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Homework answers / question archive / York University - KINE 4020 Nutrients for Energy Metabolism MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)In addition to a folate-rich diet, women who are pregnant should include a daily supplement of how many milligrams of additional folic acid? 100 µg 200 µg 300 µg 400 µg                                              Nicole is pregnant and is trying to monitor her folate intake

York University - KINE 4020 Nutrients for Energy Metabolism MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)In addition to a folate-rich diet, women who are pregnant should include a daily supplement of how many milligrams of additional folic acid? 100 µg 200 µg 300 µg 400 µg                                              Nicole is pregnant and is trying to monitor her folate intake

Health Science

York University - KINE 4020

Nutrients for Energy Metabolism

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1)In addition to a folate-rich diet, women who are pregnant should include a daily supplement of how many milligrams of additional folic acid?

    1. 100 µg
    2. 200 µg
    3. 300 µg
    4. 400 µg

                                          

 

  1. Nicole is pregnant and is trying to monitor her folate intake. She is eating foods high in folate as well as taking folate supplements, and she is having a hard time determining how many dietary folate equi- valents (DFEs) she is consuming. Below is a list of her daily intake with respect to folate:
  • 125 mL of cooked lentils (180 μg food folate)
  • 125 mL of fresh orange juice (60 μg food folate)
  • folate supplement (200 μg)

 

How many DFEs is Nicole consuming? a.  440

b.   480

c.     540

d.   580

                                          

 

  1. Because of adverse interactions with other vitamins, a safe daily folate intake is up to which of the fol- lowing amounts?
    1. 400 µg
    2. 600 µg
    3. 1000 µg
    4. 2000 µg

                                          

 

  1. A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood?
    1. folate
    2. biotin
    3. niacin
    4. vitamin K

                                          

 

  1. The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of which of the following vitamins?
    1. folate
    2. niacin
    3. vitamin C
    4. vitamin B6

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following vitamins is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digest- ive tract cells?
    1. folate
    2. niacin
    3. thiamin
    4. riboflavin

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following substances is known to adversely affect folate utilization?
    1. insulin
    2. calcium supplements
    3. regular use of antacids
    4. vitamin B12 supplements

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following statements is representative of folate availability in foods?
    1. Good sources are dairy products and meats.
    2. Poor sources are fruit juices and vegetable juices.
    3. Much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation.
    4. Only about 10 percent of the amount in foods is bioavailable.

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following factors is known to significantly affect the body’s folate status?
    1. sedentary lifestyle
    2. some anticancer drugs
    3. excess protein intake

 

    1. insufficient fibre intake

                                          

 

  1. Physiological stresses such as blood loss, burns, measles, and cancer are known particularly to increase the risk of deficiency for which of the following vitamins?
    1. biotin
    2. folate
    3. riboflavin
    4. pantothenic acid

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate?
    1. hemolysis
    2. hypoxemia
    3. hemolytic anemia
    4. macrocytic anemia

                                          

 

  1. Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed which of the following foods?
    1. soy milk
    2. goat’s milk
    3. rice milk
    4. infant formula

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following, among all the vitamins, is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs?
    1. folate
    2. niacin
    3. vitamin B6
    4. vitamin B12

                                          

 

  1. What is the RDA for folate for a woman weighing 60 kilograms?
    1. 180 μg
    2. 220 μg
    3. 242 μg
    4. 400 μg

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is the adult RDA for folate?
    1. 100 µg
    2. 200 µg
    3. 400 µg
    4. 800 µg

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following foods is highest in folate?
    1. meats

 

    1. starches
    2. dairy products
    3. green, leafy vegetables

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?
    1. bile
    2. lipase
    3. intrinsic factor
    4. carboxypeptidase

                                          

 

  1. What is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption?
    1. It catalyzes release of the vitamin from its protein-bound form.
    2. It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines.
    3. It acts as a storage protein for the vitamin within the intestinal epithelial cells.
    4. It acts as a cofactor for mucosal enzymes involved in absorption of the vitamin.

                                          

 

  1. What is the name of the mineral that is found at the centre of a B12 molecule?
    1. chloride
    2. calcium
    3. copper
    4. cobalt

                                          

 

  1. What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?
    1. inadequate intake
    2. increased excretion
    3. inadequate absorption
    4. increased losses in food preparation

                                          

 

  1. Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of which of the following nutrients?
    1. folate
    2. selenium
    3. vitamin B12
    4. iron and copper

                                          

 

  1. The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of which of the following vitamins?
    1. folate
    2. vitamin B1
    3. vitamin C
    4. vitamin B12

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following vitamin’s absorption is most affected by the disorder atrophic gastritis?
    1. choline
    2. vitamin C
    3. vitamin B12
    4. pantothenic acid

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?
    1. It is efficiently recycled by the body.
    2. It is necessary for protection from pinpoint hemorrhages.
    3. It requires attachment to fatty acids for transport in the circulation.
    4. It is absorbed from the stomach with the aid of a special binding protein.

                                          

 

  1. A similar type of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of which of the following vitamins?
    1. either riboflavin or niacin
    2. either vitamin B12 or folate
    3. either thiamin or riboflavin
    4. either vitamin B6 or vitamin B12

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by inadequate absorption?
    1. injection of cobalamin
    2. topical administration of liver extract
    3. oral supplements of B-vitamin complex
    4. a diet high in liver and green, leafy vegetables

                                          

 

  1. If a person refrained from ingesting any of the water-soluble vitamins, deficiency symptoms would oc- cur for which of the following vitamins?
    1. folate
    2. vitamin C
    3. vitamin B1
    4. vitamin B12

                                          

 

  1. Normally, the body’s storage and re-utilization of vitamin B12 prevents a primary or secondary defi- ciency from occurring until after about which of the following times?
    1. 3 days
    2. 3 weeks
    3. 3 months
    4. 3 years

                                          

 

  1. In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop?
    1. 1 month

 

b. 6 months

c.     1 year

d. 3 years

 

 

  1. Pernicious anemia results from a combination of lack of intrinsic factor and which of the following situations?
    1. pharmacologic intakes of cobalamin
    2. lack of hydrochloric acid
    3. lack of pancreatic vitaminases
    4. pharmacologic intakes of folate

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic gastritis?
    1. age over 40 years
    2. lack of protein
    3. Helicobacter pylori infection
    4. avoidance of leafy vegetables

                                          

 

  1. A marginal vitamin B12 deficiency can impair which one of the body's functions?
    1. cognition
    2. digestion
    3. respiration
    4. circulation

                                          

 

  1. Among the following water-soluble vitamins, a secondary deficiency would most likely be seen for which of the following vitamins?
    1. biotin
    2. thiamin
    3. vitamin C
    4. vitamin B12

                                          

 

  1. Vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency for which of the following reasons?
    1. Vegetarian diets inhibit absorption of the vitamin.
    2. Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin.
    3. The fibre content of vegetarian diets causes decreased storage by the liver.
    4. The fibre content of vegetarian diets causes increased excretion of the vitamin.

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following foods would be the only source of vitamin B12?
    1. pecans
    2. hot dog
    3. cauliflower
    4. whole-grain bread

                                          

 

  1. A vegan vegetarian should include which of the following best sources of B12-rich foods in his/her diet?
    1. spirulina
    2. miso
    3. B12-enriched soy milk
    4. B12-enriched yeast

                                          

 

  1. The adult RDA for vitamin B12 is which of the following?
    1. 0.5 µg
    2. 1.2 µg
    3. 2.4 µg
    4. 4.0 µg

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following vitamins has an RDA?
    1. biotin
    2. choline
    3. cobalamin
    4. pantothenic acid

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body?
    1. carnitine
    2. orotic acid
    3. methoxatin
    4. pangamic acid

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is considered a non-vitamin in the human diet?
    1. folic acid
    2. lipoic acid
    3. ascorbic acid
    4. pantothenic acid

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is classified as a conditionally essential nutrient?
    1. PABA
    2. choline
    3. inositol
    4. ubiquinone

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following substances is probably required in the diet of human beings?
    1. choline

 

    1. inositol
    2. lipoic acid
    3. pangamic acid

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following has been mistaken to be an essential nutrient for human beings?
    1. cobalamin
    2. ubiquinone
    3. pyridoxine
    4. pantothenic acid

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following body parts is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?
    1. bones
    2. tongue
    3. liver
    4. hair and nails

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency?
    1. anemia
    2. smooth tongue
    3. abnormal liver function
    4. abnormal heart function

                                          

 

  1. Sulphur is present in practically all of which of the following compounds?
    1. vitamins
    2. proteins
    3. fatty acids
    4. carbohydrates

                                          

 

  1. Some amino acids can link to each other by bridges made of which mineral?
    1. sulphur
    2. calcium
    3. chloride
    4. magnesium

                                          

 

  1. What is the major source of dietary sulphur?
    1. fats
    2. protein
    3. mineral salts
    4. carbohydrates

 

                                          

 

  1. Which one of the following body components is known to have a high sulphur content?
    1. skin
    2. eyes
    3. teeth
    4. bones

                                          

 

  1. A deficiency of which of the following minerals is the primary cause of goitre?
    1. iron
    2. zinc
    3. iodine
    4. selenium

                                          

 

  1. What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine?
    1. iron
    2. copper
    3. iodine
    4. magnesium

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is a thyroid gland hormone?
    1. thyroxine
    2. goitrogen
    3. thyrotropin
    4. tissue stimulating hormone

                                          

 

  1. What is the primary function of the thyroid hormones?
    1. precursors for hemoglobin synthesis
    2. counteract a deficiency of goitrogens
    3. control the rate of oxygen use by cells
    4. regulate acetylcholine concentrations in the central nervous system

                                          

 

  1. Which is the most common cause of iodine deficiency?
    1. insufficient intake of iodine from foods
    2. over-consumption of other trace elements
    3. over-consumption of anti-thyroid substances
    4. pituitary deficiencies of thyroid-stimulating hormone

                                          

 

  1. What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency?
    1. increase in its size to trap more iodine
    2. increase in its size to trap more thyroxine
    3. decreased release of thyroid-stimulating hormone
    4. decreased release of thyroid-stimulating hormone

 

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following conditions may result from iodine deficiency?
    1. gout
    2. goitre
    3. anemia
    4. hypertension

                                          

 

  1. What of the following conditions may be present in a child born to a woman with a severe iodine defi- ciency during pregnancy?
    1. anemia
    2. rickets
    3. cretinism
    4. allergies

                                          

 

  1. What nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism?
    1. iodine
    2. copper
    3. chromium
    4. molybdenum

                                          

 

  1. A goitrogen is which of the following?
    1. a hormone produced by the thyroid gland
    2. a substance that enhances absorption of dietary iodide
    3. a substance that interferes with the functioning of the thyroid gland
    4. a compound used to supplement salt as a way to increase iodide intake

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following conditions does a person risk developing if they ingest large amounts of thyroid antagonist substances?
    1. cretinism
    2. simple goitre
    3. high blood T3 levels
    4. high blood thyroxine levels

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following foods are known to contain goitrogens?
    1. shellfish
    2. whole grains
    3. cauliflower and broccoli
    4. blueberries and raspberries

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following fruits are known to contain substances that inhibit the functioning of the thyroid gland?
    1. apples and pears
    2. lemons and limes

 

    1. avocados and mangos
    2. peaches and strawberries

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is a prominent feature of mild iodine deficiency in children?
    1. demineralization
    2. growth retardation
    3. discoloration of teeth
    4. poor performance in school

                                          

 

  1. What is the origin of goitrogens in the diet?
    1. naturally occurring
    2. food industry additives
    3. excessive use of fortified salt
    4. hydrogenation of certain minerals

                                          

 

  1. You have just been hired by the World Health Organization to promote nutrition education and policies in a small country in Asia, whose population has a high prevalence of goitre. Which of the following policies would be the best to implement with respect to iodine status, cost, and efficiency?
    1. Fortify the salt with iodine.
    2. Promote free iodine supplements for all who want them.
    3. Educate the population to avoid all goitrogens in their diet.
    4. Educate the population to spend more time at the beach, as seawater, sea mist, and seafood are sources of iodine.

                                          

 

  1. How did the recent Canadian Health Measures Survey test for the iodine nutritional status of Cana- dians?
    1. by feces samples
    2. by blood samples
    3. by urine samples
    4. by saliva samples

                                          

 

  1. Which one of the following types of salt has iodine added to it?
    1. Kosher salt
    2. table salt
    3. sea salt
    4. pickling salt

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is the richest source of iodine?
    1. corn
    2. seafood
    3. orange juice
    4. cruciferous vegetables

                                          

 

  1. If cow’s milk is found to contain unusually high levels of iodine, what is the most likely explanation?
    1. storage of milk in galvanized tanks
    2. grazing of cows on high-iodine soils
    3. addition of fortified salt at the milk processing plant
    4. exposure of cows to iodide-containing medications and disinfectants

                                          

 

  1. Approximately how much iodized salt must be consumed to meet but not exceed the RDA for iodine?
    1. 1 mL
    2. 2 mL
    3. 3 mL
    4. 4 mL

                                          

 

  1. What is the adult RDA for iodine?
    1. 45 µg
    2. 100 µg
    3. 150 µg
    4. 225 µg

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following would most likely result from an excessive intake of iodine?
    1. diarrhea
    2. skin rashes
    3. dehydration
    4. thyroid gland enlargement

                                          

 

  1. What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for iodine?
    1. 200 µg
    2. 450 µg
    3. 1100 µg
    4. 2000 µg

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following would be the most appropriate food source of iodide for a person who lives in- land?
    1. fresh-water fish
    2. iodized table salt
    3. locally grown produce
    4. plants of the cabbage family

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following foods makes the greatest contribution of manganese to the diet?
    1. meats and fish
    2. breads and cereals
    3. fruits and vegetables
    4. dairy products

 

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following represents the most likely cause of manganese toxicity?
    1. consumption of supplements
    2. increased absorption due to genetic defect
    3. inhalation of dust contaminated with manganese
    4. consumption of foods grown on manganese-rich soils

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following food components does chromium help to metabolize?
    1. iron
    2. proteins
    3. carbohydrates
    4. metallothionein

                                          

 

  1. As far as is known, what hormone is dependent upon chromium for optimal activity?
    1. renin
    2. gastrin
    3. insulin
    4. antidiuretic hormone

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the best food sources of chromium?
    1. grapefruit
    2. cabbage
    3. liver
    4. shrimp

                                          

 

  1. What is a glucose tolerance factor?
    1. a protein that stimulates glycolysis
    2. a mineral cofactor for a specific enzyme
    3. a hormone that enhances pancreatic function
    4. a small organic compound that promotes the action of insulin

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following conditions is characteristic of chromium deficiency?
    1. hypertension
    2. hyperglycemia
    3. enlargement of the liver
    4. enlargement of the thyroid gland

                                          

 

  1. A vitamin supplement labelled as “high potency” contains an amount that is which of the following?
    1. 50 percent of the Daily Value
    2. equal to the UL
    3. up to 200 percent of the Daily Value
    4. 100 percent or more of the Daily Value

 

                                          

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of the Canadian population takes multinutrient supplements regularly?
    1. 5 percent
    2. 33 percent
    3. 50 percent
    4. 80 percent

                                          

 

  1. Which one of the following supplemental vitamins is most likely to cause toxicity?
    1. biotin
    2. riboflavin
    3. thiamin
    4. niacin

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following statements is representative of vitamin supplementation practices?
    1. Most people who take supplements consume a poor diet.
    2. Most people should take supplements daily because of the great difficulty in obtaining the needed amounts from food.
    3. People who have low energy intakes or are pregnant are at risk for developing deficiencies and may benefit from supplementation.
    4. People should take supplements daily because nutrition surveys in Canada have detected deficiencies in some population groups.

                                          

 

  1. A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of which of the following?
    1. vitamin A
    2. vitamin B6
    3. vitamin C
    4. vitamin D

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following individuals should consume a vitamin and mineral supplement?
    1. Samantha, a vegetarian who consumes eggs and dairy.
    2. Fred, a 40-year-old male who consumes a 2000 kcalorie diet with a variety of foods.
    3. John, an elderly gentleman who lacks the intrinsic factor.
    4. Gina, a lactose intolerant mother who consumes soy milk which is fortified with vitamins A and D and calcium.

                                          

 

  1. Which of the following problems occurs with chewable vitamin C supplements?
    1. The supplements dissolve tooth enamel.

 

    1. The supplements cause headaches.
    2. The supplements cause dehydration.
    3. The supplements cause the skin to turn green.

                                          

 

MATCHING

 

 

  1. Pork
  2. Corn
  3. Dairy
  4. Folate
  5. Biotin
  6. Niacin
  7. Chromium
  8. Anemia
  9. Brewer's yeast
  10. Beriberi
  11. Goitre
  12. Riboflavin
  13. Vitamin B6
  14. Vitamin B12
  15. Tryptophan
  16. Liver
  17. Tea
  18. Intrinsic factor
  19. Ultraviolet light
  20. Pantothenic acid
  1. Name of thiamin deficiency disease
  2. A food unusually rich in thiamin
  3. Exposure to this leads to destruction of riboflavin
  4. A food source that supplies a substantial amount of people’s riboflavin intake
  5. Deficiency of this vitamin leads to cracks and redness at corners of the mouth
  6. Used for synthesis of niacin
  7. Over-consumption of this food has resulted in pellagra
  8. High doses are known to lower LDL cholesterol
  9. Deficiency of this vitamin is induced by feeding raw egg whites
  10. This vitamin is a component of acetyl-coA
  11. Toxicity from this vitamin is known to cause nerve damage and inability to walk
  12. Prevention of neural tube defects is related to increased intake of this substance by pregnant women
  13. One of the first symptoms of folate deficiency
  14. Required to maintain nerve fibre sheath
  15. Required for absorption of vitamin B12
  16. Helps to metabolize carbohydrate
  17. Food source of manganese
  18. Food source of chromium
  19. Food source of sulphur
  20. Adult deficiency disease of iodine

 

 

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