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Homework answers / question archive / Minimizing Drug Abuse Amongst African-Americans Malkom Parrish What is the problem? ? African-Americans misuse substances at the same rate of other races ? BUT they tend to have more consequences (drug arrests) ? MORE barriers when trying to access treatment ? 33 percent of incarcerations due to drugs are black Americans ? ALL DUE TO LIVING IN POOR CONDITIONS (LOW-INCOME NEIGHBORHOODS) Overdose deaths are also on the rise amongst blacks

Minimizing Drug Abuse Amongst African-Americans Malkom Parrish What is the problem? ? African-Americans misuse substances at the same rate of other races ? BUT they tend to have more consequences (drug arrests) ? MORE barriers when trying to access treatment ? 33 percent of incarcerations due to drugs are black Americans ? ALL DUE TO LIVING IN POOR CONDITIONS (LOW-INCOME NEIGHBORHOODS) Overdose deaths are also on the rise amongst blacks


Minimizing Drug Abuse Amongst African-Americans Malkom Parrish What is the problem? ? African-Americans misuse substances at the same rate of other races ? BUT they tend to have more consequences (drug arrests) ? MORE barriers when trying to access treatment ? 33 percent of incarcerations due to drugs are black Americans ? ALL DUE TO LIVING IN POOR CONDITIONS (LOW-INCOME NEIGHBORHOODS) Overdose deaths are also on the rise amongst blacks. Severity of the Problem Drug overdose rates rose about %40 between 2015 and 2016 Substance abuse is shown to be associated with suicidal thoughts. Goals: build a nurturing community for the black Americans ? Reduce the number of deaths locally from overdose and drugusers ? Provide a safe-space ? The Campaign: Back the BLACK --use social media #backtheblack for recognition Prevention & Treatments Through using the #backtheBLACK hashtag will allow social media recognition in order to get other worldwide to join the movement. Through those same channels, we will give out resources in order to self-treat or find a local rehabilitation or group similar to AAA. Through the movement, we educate our peers about drug-abuse amongst the community and the effects/tolls is may take. PREVENTION TREATMENT Audience Segmentation Primary Audience: African-Americans that are 18-40 years of age located in GA in a high-priority area. ? ? ? ? Possible segments by stage of behavior change: Heavy user, moderate user, light user, non-user Possible segments by different sources of information: social media, peers, the community Possible segments by demographic differences: 18-40 year old women, 18-40 year old men Possible segments by other differences: want to help, do not want to help, not educated about the disability, does not know where to start Audience Description: African-Americans drug users in high priority areas in Georgia who are seeking ways to overcome addiction Influencing Audience: social media, family members, the community, mentors, recovered addicts, celebrities **high-priority=low-income ? We will: ? Behavior Change Objectives ? Increase the knowledge of %50 of African-American drug-users in low-income areas in GA about overdose using social media tactics by December 2021 Decrease drug-usage and deaths in the state of GA by %3 by promoting mentorships, rehabilitations, and other groups by December 2021 ? %75 of users will be able to repeat the vision for #BacktheBlue Theoretical Framework ? The individual will see the movement on social media and research the new trend with a desire to change behavior by following the new trend. ? The individual will talk to his user friends about the new trend and share the news on social media. ? The information will travel through organizations and they will get involved. ? Rehabs will begin to promote and organizations will donate/pay for treatment through scholarships. Able to Change: A media-focused intervention for the social inclusion of people with disabilities An intervention proposal by: Matthew Ahn, Emily Hoffmann, Jenna Maddox & Grace Mickle University of Georgia Table of Contents Analysis of the Health Problem . Audience Segmentation . . Theoretical Framework . . Behavior Change Objectives . Strategic Approach . . . Key Messages . . . Channels & Tools . . . Implementation Plan . . Evaluation Plan . . . References . . . . Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 . 4 . 4-5 . 5-6 . 6-8 . 8 . 8-9 . 9-10 . 10 . 11-12 . 13-16 2 Analysis of the Health Problem The purpose of our campaign is to inform individuals that people with disabilities are more than their disability. In our society, when an individual has a disability, we merely focus on their “problem” or disability instead of their positive attributes, skills, and trades. Our campaign wants the individual's characteristics to be highlighted instead of their disability. For disabled individuals, the key health issue is social exclusion. People with disabilities are socially excluded from mainstream communities due to the negative stereotypes and attitudes of the general public. Generally the public does not want to talk about disability since it is seen as a social taboo. Since it is a social taboo, the topic of people with disabilities and their overall well-being is avoided. Another significant issue is that adults with disabilities are less active than those without disabilities. Since the adults with disabilities are less active physically, their overall health outcome is affected significantly. Through our research, we found that people with disabilities avoid physical activities due to personal and emotional barriers which prevent them from being active. For instance, people with disabilities perceive going into certain communities and participating in activities and physical exercise as “threatening” and “unwelcoming.” Since these environments are seen as unfriendly, individuals with disabilities are not able to get the proper physical activity that they need for their overall health and well-being. It is imperative that we continue to address this health problem since it affects a large portion of citizens. According to the CDC, “1 in 4 adults in the United States have a disability. This is approximately 61 million individuals. Of those individuals, 27.2 of those adults are Georgians with some time of disability” (CDC, 2019). Since this health disparity population is 3 quite large and the severity of the health issue is vast, it is important that our campaign help this underrepresented group. Audience Segmentation For our campaign, our primary target audience is people with disabilities in the workforce aged 18 to 64 years old who are vulnerable to social exclusion and isolation. Our campaign would also like to educate the general public about people who have disabilities. Our hope is that if we are educating the public about individuals with disabilities, there will be less fear, social stigma, and negative stereotypes surrounding this population. Our secondary target audience includes people who are in a position of power and can enact change at the local and state level. These people include policy makers, local officials, organizations, and business owners. These individuals have the necessary influence, power, and funds to enact positive change for people with disabilities. Theoretical Framework Our campaign is based on the Ecological Perspective. The Ecological Perspective is split into two parts: Multiple Levels of Influence and Reciprocal Causation. We will first start by explaining the multiple levels of influence and then follow with an explanation of the reciprocal causation segment of the theory. Although there are more levels of influence than the three that we will be introducing, our campaign focuses specifically on these first three levels of influence: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational. This portion of the theory explains that there are multiple factors that can influence health behaviors. For the intrapersonal level, the people with disabilities are conscious of the negative stereotypes that exist about them. To examine the stereotype in depth, our team referred to a scholarly research from Park et al. Park et al. noted 4 that people seemed to feel “uneasy” when being around those with physical disabilities due to negative stereotypes, which can lead to discrimination (Park et al., 2003). Park et al. further explained these negative stereotypes by noting that people experience feelings such as disgust and anxiety, and tendencies to avoid physical contact with disabled individuals (Park et al., 2003, p.66). When those with disabilities are conscious of the stereotypes that exists, there is a possibility that they will try to exclude and isolate themselves from a community due to their own fears of being possibly rejected and discriminated against. In the intrapersonal level, the connections and support people with disabilities have are crucial to their health. One reason why people with disabilities can possibly fear approaching communities is because of the lack of support from their surroundings. More than just visiting hospitals and clinics, it is effective to provide emotional support to those with disabilities. Family, friends, and peers can provide positive emotional support, which can positively influence the health of those with disabilities. For the final level, organizational, we realized that many organizations would try to treat people with disabilities like “treating a problem or illness”. Thus, this leads to insufficient emotional support that people with disabilities might need to motivate themselves to reach out to communities instead of fearing exclusion. We have hopes that our campaign will influence organizations to focus on the positive skills people with disabilities have instead of having the mindset of merely “treating an ill person.” Behavior Change Objectives Our team broke down our objectives into three main categories. The main objective is to have at least 50% of those with disabilities who watch our campaign recall the message after six months. We strongly believe our campaign differs from others, as we are providing moral and emotional support, letting people with disabilities know that they are more than their disabilities 5 and that they are able to perform skills that they are confident in. Our second objective is to have at least 30% of people with disabilities to report an increase in self-esteem and self-confidence from participating actively in their community for at least six months after the premiere of the campaign. One of the main purposes of our campaign is to instill confidence in people with disabilities, so we want our campaign to at least help them see themselves in a more positive light. This objective is not forcing us to make sure those with disabilities go out to fully dedicate themselves to be active in communities, but to begin to see themselves from a more positive, healthy perspective. For our final objective, we want at least 25% of people WITHOUT disabilities who hold negative or neutral stereotypes against those with disabilities to report a positive change in perspective and attitudes on disabilities following the campaign premiere. Our campaign is also targeting the negative stereotypes that exist and want people to be exposed to the positives of people with disabilities and hopefully bring a change in attitude. To be more specific with this last objective, we are aiming for at least 10% of this group to report any form of participation in at least one community event that involves people with disabilities (i.e. volunteering at an A2C event, attending music or sporting events with someone who has a disability, or participating in events that incorporate all levels of ability). Strategic Approach To begin, our campaign will conduct community-based research. Community members with and without disabilities will play an active role in the research, contributing valuable, qualitative insight on negative stereotypes that cannot be found in national and statewide statistics. For those with disabilities, we will gain knowledge not just on the challenges they face, but on the change they would like to see and how they would like to see it implemented. For those without disabilities, we will achieve a better understanding of why they hold the negative 6 stereotypes and attitudes they do, which will aid us in finding effective ways to tackle those issues and sway their attitudes and beliefs in a more positive direction. Our campaign will take on a media-based approach. We have designed and released a website for our campaign: This website is accessible to all with internet access from any location. Information about our campaign including an interactive board game, a promotional video, information on our sponsors and Olympian spokespeople, links to our social media pages, and more are all available from this site, allowing people with disabilities to find everything relating to our campaign from the comfort of their own home. This is the most effective way to reach the people with disabilities who are most affected by social exclusion and isolation. Secondly, having a website with a shareable link and social media pages will allow the campaign to grow and gain more of an online-following from people with and without disabilities, giving the campaign more power and room for growth and support. The promotional video featured on our website communicates an inspiration-to-action message. In addition to being visible on our webpage, it will also be featured at events in and around the Athens community. Non-profit organizations like Citizen Advocacy of Athens-Clarke (CAAC) and Nuçi’s Space will present the video before and during their events, local churches and schools will show the video to their communities, and Ciné will play the video during the previews before their films. This will reach people both with and without disabilities, as well as local law-makers, policy-influencers, and business owners wherever they may go in town. In addition to this, poster adaptations of the video featuring key messages will be posted at bus stops, outside of businesses, and in and around school buildings at the university and elsewhere in Athens, reaching virtually all Athens-Clarke citizens and university students. The video and 7 images of the poster adaptations will also be shared through our Olympian influencers’ social media pages, reaching wider audiences the country- and world-over. Key Messages The goals of our campaign are to emphasize the need for change in the community, highlight the theme of ability, and call community members to action. We believe the name “Able to Change” embodies these goals and sets the right tone for our campaign. In addition to the name of our campaign, we believe inspirational slogans such as, “see the ability, not the dis,” and, “we are ready for change. Are you?” will promote the type of change our campaign aims to bring about in the community. These messages will remain central to our campaign. Channels and Tools Firstly, our campaign is media-focused. Our website, social media pages, and inspirationto-action video form the backbone of our campaign, and generate the online-spreadability that will make our campaign successful in Athens and beyond. These tools will enlighten the Athens community to the diversity of interests, abilities, and experiences of all people in their community, and will provide a platform for community members with disabilities to be seen and heard by their able-bodied peers. Secondly, our campaign is influencer-driven. Our use of Olympians as role models and spokespeople will garner more support for the campaign, both through their innate popularity and ability to relate to both people with and without disabilities. Together, they will model the themes of advocacy, ability, and teamwork to promote the key messages of our campaign. Using both an Olympian with a disability who attended the University of Georgia--Jarryd Wallace--and an Olympian without a disability who has participated as an advocate for people with disabilities--Shawn Johnson--will appeal to all audiences in Athens and the country-over. 8 Thirdly, our campaign is community-based. The campaign video features members of the Athens community, and Jarryd Wallace--one of our Olympian spokespeople--is an alum of the University of Georgia. Additionally, the campaign will be largely influenced by members of the community both with and without disabilities through the qualitative data they provide us during the research process. Thus, the campaign will appear more relatable, and the key messages will hit closer to home for our audiences, inspiring more immediate change in the community. Implementation Plan We will run our campaign over the course of three years. To shape program strategies to make an impact on the target populations, we will use people with and without disabilities in our campaign to showcase inclusion. Both groups will communicate the message to our target audience. Using both people with and without disabilities in our campaign will be effective in showing the two groups can live and share activities together, and it will stress the importance of inclusion. The campaign will start in January 2020 and end in December 2022. In January 2020, we will identify the audiences of the campaign and the outlets used to showcase the campaign. In the spring of 2020, we will premiere the campaign video and our website. We will also introduce two Olympic spokespeople to our campaign to model inclusivity and influence social change; one being able-bodied, and the other being disabled. They will speak about the importance of inclusion and the risk of isolation. Between the summer of 2020 and the summer of 2022, we will show the advocacy campaign video at venues and events. Community outreach during this time will be important; we will engage with local spokespeople and citizen advocates and organizations to promote change at the local level. During the fall and winter of 2022, we will begin to research how our campaign has had an effect in the community. For example, we will 9 see if there are more disabled-inclusive gyms or sports activities in the Athens area. We will also organize and conduct surveys to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the impact of the campaign at the local level. Evaluation Plan It is crucial to not just spread the content, but to also evaluate the content that was created in this campaign. Our website will contain a space for people to enter their email address to receive our survey to fill out. The survey will collect information such as higher or lower selfesteem of disabled people after observing campaign, and if there was an increase or decrease in confidence level to go out into the community and participate in inclusive activities. For those who don’t have disabilities and observed the campaign, they will note if they had pre-existing stereotypes and if their perspectives shifted to a positive view on people with disabilities. 10 References 1. Corcoran, N. (2007). Ch. 5: Information Technology. In Communicating Health: Strategies for Health Promotion (3rd ed., Vol. 13, pp. 94-111). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Doi: 2. Disability and Health Data System. (2017). Retrieved from owMode=&IndicatorIds=STATTYPE,AGEIND,SEXIND,RACEIND,VETIND&pnl0=C hart,false,YR2,CAT1,BO1,,,,AGEADJPREV&pnl3=Chart,false,YR2,DISSTAT,,,,AGEA DJPREV&pnl4=Chart,false,YR2,DISSTAT,,,,,AGEADJPREV 3. Disability and Health Disability Barriers. (2019, September 4). Retrieved from 4. Disability Impacts All of Us Infographic. (2019, September 9). Retrieved from 5. Heras, I., Cilleruelo, E., & Iradi, J. (2008). Quality management and quality of care in nursing homes. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 21(7), 659-670. Doi: 10.1108/09526860810910131 6. Moorley, C., Goodfellow, B., & Corcoran, N. (2007). Ch. 3: Reaching Unreachable Groups and Crossing Cultural Barriers. In Communicating Health: Strategies for Health Promotion (3rd ed., Vol. 13, pp. 51-68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Doi: 11 7. Northcott, S. & Hilari, K. (2010). Why do people lose their friends after a stroke?. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 46(5), 524-534. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-6984.2011.00079.x 8. Park, J. H., Faulkner, J., & Schaller, M. (2003). Evolved Disease-Avoidance Processes And Contemporary Anti-Social Behavior: Prejudicial Attitudes And Avoidance Of People With Physical Disabilities. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27 (2), 65-87. 12 Appendix Item 1: Blueprint of interactive board game & game description: Game Description: Our game,“Great Variety, Great Society,” mimics “Life,” addressing the challenges of navigating a public university, finding a job that is willing/able to accommodate one’s needs and abilities, issues of job and peer discrimination based on visible disability, cost of care, etc. The goal of this game is to show able-bodied people the challenges and vulnerability disabled people face in their daily lives. The board will resemble a map, featuring forks in the path which represent different choices and obstacles that those with physical disabilities face throughout their daily lives and pivotal points in their life. Rules: The game is designed for 2-6 players. Each player plays the character of someone with a physical disability and is represented by a different colored “wheelchair” game piece. Each player begins on the “start” position, which starts the player in high school (the game advances through higher education and into the career world and family life). Players roll dice (one) to determine the number of tiles they may advance. At forks in the game path, players must draw a blue card to reveal a choice, ex: pursue a private education at home where accommodations are met but social involvement is limited (advance to the triangle) or pursue a public education where opportunities are limitless 13 but accommodations are not always met (advance to the circle). If players land on a space marked with a star, they must draw a red card, which may give them an advantage or disadvantage in the game, ex: “you could not find a summer job able to accommodate your disability and were not able to save up enough money for school: move back three spaces,” or, “the Disability Resources Center on campus has a new support group meeting that fits your schedule: advance one space.” The first player to reach the end of the map wins the game. Item 2: Screenshot from our webpage & URL: Item 3: Image of possible poster with inspirational slogan: 14 Item 4: Our campaign’s 4 P’s of social marketing: Product: Our product is two-fold: physical products and a behavior change. Our physical products (our media-focused products) are targeting the workforce aged (18-64) population in Athens who are physically and mentally disabled. Disabled individuals are prone to social exclusion and isolation. We are targeting this group through our commercial and our interactive website. These resources are used to promote a behavior change. The behavior change includes the following: more knowledge about ADA regulations, inclusion of more disabled people in the workforce and in social activities. Promote: Our use of Olympian spokespeople makes our campaign more attractive to the public and our target audience. Additionally, an aesthetically-pleasing website will attract more web traffic and appeal to potential donors/sponsors. Place: We will advertise our campaign at community meetings, charity events, and local churches. The video will also be spread through email newsletters and commercials. Posters for our campaign will be posted at UGA bus stops and other areas on campus, and around the Athens area. Price: Potential costs for showing the video campaign in places such as theaters, organizations, bus stops. The possible production cost of creating the campaign ad, which can require purchasing equipment that is not available to us (camera, video editing program, etc). In the future, when hosting events, some can be at a charity event but for other events, costs such as the vent venue, equipment, food, and activities can require us to purchase equipment needed. Item 5: Information & Communication Technology Checklist (Corcoran, 2007): • Does the campaign include an appropriate medium for the target group? YES o The website will be widely-accessible to all audiences, and is especiallyappropriate for those with disabilities in the primary audience who experience social exclusion to a significant extent. o The video is appropriate for all ages and audience types, appealing to both primary and secondary target audiences. • Does the campaign use role models or credible sources? YES o Our popular Olympian spokespeople both with and without disabilities, one from the University of Georgia are appropriate and in-line with our campaign’s themes and key messages. o Our use of community members both in the research process and in the video will provide credible and useful information central to designing and maintaining our campaign. • Does the campaign incorporate ways of goal-setting? YES o Our behavior change objectives and implementation and evaluation plans outline goals for the campaign itself. o The campaign’s messages encourage community members to set goals for themselves with regards to making positive, socially-inclusive changes in their everyday lives. • Does the campaign create an environment that is suitable for the topic both in terms of medium used and style? YES o The use of community members in the video and Olympian spokespeople in the campaign will create relatable content sure to influence beliefs and values. 15 o • • • The use of community members both in the preliminary research and subsequent campaign effectiveness evaluation will ensure the campaign’s ability to collect and incorporate relevant feedback. Does the campaign facilitate social interaction? YES o The goal of the campaign is to reduce the social exclusion and isolation of people with disabilities. The campaign achieves this goal through its media-focused and influencer-driven aspects, which promotes more social interaction through acknowledgment of the problem, suggestions of shared activities, and modeling of ideal advocacy and social inclusion. Does the campaign protect anonymity and confidentiality? YES o The preliminary research will protect the confidentiality of community members who choose to participate in the surveys and focus groups. o The campaign effectiveness evaluations will protect the anonymity of those who choose to respond to surveys, as well as the confidentiality of those who participate in the focus groups. Does the campaign involve the target group in the design and testing? YES o The primary target group of community members both with and without disabilities will be used in the preliminary research as well as the campaign effectiveness evaluations. 16 Intervention Plan Outline Analysis of the Health Problem: ? Purpose:? Native American men have the highest drinking rates in the United States ages 24-30 located mostly in Alaska. The campaign to address these problems is called “Songan Swallower.” Songan means “strong” in Native American languages. This campaign name was chosen to show that Native Americans have the ability to overcome alcoholism because they [Native Americans] are strong. ? Key Health Issue:? Reduce the amount of alcoholism in Native American men by educating them about the dangers of alcohol and giving them the tools they need to seek help with two programs, “Kiva” support groups, rehab centers and a program specifically for Native American alcoholics called “Native Americans Anonymous (NAA).” ? “Kiva” - is a term that Native Americans use for an “underground ceremonial room” for meetings and ceremonies which is what we will use to call support groups. ? Some factors causing a greater prevalence of alcoholism in Native Americans are economic instability, violence, poor education, threat to their culture and physical and mental health problems. ? It is said that the high rate of alcoholism in Native American communities began about 200 years ago due to the cultural destruction caused by European settlers. They often gave Native Americans free alcohol while making trades with them because they found that this often made them more willing to trade. ? Severity of the Health Problem:? 1 in 10 Native American deaths are alcohol related, this is 3x higher than the general population. 2.5% of American adults who are admitted to facilities for alcohol abuse are Native American. ? Desired Prevention and Treatment Behaviors: ? Prevention: Help Native Americans find Kiva support groups and NAA. Educate them about the dangers of alcoholism. ? Treatment: Admit more Native American men to rehab centers and increase the use of Kiva support groups and NAA. Audience Segmentation ? Primary audience:? Native American men ages 24-30, Located in Alaska ? Possible segments by stage of behavior change: ?Heavy user, moderate user, light user, non-user ? Possible segments by geological differences:? lives on reservation, isolated ? Possible segments by demographic differences:? 24-30 single men, 24-30 married men ? Possible segments by other differences:? want help with their alcoholism, don’t want help at all with their alcoholism, don’t understand the consequences of alcoholism, want help but don’t know where to start. ? Audience description: ?Native American men who suffer from alcoholism and are seeking tools to overcome it or those who want to be educated about alcoholism. ? Influencing audience:? Family members, people who care for the alcohol abusers, community leaders, Native American spokesperson Behavior Change Objectives 1 ? ? ? ? Increase knowledge of 50% of Native American men ages 24-30 located in Alaska about the dangers of alcoholism and binge drinking using the transtheoretical (stage step) approach by January 2020. At least 50% of Native American men ages 24-30 located in Alaska will recall the main campaign messages by January 2020. Increase awareness about, admittance of about Kiva and NAA by 30% among Native American men ages 24-30 located in Alaska by January 2020. Decrease in alcohol related incident by 30% among Native American men ages 24-30 located in Alaska by January 2020. Theoretical Framework & Strategic Approach The main objective of the “Songan Swallower” campaign is to create two programs that are specific to Native Americans alcoholics to educate them about the dangers of alcoholism. They are called Native Americans Anonymous (NAA) and Kiva support groups. Kiva support groups are primarily for those who want to use religion to help them throughout the recovery process. ? Theoretical Framework ?(You should consider the Ecological Model here) ? Transtheoretical model:? This approach is being used because those suffering from alcoholism can be at different stages within the recovery process. One can exit and re-enter this model at anytime into any of the stages. ? Strategic approach ?(You should consider the Community engagement continuum here; then any additional strategies...see Field Guide pgs 111-112)?: ? To educate Native Americans on the dangers of alcoholism and binge drinking we will use the following strategies: ? Community-based: Focus on rehabs, Kiva support groups, and NAA within the Native American community that can help with educating about alcohol abuse. ? Influencer-driven: Use a Native American spokesperson who has overcome alcoholism and integrated into American culture to come speak at NAA and Kiva support groups. Identifying Key Messages First, we created a slogan that can be used for posters and social media, which is “You are Songan than the Drink” which translates to “You are Stronger than the Drink.” We wanted to incorporate our campaign name in the actual phrases that would be used to communicate with our audience. Next, we created an acronym that follows the word “Songan,” it is below. This acronym gives hope to Native Americans that believe they can overcome alcoholism with the help of optimism and setting realistic goals. ? S?ober ? O?ptimistic ? N?ative American ? G?oals ? A?chieve ? N?ow 2 Channels and Tools ? Community based channel: ? Key influencer:? Local Native American alcoholic who became sober with the help of his religion and moved away from the tribe to assimilate into society. He goes back into the reservation to speak to the target population about how he successfully overcame alcoholism. This man will be the connection between our campaign and the primary audience because he can relate to our society and theirs. ? Primary audience:? anybody with a drinking problem but mainly young adult males (aged 24-30) living on a Native American reservation. ? Estimated power of influence:? Medium ? Attitude toward behavior change of primary audience: ?some want to become sober, most are willing to learn about a better life style, and others are not willing to change. ? Means of influence/channels:? community mobilization, religions, radio advertisements, NAA and Kiva pamphlets, billboards. ? Interpersonal based channel:? Communicating through support groups and counseling. Native American spokesperson telling his story and educating the target audience. The people who attend the Native American spokespersons presentation have the opportunity to ask questions and talk to the speaker one-on-one or in groups. Religion is also an important channel of communication, the Native American role model used religion to help himself overcome his addiction and he will explain how this helped give him the strength to become sober. ? Interviews:? Local directors of organizations that target drinking within the reservation, religious and political leaders, native americans outside of the reservation who have assimilated into the rest of society. ? Facilities:? Native American Anonymous (NAA), rehab centers, Kiva support groups in churches. Implementation Plan ? How to shape program strategies to make an impact on target populations: ? Using a Native American spokesperson who has moved away from the reservation, and became successful by getting sober. He will communicate messages from our campaign to the Native American community. Americans do not have the best relationship with Native Americans and it will be more effective to have someone they can relate to to convey the goals of this campaign. ? The Native American role model will also discuss how he used religion to overcome alcoholism because religion is an important part of Native American daily life. ? Timeline:? The campaign will start in January 2018 and end in January 2020. Task Who is Responsible By When? Identify audiences and primary facilities to use Lead organization March 2018 Conduct research on the strategic approach and how to communicate with Research firm April 2018 3 the community Introduce our Native American spokesperson to the community Lead organization Sept 2018 Try to get the primary audience to attend support groups and church meetings Lead organization, alcoholic role model Dec 2018 Finalize and produce communication materials like pamphlets and tv/radio advertisements Lead organization, advertising agency Mar 2019 Monitor if there is a decreasing alcohol related incidents, alcohol consumption in Native American community Research firm Dec 2019 Decide on phase 2 activities and tactics. Lead organization Jan 2020 ? Budget:? Our projected budget will be about $200,000. ? Alcoholic role model - $75,000 ? NAA/support groups/churches - $25,000 ? Research/advertising agency - $40,000 ? Pamphlets/other channels and tools used - $20,000 ? Administration costs - $30,000 ? Unexpected costs - $10,000 Evaluation Plan We will conduct a baseline and post intervention survey to determine if we met our behavior change objectives. What should be monitored, measured, compared? The project will monitor the impact of NAA and Kiva on knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Most of these evaluations will involve client exit or entry interviews at facilities. Interviews will be conducted with NAA and Kiva clients at selected facilities during the campaign to determine their exposure to campaign interventions and their reactions to campaign messages and materials. Other Indicator(s) ? Number of people using NAA and Kiva will be measured from the start of this campaign to the end of the campaign. ? Number of Native Americans attending the educational talks. ? Use of the phone hotline by keeping track of the number of phone calls the hotline received. 4 5 Running head: INTERVENTION PLAN Intervention Plan: Drug Abuse Amongst Low-Incomes African-American Families Malkom Parrish University of Georgia 1 INTERVENTION PLAN 2 Analysis of the Health Problem Drug abuse leads the family and users into breaking point as the addictions will lead to financial issues as the drug user will try to use all means to get finances for such activities. These groups will be using their finances and savings to purchase drugs, while others will be rendered jobless as they would fail to meet the deadlines due to the effects of drugs (Mack, Jones & Ballesteros, 2017). it is, therefore, necessary to have an intervention plan in place to help in overcoming the menace of drug abuse. Audience Segmentation The target audience is the African-American families who are low-income earners because they are the most vulnerable and prone to activities such as drug abuse. The selection of this audience segment is because they are the leading racial group among the five racial groups in America when it comes to drug abuse (Lilley, DeVall & Tucker-Gail, 2019). The intervention plan targets the drug abusers amongst low-income African-American families because they form a significant part of drug abusers in society. There is a high correlation between poverty and drug abuse which will consequently lead to an increase in violence and crime rates alongside depreciation of morality within the society. The major population within the African-American community who are drug abusers are the low-income earners and the unemployed population, with the major causative agent being distress and pressure (Lilley, DeVall & Tucker-Gail, 2019). These components arise from their inability to meet endless needs hence using drugs to relieve themselves from these situations. The poverty index within the mentioned community will be likely to continue for the foreseeable future because the majority of the population are drug abusers. INTERVENTION PLAN 3 Behaviour Change Objectives The main objective of this intervention plan is to ensure that there are changes in the overall behaviour of target individuals within this audience segmentation. Under this intervention plan, the objective is to ensure that the drug users not only reduce within the family level but also across the community. Once the families have succeeded in reversing the situation of their family members, the outcome will be a decrease in the overall number of drug users in the community. SMART Goals To attain the goal of this intervention plan, it will be ideal to use SMART goals whereby the plan will be Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Timebound. Specific: The project is meant to specifically help the drug abusers amongst low-incomes African-American families over the stated period of time under a similar plan to ensure that there are relatively uniform results from this intervention. Measurable: The plan will have overall behaviours, knowledge, and attitudes that measures the current drug abuse level and overall behaviours of the target community. It includes individual and group support hence fostering the self-efficacy of these endeavours. The measures taken include the follow-up information from the families regarding the overall adoption of this approach. Attainable: The effectiveness of this project is down to the customized health education aimed at enhancing the population knowledge and know-how regarding this overall situation. The effectiveness of the plan will be based on the correlational feedback from the community members. INTERVENTION PLAN 4 Relevant: The intervention plan is relevant as it targets the community that has a significant number of drug users, and by handling it at the family level, it will be easier to root out the clique who have been influenced by their immediate surrounding or even their workplace or school. Theoretical Framework The ideal intervention plan for this case is the Family First Intervention plan, whereby the families are issued with an intervention manual that has information regarding how they will contain drug users among their family members (World Health Organization, 2017). The spread of this menace is so wide that the rehabilitation centres are almost overcrowded due to addicted drug users who are striving to overcome their situation. The intervention program will therefore help in countering the reactions, behaviour, as well as another occurrence within the family before taking further consultation from external groups. Ecological Model THE ECOLOGICAL MODEL LEVEL INFLUENCES STRATEGY PREVENTION ACTIVITIES Individual Key components such as Promote their attitude and Education session to help an feeling lonely, sense of overall view regarding individual in dealing with social rejection and overall behaviours such as handling issues such as loneliness. attitude towards drug abuse loneliness and rejection Relationship Relationship with their Improve the overall perspective Education on how to cope with peers and family members regarding behaviours and a situation whereby the family who are also smokers. communication. members are drug users without being part of the smoking group. INTERVENTION PLAN Community 5 The neighbourhood, Champion for the policies and Formation of community school, workplace and regulation regarding drug abuse groups who will help in driving overall environment can in such areas and environments. societal changes regarding drug incite one into drug abuse. abuse both in school and neighbourhood Societal The overall belief, cultural Promoting positive social norms Engage the lawmakers and belief, societal norms and and policies with the aim of other relevant authorities to perspective within the improving the general belief on help in preventing drug abuse community regarding the issue of drug abuse issues of drug abuse. INTERVENTION PLAN 6 References Lilley, D. R., DeVall, K., & Tucker-Gail, K. (2019). Drug Courts and Arrest for Substance Possession: Was the African American Community Differentially Impacted?. Crime & Delinquency, 65(3), 352-374. Mack, K. A., Jones, C. M., & Ballesteros, M. F. (2017). Illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas—United States. American journal of transplantation, 17(12), 3241-3252. World Health Organization. (2017). mhGAP training manuals for the mhGAP intervention guide for mental, neurological and substance use disorders in non-specialized health settings (No. WHO/MSD/MER/17.6). World Health Organization.

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