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Homework answers / question archive / Question 12 pts Most psychologists reject dictionary definitions of learning because:   Group of answer choices the definitions are too objective the definitions tend to be behavioristic the definitions tend to be nebulous learning is not definable   Flag this Question Question 22 pts Which of the following terms is currently being used instead of the term instinct? Group of answer choices species-specific behavior self-motivated behavior imprinting unlearned behavior   Flag this Question Question 32 pts After experiencing an automobile accident, a person is more responsive to automobile horns than before the accident

Question 12 pts Most psychologists reject dictionary definitions of learning because:   Group of answer choices the definitions are too objective the definitions tend to be behavioristic the definitions tend to be nebulous learning is not definable   Flag this Question Question 22 pts Which of the following terms is currently being used instead of the term instinct? Group of answer choices species-specific behavior self-motivated behavior imprinting unlearned behavior   Flag this Question Question 32 pts After experiencing an automobile accident, a person is more responsive to automobile horns than before the accident

Psychology

Question 12 pts

Most psychologists reject dictionary definitions of learning because:

 

Group of answer choices

the definitions are too objective

the definitions tend to be behavioristic

the definitions tend to be nebulous

learning is not definable

 

Flag this Question

Question 22 pts

Which of the following terms is currently being used instead of the term instinct?

Group of answer choices

species-specific behavior

self-motivated behavior

imprinting

unlearned behavior

 

Flag this Question

Question 32 pts

After experiencing an automobile accident, a person is more responsive to automobile horns than before the accident. This is an example of:

Group of answer choices

habituation

sensitization

selective perception

avoidance conditioning

 

Flag this Question

Question 42 pts

The following diagram exemplifies which of the following?

A. Stimulus ----------------> Response

 

B. Prolonged experience with stimulus

C. Stimulus ----------------> No Response

            

 

Group of answer choices

habituation

sensitization

selective perception

conditioning

 

Flag this Question

Question 52 pts

A systematic experimental procedure used to modify behavior:

Group of answer choices

habituation

imprinting

naturalistic observation

conditioning

 

Flag this Question

Question 62 pts

Sneezing in response to a tickling in one’s nose is an example of:

Group of answer choices

complex behavior

reflexive behavior

classical conditioning

learning

 

Flag this Question

Question 72 pts

The rapid formation of an attachment between an organism and an environmental object that occurs during a critical period is called:

Group of answer choices

conditioning

imprinting

learning

modeling

 

Flag this Question

Question 82 pts

An experimental arrangement whereby an organism can avoid experiencing an aversive stimulus by engaging in appropriate behavior is called:

Group of answer choices

classical conditioning

escape conditioning

avoidance conditioning

sign learning

 

Flag this Question

Question 92 pts

Waking up to a loud alarm clock, you press the button to terminate the noise. This is an example of:

Group of answer choices

classical conditioning

escape conditioning

avoidance conditioning

sign learning

 

Flag this Question

Question 102 pts

While studying behavior, we make inferences concerning the process believed to be the cause of the behavioral changes we are observing. That inferred process is:

Group of answer choices

thinking

learning

performance

an independent variable

 

Flag this Question

Question 112 pts

Reinforcement is not contingent on any overt response made by the organism in:

Group of answer choices

instrumental conditioning

classical conditioning

escape conditioning

avoidance conditioning

 

Flag this Question

Question 122 pts

An unlearned response to a specific stimulus exemplifies a(n):

Group of answer choices

conditioned reflex

sensitization

reflex

instinct

 

Flag this Question

Question 132 pts

According to Gagne, how many types of learning are there?

Group of answer choices

one

two

eight

more than eight

 

Flag this Question

Question 142 pts

In science the demand for verification means:

Group of answer choices

statements must be publicly testable

information must pass freely from one scientist to another

experiments must be highly controlled

ambiguity must be avoided at all costs

 

Flag this Question

Question 152 pts

According to Popper, a scientific theory is:

Group of answer choices

an attempt to summarize empirical observation

a proposed solution to a problem 

something to which a scientist becomes emotionally attached

an attempt to refute what has been observed

 

Flag this Question

Question 162 pts

In his philosophy of science, Popper stresses  ------------- factors whereas Kuhn stresses ---------- factors.

Group of answer choices

logical .... sociological and psychological

sociological and psychological  .... logical

emotional .... historical

historical .... rational

 

Flag this Question

Question 172 pts

The Kuhnian view of scientific progress emphasizes:

Group of answer choices

logic

the gradual accumulation of factual information

social and psychological factors

empirical observation

 

Flag this Question

Question 182 pts

What is a danger in using naturalistic observation?

Group of answer choices

more than one choice is accurate

it is too reductionistic

classifications are too narrow

it is difficult to observe and record complex phenomenon accurately

 

Flag this Question

Question 192 pts

Which statement is an example of a scientific law (assume each statement is correct)?

Group of answer choices

“A stitch in time saves nine.”

“For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.”

“The ripest fruit falls first.”

all of the above.

 

Flag this Question

Question 202 pts

The principle of parsimony states that a scientific theory must:

Group of answer choices

be as simple as possible

be accurate

generate publically verifiable statements

be heuristic

 

Flag this Question

Question 212 pts

A scientific law is:

Group of answer choices

a consistently observed relationship

a principle that does not vary

synonymous with truth

an immutable ralationship

 

Flag this Question

Question 222 pts

Which of the following is the heuristic value of a theory? Its ability to

Group of answer choices

integrate knowledge

determine whether a statement is true or false

all the statements

generate new knowledge

 

Flag this Question

Question 232 pts

All sciences seek to:

Group of answer choices

prove theories

discover laws

solve practical problems

none of the above

 

Flag this Question

Question 242 pts

When something is used to describe something that is relatively less known, the former is being used as a ----------------------- for the latter.

Group of answer choices

model

paradigm

theory

law

 

Flag this Question

Question 252 pts

Using the technique of naturalistic observation, one would:

Group of answer choices

use a reductionistic approach

control at least one independent variable

make detailed observations and recordings of a phenomenon as it occurs naturally

more than one of the above

 

Flag this Question

Question 262 pts

“Trials of Criterion” suggests which of the following kinds of definitions of learning?

Group of answer choices

theoretical

empirical

cognitive

operational

 

Flag this Question

Question 272 pts

The founder of the functionalist school was:

Group of answer choices

Titchener

Watson

Wundt

James

 

Flag this Question

Question 282 pts

The functionalist school was strongly influenced by:

Group of answer choices

Plato

Wundt

Darwin

Watson

 

Flag this Question

Question 292 pts

To whom do you attribute the statement, “Consciousness cannot be reduced into elements. Rather, consciousness functions as a unity whose purpose is to allow the organism to adjust to its environment?”

Group of answer choices

James

Watson

Wundt

Ebbinghaus

 

Flag this Question

Question 302 pts

A person who believes that knowledge is gained by reflecting on the contents of the mind is called a(n):

Group of answer choices

nativist

empiricist

dualist

rationalist

 

Flag this Question

Question 312 pts

-------------------- is the belief that the mind is actively involved in the creation of knowledge.

Group of answer choices

rationalism

empiricism

nativism

associationism

 

Flag this Question

Question 322 pts

Which of the following philosophers do you associate with the reminiscence theory of knowledge?

Group of answer choices

Socrates

Plato

Aristotle

Pythagoras

 

Flag this Question

Question 332 pts

Which of the following philosophers observed that “The whole is different from the sum of its parts”?

Group of answer choices

Mill

Reid

Hume

Berkeley

 

Flag this Question

Question 342 pts

Which of the following do you associate with functionalism?

Group of answer choices

the study of the adaptive value of thought and behavior

the objective study of behavior

the systematic study of human consciousness

the systematic study of innate ideas

 

Flag this Question

Question 352 pts

Whose philosophy can be viewed as the antecedent to modern information processing psychology?

Group of answer choices

Reid Kant

Kant

Hume

Berkeley

 

Flag this Question

Question 362 pts

Aristotle’s philosophy:

Group of answer choices

stunted the growth of scientific inquiry

was adopted by the early Christians

dominated early Christian Europe

none of these

 

Flag this Question

Question 372 pts

It can be argued that all contemporary psychologists are;

Group of answer choices

voluntarists

structuralists

behaviorists

functionalists

 

Flag this Question

Question 382 pts

Which of the following represents the belief that all knowledge is derived from sensory information?

Group of answer choices

rationalism

empiricism

nativism

epistemology

 

Flag this Question

Question 392 pts

--------------------- is the belief that some form of knowledge is inherited.

Group of answer choices

rationalism

empiricism

associationism

nativism

 

Flag this Question

Question 402 pts

The fundamental notion in associative shifting is:

Group of answer choices

that if a response can be kept intact through a series of changes in the stimulus                       situation, it may finally be given to a totally new stimulus

it is important for the subject to make free associations

when the organism faces a problem, it varies its repsonses and when the appropriate             behavior is stumbled upon, success follows and learning is possible

when the organism has achieved the correct set or attitude, it will be able to learn

 

Flag this Question

Question 412 pts

With his principle of belongingness, Thorndike indicated that:

Group of answer choices

some associations are formed more easily than others

contiguity between a stimulus and a response is all that is necessary for learning to take place.

backward conditioning is impossible

reinforcement was necessary for learning to take place

 

Flag this Question

Question 422 pts

According to Thorndike, reinforcement for correct responses:

Group of answer choices

not only increases probability of the correct responses being repeated, but also increases the probability of the responses adjacent to the reinforced response being repeated

is not nearly as important as the punishment of incorrect responses

produces a permanent disposition to respond in the reinforced manner

must involve satisfaction of a biological drive

 

Flag this Question

Question 432 pts

Thorndike concluded that learning was:

Group of answer choices

incremental

insightful

insightful for cats but incremental for humans

incremental for cats but insightful for humans

 

Flag this Question

Question 442 pts

For Thorndike, a reinforcer is a stimulus that produces:

Group of answer choices

a satisfying state of affairs

the satisfaction of a biological need

a reduction in aversive stimulation

happiness

 

Flag this Question

Question 452 pts

Thorndike’s theory can be considered the original-------------- theory of learning.

Group of answer choices

S-R

cognitive

physiological

all of the above

 

Flag this Question

Question 462 pts

According to Thorndike, the law that states that the more times stimuli and responses are paired, the stronger is the association between them is called the Law of:

Group of answer choices

Readiness

Exercise

Preparedness

Effect

 

Flag this Question

Question 472 pts

Thorndike found that effects of reinforcement spread to:

Group of answer choices

other stimuli close to the reinforced

other animals who were watching the reinforced one

other responses made shortly before or after the reinforced one

all aspects of the reinforced organism’s life.

 

Flag this Question

Question 482 pts

It is easier to recite the alphabet forward than it is to recite it backwards. This will support           Thorndike’s principle of:

Group of answer choices

directional learning

readiness

belongingness

polarity

 

Flag this Question

Question 492 pts

According to Thorndike’s concept of belongingess:

Group of answer choices

verbal material will be learned in units that have the greatest amount of meaning to the subject

learning will be most effective when the effects produced by a response are relevant to the organism’s drive state

both 1 and 2

none of the above

 

Flag this Question

Question 502 pts

Concerning the role of mediation (e.g., reasoning or thinking) in learning, Thorndike concluded that it:

Group of answer choices

characterized only human learning

characterized the learning of “lower animals” but not human learning

characterized both human and nonhuman learning

it was an unnecessary assumption, since all learning could be explained without reference to it

Question 12 pts

Most psychologists reject dictionary definitions of learning because:

 

Group of answer choices

the definitions are too objective

the definitions tend to be behavioristic

the definitions tend to be nebulous

learning is not definable

 

Flag this Question

Question 22 pts

Which of the following terms is currently being used instead of the term instinct?

Group of answer choices

species-specific behavior

self-motivated behavior

imprinting

unlearned behavior

 

Flag this Question

Question 32 pts

After experiencing an automobile accident, a person is more responsive to automobile horns than before the accident. This is an example of:

Group of answer choices

habituation

sensitization

selective perception

avoidance conditioning

 

Flag this Question

Question 42 pts

The following diagram exemplifies which of the following?

A. Stimulus ----------------> Response

 

B. Prolonged experience with stimulus

C. Stimulus ----------------> No Response

            

 

Group of answer choices

habituation

sensitization

selective perception

conditioning

 

Flag this Question

Question 52 pts

A systematic experimental procedure used to modify behavior:

Group of answer choices

habituation

imprinting

naturalistic observation

conditioning

 

Flag this Question

Question 62 pts

Sneezing in response to a tickling in one’s nose is an example of:

Group of answer choices

complex behavior

reflexive behavior

classical conditioning

learning

 

Flag this Question

Question 72 pts

The rapid formation of an attachment between an organism and an environmental object that occurs during a critical period is called:

Group of answer choices

conditioning

imprinting

learning

modeling

 

Flag this Question

Question 82 pts

An experimental arrangement whereby an organism can avoid experiencing an aversive stimulus by engaging in appropriate behavior is called:

Group of answer choices

classical conditioning

escape conditioning

avoidance conditioning

sign learning

 

Flag this Question

Question 92 pts

Waking up to a loud alarm clock, you press the button to terminate the noise. This is an example of:

Group of answer choices

classical conditioning

escape conditioning

avoidance conditioning

sign learning

 

Flag this Question

Question 102 pts

While studying behavior, we make inferences concerning the process believed to be the cause of the behavioral changes we are observing. That inferred process is:

Group of answer choices

thinking

learning

performance

an independent variable

 

Flag this Question

Question 112 pts

Reinforcement is not contingent on any overt response made by the organism in:

Group of answer choices

instrumental conditioning

classical conditioning

escape conditioning

avoidance conditioning

 

Flag this Question

Question 122 pts

An unlearned response to a specific stimulus exemplifies a(n):

Group of answer choices

conditioned reflex

sensitization

reflex

instinct

 

Flag this Question

Question 132 pts

According to Gagne, how many types of learning are there?

Group of answer choices

one

two

eight

more than eight

 

Flag this Question

Question 142 pts

In science the demand for verification means:

Group of answer choices

statements must be publicly testable

information must pass freely from one scientist to another

experiments must be highly controlled

ambiguity must be avoided at all costs

 

Flag this Question

Question 152 pts

According to Popper, a scientific theory is:

Group of answer choices

an attempt to summarize empirical observation

a proposed solution to a problem 

something to which a scientist becomes emotionally attached

an attempt to refute what has been observed

 

Flag this Question

Question 162 pts

In his philosophy of science, Popper stresses  ------------- factors whereas Kuhn stresses ---------- factors.

Group of answer choices

logical .... sociological and psychological

sociological and psychological  .... logical

emotional .... historical

historical .... rational

 

Flag this Question

Question 172 pts

The Kuhnian view of scientific progress emphasizes:

Group of answer choices

logic

the gradual accumulation of factual information

social and psychological factors

empirical observation

 

Flag this Question

Question 182 pts

What is a danger in using naturalistic observation?

Group of answer choices

more than one choice is accurate

it is too reductionistic

classifications are too narrow

it is difficult to observe and record complex phenomenon accurately

 

Flag this Question

Question 192 pts

Which statement is an example of a scientific law (assume each statement is correct)?

Group of answer choices

“A stitch in time saves nine.”

“For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.”

“The ripest fruit falls first.”

all of the above.

 

Flag this Question

Question 202 pts

The principle of parsimony states that a scientific theory must:

Group of answer choices

be as simple as possible

be accurate

generate publically verifiable statements

be heuristic

 

Flag this Question

Question 212 pts

A scientific law is:

Group of answer choices

a consistently observed relationship

a principle that does not vary

synonymous with truth

an immutable ralationship

 

Flag this Question

Question 222 pts

Which of the following is the heuristic value of a theory? Its ability to

Group of answer choices

integrate knowledge

determine whether a statement is true or false

all the statements

generate new knowledge

 

Flag this Question

Question 232 pts

All sciences seek to:

Group of answer choices

prove theories

discover laws

solve practical problems

none of the above

 

Flag this Question

Question 242 pts

When something is used to describe something that is relatively less known, the former is being used as a ----------------------- for the latter.

Group of answer choices

model

paradigm

theory

law

 

Flag this Question

Question 252 pts

Using the technique of naturalistic observation, one would:

Group of answer choices

use a reductionistic approach

control at least one independent variable

make detailed observations and recordings of a phenomenon as it occurs naturally

more than one of the above

 

Flag this Question

Question 262 pts

“Trials of Criterion” suggests which of the following kinds of definitions of learning?

Group of answer choices

theoretical

empirical

cognitive

operational

 

Flag this Question

Question 272 pts

The founder of the functionalist school was:

Group of answer choices

Titchener

Watson

Wundt

James

 

Flag this Question

Question 282 pts

The functionalist school was strongly influenced by:

Group of answer choices

Plato

Wundt

Darwin

Watson

 

Flag this Question

Question 292 pts

To whom do you attribute the statement, “Consciousness cannot be reduced into elements. Rather, consciousness functions as a unity whose purpose is to allow the organism to adjust to its environment?”

Group of answer choices

James

Watson

Wundt

Ebbinghaus

 

Flag this Question

Question 302 pts

A person who believes that knowledge is gained by reflecting on the contents of the mind is called a(n):

Group of answer choices

nativist

empiricist

dualist

rationalist

 

Flag this Question

Question 312 pts

-------------------- is the belief that the mind is actively involved in the creation of knowledge.

Group of answer choices

rationalism

empiricism

nativism

associationism

 

Flag this Question

Question 322 pts

Which of the following philosophers do you associate with the reminiscence theory of knowledge?

Group of answer choices

Socrates

Plato

Aristotle

Pythagoras

 

Flag this Question

Question 332 pts

Which of the following philosophers observed that “The whole is different from the sum of its parts”?

Group of answer choices

Mill

Reid

Hume

Berkeley

 

Flag this Question

Question 342 pts

Which of the following do you associate with functionalism?

Group of answer choices

the study of the adaptive value of thought and behavior

the objective study of behavior

the systematic study of human consciousness

the systematic study of innate ideas

 

Flag this Question

Question 352 pts

Whose philosophy can be viewed as the antecedent to modern information processing psychology?

Group of answer choices

Reid Kant

Kant

Hume

Berkeley

 

Flag this Question

Question 362 pts

Aristotle’s philosophy:

Group of answer choices

stunted the growth of scientific inquiry

was adopted by the early Christians

dominated early Christian Europe

none of these

 

Flag this Question

Question 372 pts

It can be argued that all contemporary psychologists are;

Group of answer choices

voluntarists

structuralists

behaviorists

functionalists

 

Flag this Question

Question 382 pts

Which of the following represents the belief that all knowledge is derived from sensory information?

Group of answer choices

rationalism

empiricism

nativism

epistemology

 

Flag this Question

Question 392 pts

--------------------- is the belief that some form of knowledge is inherited.

Group of answer choices

rationalism

empiricism

associationism

nativism

 

Flag this Question

Question 402 pts

The fundamental notion in associative shifting is:

Group of answer choices

that if a response can be kept intact through a series of changes in the stimulus                       situation, it may finally be given to a totally new stimulus

it is important for the subject to make free associations

when the organism faces a problem, it varies its repsonses and when the appropriate             behavior is stumbled upon, success follows and learning is possible

when the organism has achieved the correct set or attitude, it will be able to learn

 

Flag this Question

Question 412 pts

With his principle of belongingness, Thorndike indicated that:

Group of answer choices

some associations are formed more easily than others

contiguity between a stimulus and a response is all that is necessary for learning to take place.

backward conditioning is impossible

reinforcement was necessary for learning to take place

 

Flag this Question

Question 422 pts

According to Thorndike, reinforcement for correct responses:

Group of answer choices

not only increases probability of the correct responses being repeated, but also increases the probability of the responses adjacent to the reinforced response being repeated

is not nearly as important as the punishment of incorrect responses

produces a permanent disposition to respond in the reinforced manner

must involve satisfaction of a biological drive

 

Flag this Question

Question 432 pts

Thorndike concluded that learning was:

Group of answer choices

incremental

insightful

insightful for cats but incremental for humans

incremental for cats but insightful for humans

 

Flag this Question

Question 442 pts

For Thorndike, a reinforcer is a stimulus that produces:

Group of answer choices

a satisfying state of affairs

the satisfaction of a biological need

a reduction in aversive stimulation

happiness

 

Flag this Question

Question 452 pts

Thorndike’s theory can be considered the original-------------- theory of learning.

Group of answer choices

S-R

cognitive

physiological

all of the above

 

Flag this Question

Question 462 pts

According to Thorndike, the law that states that the more times stimuli and responses are paired, the stronger is the association between them is called the Law of:

Group of answer choices

Readiness

Exercise

Preparedness

Effect

 

Flag this Question

Question 472 pts

Thorndike found that effects of reinforcement spread to:

Group of answer choices

other stimuli close to the reinforced

other animals who were watching the reinforced one

other responses made shortly before or after the reinforced one

all aspects of the reinforced organism’s life.

 

Flag this Question

Question 482 pts

It is easier to recite the alphabet forward than it is to recite it backwards. This will support           Thorndike’s principle of:

Group of answer choices

directional learning

readiness

belongingness

polarity

 

Flag this Question

Question 492 pts

According to Thorndike’s concept of belongingess:

Group of answer choices

verbal material will be learned in units that have the greatest amount of meaning to the subject

learning will be most effective when the effects produced by a response are relevant to the organism’s drive state

both 1 and 2

none of the above

 

Flag this Question

Question 502 pts

Concerning the role of mediation (e.g., reasoning or thinking) in learning, Thorndike concluded that it:

Group of answer choices

characterized only human learning

characterized the learning of “lower animals” but not human learning

characterized both human and nonhuman learning

it was an unnecessary assumption, since all learning could be explained without reference to it

 

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