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Homework answers / question archive / DNA and Protein Synthesis: 1)How do viruses reproduce?  Are they alive?   2

DNA and Protein Synthesis: 1)How do viruses reproduce?  Are they alive?   2

Biology

DNA and Protein Synthesis:

1)How do viruses reproduce?  Are they alive?

 

2.         Determine the percentage of the other nucleotides:

If A = 6%, then what would the % of T, C, and G: Click here to enter text.

If C – 12%, then what would the % of T, A, and G: Click here to enter text.

If G – 23.12%, then what would the % of T, C, and A

 

3.         What is meant by DNA being anti-parallel?

 

4.   Below is a nucleotide sequence of a single strand of DNA.  Write the sequence of the Complementary strand indicating the appropriate 5’ and 3’ ends.

 

5’-A-T-C-A-C-T-A-T-A-T-A-G-C-T-C-G-A-T-C-G-T-C-A-T-C-G-3’

 

5.         What kind of bond holds the complementary strands of DNA together?

           

6.         What kind of bond connects adjacent nucleotides to one another?

           

7.   What is Chargaff’s Rule?

           

8.         Which of the bases are purines?

           

9.         Which of the bases are pyrimidines?

 

10.       What is the function of

helicase:               

single-strand binding proteins:     Click here to enter text.

topoisomerase:     Click here to enter text.

primase:   

DNA polymerase:  Click here to enter text.

ligase:        Click here to enter text.

 

11.       What are Okazaki fragments?

 

12.       Outline the steps of DNA replication.

 

13.       What is the difference between the leading strand and the lagging strand?

 

14.       Does DNA polymerase ever put the wrong nucleotide in place?  If so, what enzyme fixes the mistake?

 

15.       What is a mutation?

 

16.       What are transcription and translation?

 

17.       How do DNA and RNA differ in their structure and function?

 

18.       How do DNA and RNA similar in their structure and function?

 

19.       What sugar is used in DNA?

 

20.       What sugar is used in RNA?

 

21.       What are the four bases of DNA?

 

22.       What are the four bases of RNA?

 

23.       In which direction is RNA transcribed?

 

24.       Is mRNA made from the template strand or the DNA coding strand?

 

25.       What are codons?

 

26.       What is the start codon and what amino acid does it code for?

 

27.       What are the stop codons and what amino acids do they code for?

 

28.       In what part of the eukaryotic cell does transcription occur?

 

29.       What are the three types of RNA and there functions?

 

30.       What is an anticodon and how does it relate to the mRNA sequence?

 

31.       What are the steps of post transcriptional modification (mRNA processing) and what is the purpose of these modifications.

 

32.       What are introns and exons?

 

33.       What structure performs translation and what is it made of?

 

34.       In which part of the eukaryotic cell does translation occur?

 

35.       What is the first amino acid of every protein?

 

36.       What is the source of energy for translation?

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Mitosis and Meiosis

 

1.         What is mitosis?

 

2.         What are somatic cells and where are they located cells located?

 

3.         What are germ cells and where they located?

 

4.         What kinds of cells perform mitosis?

 

5.         What are the three phases of interphase and what happens in each?

 

6.         What are the four phases of mitosis and what happens in each?

 

7.         What is a chromosome?

 

8.         What is a replicated chromosome and what stage of the cell cycle is it first observed?

 

9.         Identify and know the anatomical parts of a chromosome:

chromatid:                       

sister chromatids:

centromere:                     

kinetochore:                                 

 

10.       When is a chromatid a chromatid?

 

11.       Does a chromosome have sister chromatids before S-phase, after S-phase, or both? Explain!

 

12.       Explain cytokinesis.

 

13.       What does haploid and diploid mean?

 

14.       What are the components of the spindle apparatus and what are the functions of each of the components.

 

15.       What does aneuploidy mean?

 

16.       What does non-disjunction mean?

 

17.       How many cells suffer from aneuploidy if non-disjunction occurs in meiosis I?

 

18.       How many suffer from aneuploidy if non-disjunction occurs in meiosis II?

 

19.       Explain what might be the result if the kinetochore microtubules failed to function in anaphase.

 

20.       What is the importance of meiosis?

 

21.       What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?

 

22.       Are the gametes diploid or haploid at the end of mitosis?

 

23.       What are sex chromosomes and what are autosomes?

 

24.       What are homologous chromosomes?

 

25.       What is a tetrad?

 

26.       What is a karyotype?

 

27.       Why is meiosis I called reductional division?

 

28.       Describe the steps of meiosis I and what happens in each of the steps.

            Prophase I:     

            Metaphase I:              

            Anaphase I:                

            Telophase I:                

 

            Prophase II:                

            Metaphase II: 

            Anaphase II:               

            Telophase II:               

 

29.       Describe how metaphase I of meiosis I is different than metaphase of mitosis.

 

 

30.       What are the chiasmata?

 

 

31.       What is crossing over, what phase does it occur and what is the significance?

 

 

32.       What is independent assortment, what phase does it occur and what is the significance?

 

 

33.       Mitosis results in the production in two genetically identical diploid cells from a single diploid cell, how does meiosis differ?

 

 

32.       How does meiosis produce gametes that are genetically different from one another?

 

 

33. Variation is the source of Natural Selection in populations.  What are the three mechanisms through which sexual reproduction increases or maintains the diversity within a population?

 

 

 

 

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Genetics

 

1.         Compare a gene and an allele?  How are they different?

 

2.         Describe homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, and heterozygous.

 

3.         Describe how we determine which letter will be used to represent a gene.

 

4.         Describe “genotype” and “phenotype”.

 

5.         Describe P generation, F1, and F2.

 

6.         Describe the law of segregation.

 

7.         Describe the law of independent assortment.

 

8    Give a description of the following Mendelian genetics (you will be expected to all of these types of genetic problems on the exam and in lab):

Monohybrid Cross:

 

Dihybrid Cross:

 

Co-dominance:

 

Incomplete dominance:

 

Sex linked traits:

 

9.         Does a chromosome have sister chromatids before S-phase, after S-phase, or both? Explain!

 

 

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