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Homework answers / question archive / Critical Reflection Directions: Standing Babas For this critical reflection, you will be responding to a series of questions

Critical Reflection Directions: Standing Babas For this critical reflection, you will be responding to a series of questions

Writing

Critical Reflection Directions: Standing Babas For this critical reflection, you will be responding to a series of questions. Your critical reflection must be at least one and a half (1½) pages in length. You can write more if you choose to do so, but do not write less. Please answer all the questions below in order, and spend as much time on each question as you need to. Do not skip questions or parts of the questions. Please read all the requirements listed at the bottom of this page. 1. Describe in your own words what Standing Babas are, what they do, and why they do it. 2. Is their vow aligned with the culture’s values? Why or why not? 3. What was your impression of and reaction to the Standing Babas after watching the video and reading the article? Explain. 4. Based off your reactions, what assumptions might you make regarding the Standing Babas? Explain why you may have those assumptions. 5. Did reading the article and watching the video confirm or alter your assumptions about the Standing Babas. If they were confirmed, how? If they were not confirmed, why not? Please provide detailed examples (in your own words) of specific instances from the article that verified or changed your assumptions. 6. Did any of your assumptions surprise you? Why or why not? 7. What do you think you can do to be more culturally relative? (Being culturally relative means a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another). Requirements: • Begin your critical reflection with a short introduction, and end with a short conclusion. • All sentences need to be 10 words. • Break your reflection into multiple paragraphs. Indent each paragraph. • Capitalize names and beginnings of sentences. • Type your response in the template provided. • Double space your document. • Use Times New Roman or Cambria size 12. CHAPTER 2: VALUES Chapter 2 Overview • In this section of notes, you will learn how to identify assumptions, identify and write values, understand theories of ethical behavior, understand the dimensions of ethics, and understand why people should not rationalize their behavior. • Everyone has values, and it’s important to understand our own values. In addition, it’s important to understand and accept the values of others, even if they’re different from your own. Analyzing values will make you a better critical thinker. • Everyone has morals and ethics, and it’s important to understand where you stand on different ethical theories and ethical dilemmas. Making good ethical decisions will make you a better critical thinker. • Lastly, it’s important to be able to identify common rationalizations people use to justify their behavior. It’s important to avoid these to be a better critical thinker. What is an assumption? • An assumption is a unstated (and often unconscious) belief about the way the world is or should be that affects the way we accept the the reasons and conclusions of others. • We make assumptions all the time. • We can’t live without them, but assumptions can be harmful to make, especially if they are made with no evidence or proof. Values • Values: core beliefs or desires that guide or motivate our attitudes and actions. Our values determine how we will behave and think in certain situations. • Examples: • truth, freedom, health, education, individual privacy, parental rights, friendship, love • WRITE VALUES AS 1-2 WORDS ALWAYS. Values should be written as nouns. • They need to be positive. Values should not be negative. • Our values come from • Family • Peers • Media • religion • Have your values changed over time? If so, what caused them to change? What is a Value? • Values determine your priorities, and deep down, they are probably the measures you use to tell if your life is turning out the way you want it to. • When the things you do and the way you behave match your values, life is usually good, and you’re satisfied and content. • But when the things you do in life do not align with your personal values, life is not always good, and you feel a sense of unhappiness. • As critical thinkers, it is important for people to be honest about their own behavior, and it’s important to learn to distinguish words from actions. • Once we can identify and understand our own personal values, we are then able to analyze and evaluate authors’ values and other people’s values. What is a Value? What is a Value? • A value is an unstated, worthwhile, abstract idea about what you believe is good and right. • Write values as 1-2 word nouns such as truth, loyalty, and freedom. • Everybody has values, and you can’t live without them! • We hold many values in common but to different degrees, which is why we argue so much! • It’s very important to know other people’s values, and you want them to know yours. What is a Value Assumption? The book states a Value Assumption is how we want the world to be. We value family, so we think everyone should value family. • Definition: A Value Assumption is a preference for one value over another in a particular context. In other words, it’s your TOP VALUE IN A GIVEN SITUATION or THE AUTHOR’S TOP VALUE in an article or story. • Every day, your values shift and rotate. The value that is at the top of your list as your #1 value at a certain time during the day is your Value Assumption. • For example, when I go to work, my #1 value (Value Assumption) is work ethic. However, when I go home, my #1 value (Value Assumption) is family. • My values always shift and rotate themselves in different orders, and your values do, too. Stop and think what your #1 value is right now. Later today, stop and think what your #1 value is. That is your Value Assumption. • A Value Assumption is created when a particular (unstated) value “rises to the top” to influence the choice of reasons and the conclusion. Values may add bias to our thinking. • Sometimes our values (and beliefs) cause us to want to accept or reject information based on incomplete or controversial data. • Don’t allow your values to make you closeminded. Keep your values close to your heart and act on your values, but don’t criticize others or be unwilling to listen to someone just because your values are different. What is a Value Conflict? • A Value Conflict is when two competing values cannot be held to the same degree in a given argument or situation. • I value my education and my family. Should I go to class or stay home to help a sick family member? • Education vs. Family. • I value honesty and compassion. When my roommate asks how she looks in her new outfit, should I tell her that she has hideous taste in clothes? • Honesty vs. Compassion Ideal Values vs. Real Values • Ideal Values: values you believe to be right and good but you don’t act on consistently. • Nutrition: I believe that it is right and good, but I don’t do it consistently. • Real Values: values you believe to be right and good and consistently act upon in your life. • Honesty: I believe in honesty and telling the truth, and I do it consistently no matter what. CHAPTER 2: ETHICS Ethics Important Dimension of Values • Ethics (or morals): standards of conduct that reflect what we consider to be right or wrong behavior. • Example: If you arrive home and notice that a cashier at a store gave you too much change, should you go back to the store and return the money? • This example is about your personal standards of right and wrong, or good and evil. • Your answer to this kind of ethical dilemma will reflect your value priorities. Ethics • When values concern right and wrong behavior, we call them morals. • Morals place words, actions, and ideas into good and bad categories. This is why we judge others more strongly on morals versus values. • When morals are codified into a system, we call them ethics. • Ethics are a more formal dimension of values that defines standard of right and wrong conduct. • Ethics are standards of conduct that reflect what we consider to be right or wrong behavior. • In ethical arguments, you define and evaluate an item then assess the value of its being. • Just because something is good, does this mean it’s right? • Ethical arguments must be expressed in ethical terms such as right vs. wrong and moral vs. immoral. Theories of Ethical Behavior • Libertarianism: the highest value is to promote the liberty of all. • It allows for one’s individual freedom. • It does not restrict freedom of others. • However, you cannot cross the line and impact someone else’s freedom. For example, if you are peacefully protesting, that is acceptable under Libertarianism. But if the riot turns violent and other people are impacted, that is where the line is crossed. • People who believe in this theory think “You have your personal freedom, I have mine, and no one should cross the line. This is the way it should be.” • Examples: • Freedom of the press • Freedom of speech and assembly Theories of Ethical Behavior • Utilitarianism: Action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. • This theory is similar to the question of “Do I save one person or save a thousand? • The main idea of this theory is to secure the greatest good for the greatest number. • yoo-til-i-tair-ee-uh-niz-uhm • Examples: • The tax system in the United States: The rich may not benefit from having to give up a greater portion of their income than the poor, but society as a whole benefits from this arrangement. • Ice cream at a party: I asked my friends what kind of ice cream they wanted for a party. 9 friends said vanilla, and 1 said chocolate. I got all vanilla because it was cheaper to buy in bulk. Theories of Ethical Behavior • Egalitarianism: The highest value is equality (justice and fairness). • The same opportunities should apply to all people. • We should treat others as we would want to be treated. • Example: • Discrimination is unethical (workplace, hiring). • Treatment in any case should be the same for all. • Education should be available to everyone. Theories of Ethical Behavior • Religious Values: Love God and oneself, and live your life based on the teachings of your religion. • One’s ethical behavior is based on religious teachings or behaviors. • Many people make choices and decisions based on the values and lessons in their religions. • Examples: • All people are created by God, therefore all should be treated with respect. • Conduct you behavior in a manner that will honor God. Theories of Ethical Behavior • • • • • Prima facie values: These are the core, foundational, and universal ethical principles that any society follows. Even though all people won’t follow or believe in the core values, the majority does. Universal ethics exist and are self-evident and obvious to rational individuals of every culture. These values make up the foundation of a society. Examples: Honesty, integrity, loyalty, fairness, responsibility, citizenship. CHAPTER 2: Rationalizations Rationalizations • In Chapter 2, the author tells us that using rationalizations in our thinking is not beneficial, even though we all do it. • When we rationalize our behavior, we are often trying to blame someone for our actions, cover up or hide the truth, put ourselves above another person, or make excuses for our actions. • Every time to rationalize your behavior, you are not thinking critically because you tend to cause more problems and get further away from solutions. • A critical thinker always takes a step back, analyzes a situation, gathers facts, and makes a logical decision. • Rationalizations are not productive, even though they might make you feel better about a situation. • These are in the chapter because they author wants us to be aware of rationalizations so we can avoid them in our daily lives. Types of Rationalizations 1. If It’s Necessary, It’s Ethical • Example: A woman steals formula for her baby because she doesn’t have money but needs to feed her baby. • Definition: If you must do something, you’ll do what ever it takes, even if it’s not legal. 2. If It’s Legal and Permissible, It’s Proper • Example: Gambling away your paycheck because gambling is legal. • Definition: If it’s legal, it’s ok. However, other people might question your actions because what you’re doing is not the norm. 3. I Was Just Doing It For You • Example: Not telling your friend she looks bad in her favorite dress in order to protect her feelings. • Definition: Not being honest with someone or withholding information from them to protect them and their feelings. 4. I’m Just Fighting Fire With Fire • Example: I hit my brother because he hit me first. • Definition: Doing something back to someone to get revenge. Types of Rationalizations 5. It Doesn’t Hurt Anyone • Example: Giving friends discounts at a store even if you aren’t supposed to. • Example: I can speed if there is no one around at 2 a.m. • Definition: Your actions are fine as long as no one is hurt physically, mentally, or emotionally. 6. Everyone’s Doing It • Example: Vaping • Definition: Doing something because you see others doing it. Doing something because it’s the norm or the trend. 7. It’s O.K. If I Don’t Gain Personally • Example: Helping someone finish a test even though they’re supposed to complete it alone, but you expect nothing in return. • Example: Donating clothes and toys to a children’s home but not getting a tax write-off. • Definition: Thinking something is fine to do, even if you don’t benefit. Types of Rationalizations 8. I’ve Got It Coming (I Deserve It) • Example: Calling in sick even though you’re not sick because you’ve worked hard. • Example: Eating 5 donuts on a cheat day because you know you’ve been working hard on your diet. • Definition: Thinking you deserve something because of your behavior. Positive karma (not negative karma). 9. I Can Still be Objective • Example: A coach starting their child over better players. • Example: A manager hiring a friend over someone they don’t know. • Definition: Saying you can be unbiased in a situation, but you know you can’t be.

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