a puppy [...] the horses [they drive place] half on one sid[e] and half on the other si 44. KUB 17.28 iv 45-55: ma-a-an ERiN.ME?.HI.A I-TU LIj.KjR SISKUR EGIR fD kii-an ha-an-da-an-zi nu EGIR fD UN-an MA9.G ar-ha ku-ra-an-zi nu ke-e-ez MA.HI.A ti-ya-an-zi ki-i-iz-zi-ya actha-at-tal-ki-i -na-al KAI.GAL-an! i-ya-an-zi nu-uJ-ga-an t an-zi nam-ma KA.CAL pi-ra-an ki-iz-za pa-ah-hur wa-ar-nu-w wa-ar-nu-wa-an-zi nu-kdn ERfN.ME? ig-tar-na ar-ha pa-iz-zi p[u-4a a-ri nu-ug-ma-as-kdn wa-a-tar a-ra-a pa-ap-pr-aJ- Yaz2 (1975) 65; H. M. Ktimmel, StBoT 3 (1967) 150-52; 0. Mass 45. KUB 17.17 : 8'-10' (CTH 455): "[...] inclusive: two kitchen one bu[ll?... onel] prisoner, one piglet, one dog, two jug[s], LOMUHALDIM [...]X GISGU.ZA har-du-up-pd-e-es 1 GUD.M[AH?... DUcKU-KU-[UB...]. Edited by H. M. Kuimmel, StBoT 3 (1967) 1 be an exception to the rule that only puppies are used in Hit ever, it is a scribal error. 46. Cf. O. Masson, RHR 137 (1950) 9. 47. See the list prepared by H. M. Kiimmel, StBoT 3 (1967) 48. See already J. Sasson, VT 26 (1976) 205, for this observ man prisoners alongside that of dogs compare the Iliad 23:17 ... And there were nine dogs of the table that had belonged to the lord Patroklos. Of these he cut the throats of two, and set them on the pyre; and so also killed twelve noble sons of the great-hearted Trojans with the stroke of bronze, and evil were the thoughts in his heart against them, and let loose the iron fury of the fire to feed on them. (Translated by Richmond Lattimore, The Iliad of Homer, [1961].) The verbal form 8stporopiljaru could mean either "he cut the throats" or "he cut off the heads." Compare a ritual burial at Asine where the head of a dog was placed in a tomb without an accompanying body (see L P. Day, AJA 88 [1984] 26, n. 14). This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to THE PUPPY IN HITTITE RITUAL 221 them in. Then [on either] side [they] burn a fire. [Th through."49 The presence of horses here suggests ano The fact that puppies appear in rituals designed for surprising. The presence of dogs on campaign was no cient times.50 Dogs would have been chosen for thes or cattle, perhaps not only for their magical value (w tle seem to have lacked) but also for their unaccepta Dogs were highly expendable. Although the majority of severing rituals seem to there are other examples that apparently were not. wiyanni (CTH 393) is one. Again the animals used puppy. The goat is later offered to the Protective Dei puppy alone is killed at the gate to fulfill the purifi erything up and drive the puppy and [the goat] befo other location on a mountain-(a place) [w]here a p i 36-43: "We go [out]side to the gate of hawthorn. Th and in front of the gate on one side they set half and they set half. But behind [the gat]e, on either sid [The]n on one side he sets seven offering loaves and sets seven offering loaves."51 After further prepara rificed to dKAL lu-ti-li-mi (VBoT 24.1 ii 2). It is divi snai-, not arha kuer-!) and placed on either side everyone passes through the gate (ii 9f.) the site is a 49. KBo 10.44 obv. 13'-18' (CTH 644): [...]x UR.TUR ar-ha ku-ra-an-z[i....]-kin AN?E.KUR.- RA.MEIF is-tar-na a[r-ha pd-e-hu-da-an-zif... nu ke-e-e]z 1 MAI-pd~' ke-e-ez-zi(-ya) 1 MA" [ti-an-zi ... nam-]ma-at-kdn hu-it-ti-ya-[an-zi nam-ma ke-e-ez ke-e-]ez-zi-ya pa-ah-hur waar-nu-w[a-an-zi ANiE.KUR.R]A.ME? il-tar-na ar-ha pd-e-hu-d[a-an-zij. Edited by B. Rosenkranz, Or NS 33 (1964) 254-56. Compare the use of horses in KUB 30.24 ii 4-6 (H. Otten, HTR [19581 60f.). 50. But see R. M. Cook, "Dogs in Battle," Festschrift Andreas Rumpf, Krefeld (1952) 3842, who argues otherwise. In Sparta, dog sacrifice was practiced in the cult of Ares/Enyalios with the purpose of purifying a wound inflicted by weapons. See L. P. Day, AJA 88 (1984) 27; H. Scholz, "Der Hund bei der griechisch-romischen Magie und Religion," Inaug.-Diss., Berlin (1937) 16-18. 51. VBoT 24 i 30-32: nu hu-u-ma-an a-ra-a tum-me-ni pi-ra-an-na-za UR.TUR [MA, .GAL]- ya hu-i-nu-me-ni nu HUR.SAG-i dam-me-li pi-di [pa-i-wa-ni nu k]u-wa-pti GAPIN-a U-UL a-ar-al-ki-iz-zi; i 36-43 with duplicate KBo 12.104 i 7'-14': [nu a-ra-]ah-za KA.GAL GC1ha-talke-es-na-as [dupl. i 7' [h]a-tal-ki-i?-a-na-asj i-ya-u-e-ni [nu UR.TUR] ar-ha ku-ra-an-zi nu A-NA KA.GAL-TIM [(ha-an-te-e)Jz-zi-ya-az ke-e-ez MA?-AM ti-an-zi [(ke-e-ez-z)]i-ya MA'-AM ti-an-zi // [A-NA KA.GAL-7jIM-ma ap-pi-iz-zi-ya-az [(ke-e-ez) ke-]e-ez-zi-ya CSla-ah-hur-nu-zi [(ti-an-zi) nam-]ma ke-e-ez 7 NINDA.KUR4.RA da-a-i [(ke-e-ez-zi)]-ya 7 NINDA.KUR4RA da-a-i. Edited by E. H. Sturtevant and G. Bechtel, Chrest. (1935) 100-126. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to 222 BILLIE JEAN COLLINS The Ritual of Huwarlu cited above may belo severing rituals as well. The live puppy is seen (KBo 4.2 ii 61f., see n. 30), after which w ZAG-az A-NA NINDA.[(KUR4.R)A...] ti-an-zi "to they set" (ii 63f.). The setting of objects on on severing ritual, particularly when combine verb arha kuer- to describe the puppy's fate. Several fragments provide further possible als.52 One mentions the puppy in a very brok Another mentions the cooking, killing, and tified animal or animals (KBo 11.18 ii 5-9). Ye and halves being placed on either side of som In a Ritual of Atonement for Tudhaliya a puppy is severed (KBo 15.10 i 6, and ii 67'). with a human and in the next line, after a br The Ritual of Pupuwanni against sorcery, re uals in the way the puppy is presented (that i jects and animals), is probably also a purificat role here is not clearly defined by the tw "[Thus (says)] Pupuwanni, the augur, man of gods are magically incited against someone, [ pippa-ed upon that man, for him I [perform ma[nner]': He takes one kid, one puppy, six o tarna (each), [one j]ug of beer, one handful o mi4i].54 The other reference to the puppy in this ritual (omitted in the duplicate text KUB 41.3 + IBoT 2.115, between lines 22 and 23 of col. i) reads as follows: "At dawn, when the sun has not yet risen, they prepare the [of]ferings as follows: Five offering loaves (weighing) a tarna (each) and [N j]ugs of beer, one black puppy, one black lamb, one black kid, 52. See B. Rosenkranz, Or 33 NS (1964) 252-55, for a number of examples. Add to these KBo 25.99 rev.? 3-5: [...]x hu-kdn[-zi...]UR.cI7 e-ep-zi [... hu-kd]n-zi; and KBo 12.96 i 33' (CTH 433): [...]x UnrunR ar-ha ku-r[a-an-zij (in line 19' of this text, a hawthorn gate is erected). 53. Edited by M. Hutter, Behexung, pp. 16f. 54. IBoT 2.115:1-7 (CTH 408) (restored from the colophon of the duplicate KUB 7.2 iv 4'- 9') [I-MA] fPu-pu-wa-an-ni LU.MUgEN.DU LU KUR UU[.. . ma-a-an DINGIR.MES ku-e-da-ni UHr-an-te-es [nam-ma-a]sJ-a-an a-pd-e-da-ni UN-"i GTOCe-e[k-nu-u" a-ra-]a pi-ip-pa-an nuui~i sis uR ki-iJ-'[a-an i-ya-m]i 1 MAS.TUR 1 UR.TUR 6 NINDA.KUR4.RA.HI.A tar-na-a" [1 DUcK]U-KU-UB KAR 1 UP-NU kdn-za ka-a-9i-i? mi-4i-is-ga? te-pu] da-a-i Cf. H. A. Hoffner, Jr., AlHeth (1974) 72. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to THE PUPPY IN HITTITE RITUAL 223 [N hand]fuls (of) wheat. They sprinkle the figurine (he takes) a little [ka]Jis midissa."55 The abundance of severing and closely related ri pies indicates that a well-known ritual procedure procedure that has parallels in adjacent cultures. Liv a ritual that was regularly performed for the army donia in the period of the wars with Rome. In this is severed from its body and is placed on the right, w body with the entrails is placed on the left. The marches through the divided carcass and is thereby p gests that the severing of the dog may have been sy unity of the army, which could be repaired wh between the two halves of the dog.57 Eitrem has already compared this Greek ritual ment passage, Gen. 15, 9-10, in which Abraham cuts and a ram in two: 9) He (Yahweh) answered, "Bring me a three-year-old heifer, a three-yearold she-goat, a three-year-old ram, a turtledove, and a young pigeon" 10) He got them all and slit them through the middle, placing each half opposite the other; but he did not cut the birds.58 Although the animals are different, this ritual clearly resembles the Hittite. A similar ritual is described in Jeremiah 34, 18-20: 18) I will hand over the men who have transgressed my covenant, who did not keep the terms of the covenant which they made in my presence, when they cut the young bull in two and passed between its parts- 19) that is, the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem, the palace officials, the priests and landed gentry, who passed between the parts of the young bull- 20) I will hand them over to their enemies, to those who seek their lives. Their corpses will be food for the carrion birds and the wild beasts.59 55. KUB 7.2 i 19-23 (CTH 408): [GIM]-an-ma lu-uk-kat-ta dUTU-uU-kdn na-ti-i i-iz-zi [nu SISKU]R.SISKUR kit-an ha-an-da-a-an-zi 5 NINDA.KUR4.RA tar-na-a [N DUG]KU-KU-UB KA?-ya 1 UR.TUR GE6 1 SILA GE6 1 MA".TUR GE6 [N UP-]NU kdn-za 'e-na-an A-it pa!-ap-pdr-Ga-an-zi [nu ka-]a-gi-i' mi-di-if-sa te-pu (da-a-i). Cf. H. A. Hoffner, Jr., AlHeth (1974) 72; and JBL 86 (1967) 400. 56. Actually it is caput... et pars "the head ... and a part." 57. S. Eitrem, SO 25 (1947) 37f. Cf. L P. Day, AJA 88 (1984) 27. 58. E. A. Speiser, Genesis, The Anchor Bible, New York (1962) 110. 59. John Bright, Jeremiah, The Anchor Bible, New York (1986) 220. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to 224 BILLIE JEAN COLLINS The cutting in half of these animals is part o emony, comparable to a text from Mari (AR son,60 that refers to the sacrifice of a "puppy the text does not say so, Sasson suggests that t in halves, "their fate serving as warning to th emn vows."61 Compare a passage from Hero which Pythius the Lydian is punished for a tr of his favorite son: Having answered Pythius in these words Xerxes the men to whom such duties fell should find Py him in half and put the two halves one on each s army to march out between them. The order was A reference to dog sacrifice may be found in cussed and translated by Sasson), which concer He who slaughtered an ox (would now) slay a man (would now) break a dog's neck, who presented cer present) the blood of a swine, who burnt comme now) worship an idol, for, although they had chos (now) delight in abomination; I too will choose way upon them the very things they fear. 3 According to this passage, to practice a ritua of a dog's neck (Carap "to break the neck [by abomination. The skeletal remains at Boghazkoy add little to our information about the uses of puppies in ritual. The bones vary from those of large adults to those of puppies, with no tendency toward a particular age group. In addition, since rituals in which puppies are killed occurred not in the royal court at Hattula, but among the common people and in the military, it is unlikely that many puppy skeletons resulting from such rituals would be recovered. (Indeed, the nature and size of the dog population within Hattuga was almost certainly not indicative of the dog population in Anatolia as a whole.) 60. J. Sasson, VT 26 (1976) 202. 61. VT 26 (1976) 204. 62. Herodotus, The Histories, translated by Aubrey de Selincourt, New York: Penguin Books (1972) 459. 63. VT 26 (1976) 200f. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to THE PUPPY IN HITTITE RITUAL 225 Puppy burials dating to the Greek period have b In this coastal town of Asia Minor, "puppies were and interred, although not apparently eaten, as part to Hermes Kandaulas."64 (Hermes Kandaulas, i equated with "Hermes dog throttler."65 Although tively common in prehistoric Europe, puppy burials The ritual killing of puppies seems to have few par mia. In this region, the dog was considered sacred to healing deity, probably because of its presumed Near her temple in her city, Isin, thirty-three (adult to the beginning of the first millennium, have been pendants with dogs drawn on them and clay dog fig suggest the possibility that these animals were used to the cult of this goddess. Two conclusions present themselves. First, altho less frequently in rituals as a whole than other dom as the cow, sheep and goat, it is inaccurate to say th rituals is rare.68 On the contrary, a substantial numb puppies,69 and it is only the nature of the puppy's rit sulted in its less frequent use relative to other dome to say, puppies were not used as offering anima sheep and goat.70 This fact is attributable to the were not fitting offerings for the gods. The aversion (with the apparent exception of the chthonic dIMIN clean creature is clearly revealed in the Instructions sonnel (CTH 264) where these employees are spec keep dogs and pigs away from the food and equipme gods.71 We may assert therefore that, outside of off 64. L P. Day, AJA 88 (1984) 28. 65. N. Robertson, "Hittite Ritual at Sardis," CIAnt 1 (1982) 122-4 66. See J. Maringer, APA 11/12 (1980/81) 37-41. 67. J. N. Postgate, "Excavations in Iraq 1972-73," Iraq 35 (197 Archaiologisch," RLA V, 91. 68. See, for example, 0. Masson, RHR 137 (1950) 9. 69. On this point see also H. M. Kuimmel, StBoT 3 (1967) 152. 70. See already A. Goetze, K12 (1957) 164, who notes that the do offering animals. 71. KUB 13.4 i 20-22: "A pig or dog of the gate must not go up t thing different (between) the mind of a human and (that) of the matter as) this? No! Rather, (they are of) exactly one mind." And implements of wood or implements of fired clay as you posse This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to 226 BILLIE JEAN COLLINS among the animals most often used in ritual. we have seen, was to prevent impurity or puppies in these rituals was not done for the an essential part of the processes of preventio Second, ritual procedures using puppies rema in content and form. The severing rituals in signed specifically for the manipulation of other animals. In other words, although piglet in severing rituals with a puppy, they will ne able to determine, be used without a puppy. The consistent pattern of the rituals described animal use in Hittite ritual is more complex th comes near (them), and the "lord of the pot" does not thro the gods (so that they) eat from a polluted (implement), dung (and) urine to eat and drink" nam-ma-kdn pdr-Ju-u-ra le-e ti-ya-zi UN-a DINGIRcME?-a,'-a zI-an-za ta-ma-a-it ku-ig-ki UL ki-i-pdit ku-it UL zI-an- za-ma 1-ag-padt iii 64-68: ma-a-an U-NU-TE.ME IS-SI t"-NU-TE.ME? GIR4 ku-e har-te-ni na-aJ-ta ma-a-an ?AH-a? UR.G17-av ku-wa-pi-ik-ki an-da ?a-a-li-ga EN.TU7-ma-at ar-ha UL pd-eb?-e-ya- zi nu a-pa-a-aJ DINGIR.ME?-a, pa-ap-ra-an-da-za a-da-an-na pa-a-i a-pe'-e-da-ni-ma DIN- GIRMEE-eJ za-ak-kar :du-ui-U'r a-da-an-na a-ku-wa-an-na pi-an-zi. Cf. A. Goetze, ANET (1969) 207; E. H. Sturtevant and G. Bechtel, Chrest. (1935) 149-68. This content downloaded from on Thu, 06 May 2021 19:12:16 UTC All use subject to Assignment for May 10: The “Ritual Between the Pieces” Among your readings of Hittite texts, there is a brief one called "The 'Ritual Between the pieces.” Pls read it and try to figure out its purpose and meaning. To this end, I have also posted an article by the translator that may help. Of course, please give reasons for your analysis. For those of you who are Biblically inclined, you may check the Hittite text against Genesis 15:7-18. The comparison may be helpful, or it may not. Unlike the earlier assignment, this one is written. Your response need not be long (definitely, no more than a page). Think of the exercise as a "thought problem.

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