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Homework answers / question archive / California State University, Long Beach ENGLISH 101 Chapter 5 Roman Civilization 1)Geography helped to shape the events of Roman history in all of the following ways EXCEPT A) Italy occupies a commanding position in the Aegean Sea

California State University, Long Beach ENGLISH 101 Chapter 5 Roman Civilization 1)Geography helped to shape the events of Roman history in all of the following ways EXCEPT A) Italy occupies a commanding position in the Aegean Sea


California State University, Long Beach
Chapter 5 Roman Civilization
1)Geography helped to shape the events of Roman history in all of the following ways EXCEPT A) Italy occupies a commanding position in the Aegean Sea.

B) the mountains did not form a barrier to political development as in Greece. C) Italy possesses useful harbors.

  1. the Italian peninsula faces west.
  2. Rome occupies a strategic position.


  1. Italy is dominated lengthwise by a ridge of mountains called the A) Alps.

B) Taurus. C) Pyrenees. D) Urals.

E) Apennines.


  1. The first city-state civilization arose in Italy due to the A) Carthaginians.

B) Gauls. C) Latins. D) Greeks.

E) Etruscans.


  1. Rome was built on the banks of the A) Po.                      B) Tiber.        C) Rhone.   D) Arno.             E) Rubicon.


  1. Which of the following is NOT a feature of the Etruscans? A) a superior military organization

B) an effective political system C) monotheism D) engineering skill

E) prominent role of women



  1. The Etruscan kings used an eagle-headed scepter and an ax bound in a bundle of rods called a(n)
    1. Franco. B) Mussolini.

C) fasces. D) imperium.

E) casa.


  1. Commoners in Rome, including small farmers, artisans, and dependents of the landowners, were known as
    1. patricians. B) praetors.

C) plebeians. D) helots.

E) sacrosanctitas.


  1. The Roman historian who recorded the fall of the last Etruscan king was A) Livy.

B) Tiberius. C) Homer. D) Tarquin.

E) Superbus.


  1. The Roman Republic, established in 509 B.C.E., was controlled by the A) dictator.

B) quaestor. C) plebeians. D) patricians.

E) none of the above,


  1. Early Roman law was inscribed on twelve tablets of bronze and displayed publicly in the A) Senate.

B) Concilium Plebis. C) Pantheon. D) Forum.

E) Tribal Assembly.




  1. The right to stop unfair or oppressive acts through the veto belonged to the A) tribunes.

B) consuls. C) king. D) senators.

E) plebeians.


  1. The official in charge of the Roman law courts was the A) censor.

B) maniple. C) quaestor. D) praetor.

E) juris doctor.


  1. The struggle for equal status between the patricians and plebeians within the Roman Republic ended with the creation of
    1. the Tribal Assembly. B) the commonwealth.

C) a constitution. D) the Code of the Twelve Tables.

E) the Senate.


  1. What event almost ended the history of Rome in 390 B.C.E.? A) a volcanic eruption

B) a seige by the Gauls, who left only after being paid a tribute C) a Greek invasion from Sicily D) the invasion and destruction by the Huns

E) defeat by the Etruscans


  1. Maneuverable Roman army units consisting of 120 men armed with javelins were called A) divisions.

B) centurions. C) phalanxes. D) legions.

E) maniples.  4 57

  1. A king of Epirus who defeated the Romans at such a high cost that he gained nothing was A) Scipio.

B) Seneca. C) Sulla. D) Fabricius.

E) Pyrrhus.


  1. What is meant by a ?Pyrrhic victory?? A) the total defeat of one?s enemy

B) the seige of a great city C) a truce between warring parties. D) a victory at so heavy a cost that it actually spells defeat

E) a victory that is unexpected


  1. What practice helped the Romans to establish their power over the entire Italian peninsula? A) total warfare

B) destruction of all who resisted C) negotiated settlements rather than war D) fair treatment of opponents

E) reluctance to wage war


  1. The Punic Wars were fought between Rome and A) Macedonia.

B) Carthage. C) Asia Minor. D) Greece.

E) Egypt.


  1. Cannae was A) Egypt?s major port on the Mediterranean.

B) the land occupied by the Hebrews. C) Hannibal?s great victory over the Romans. D) Caesar?s decisive victory over the Germans.

E) Rome?s principal outpost in Spain.




  1. The Carthaginian general who almost defeated Rome was A) Scipio.

B) Saguntum. C) Zama. D) Hannibal.

E) Philip.


  1. Romans defeated all of the following to establish themselves as a ?world power? EXCEPT A) Macedonia.

B) the Seleucids. C) the Greeks. D) the Germans.

E) Carthage.


  1. By 133 B.C.E., Rome had A) claimed Jerusalem.

B) been able to annex Gaul. C) conquered the territory to the east of the Danube River. D) been unsuccessful in defeating Carthage.

E) provinces in Europe, Africa, and Asia.


  1. Marriage in the early Roman Republic was viewed as a A.political alliance to be arranged by the ruler.
    1. unimportant. B) lifelong union based on mutual affection.

C) means to cement alliances between prominent patrician and plebeian families. D) pagan custom.


  1. Roman religion A) had no connection with ethics.

B) enhanced devotion to the state and its gods. C) involved use of magic spells. D) strengthened the family.

E) all of the above.



  1. The Roman proletariat was so named because its members only contribution to society was A) farmers.

B) taxes. C) property. D) children.

E) soldiers.


  1. Which of the following contributed to the weakening of the Roman Republic? A) government corruption

B) dependence on slave labor C) war D) all of the above

E) none of the above


  1. By the middle of the second century B.C.E., the Roman government was in the hands of A) a wealthy, self- seeking Senate.

B) the duly elected Concilium Plebis. C) a dictator. D) popular urban demagogues.

E) the Roman army.


  1. The deaths of the Gracchi brothers A) allowed the Huns to invade while the Roman army was distracted.

B) caused the passage of reform legislation. C) marked the end of the Roman Empire. D) had little impact on Rome.

E) illustrated that the Roman Senate had no intention to reform abuses.


  1. By the end of the second century B.C.E., the Roman army consisted chiefly of A) landless citizens loyal to their commanders rather than Rome.

B) slaves forced to serve in place of their masters. C) conscripts loyal to the Roman Republic. D) Germanic volunteers.

E) all of the above.





  1. Who was appointed by the Senate in 82 B.C.E. to serve an unlimited term as ?dictator for the revision of the constitution??
    1. Sulla B) Gaius Marius

C) Julius Caesar D) Flavius

E) Tiberius Gracchus


  1. Julius Caesar made his military reputation by conquering A) Egypt.

B) Britain. C) Gaul. D) Spain.

E) Carthage.


  1. The Commentaries on the Gallic War were important because A) the Roman Senate required all patricians to read them.

B) Romans feared the growth of the military power of Gaul. C) they detailed the military history of early Rome.

  1. the Roman Senate wanted to show its achievements to the Roman citizens.
  2. they allowed Caesar to remain within the citizens? awareness despite his physical absence.



  1. What river is associated with Julius Caesar?s defiance of the Roman Senate? A) Tiber

C) Po D) Rubicon  E) Rhine



B) Danube


  1. Julius Caesar was assassinated because his opponents believed he A) supported the aristocrats against the common people.

B) lost too many men in his fruitless campaigns. C) amassed a huge fortune but did not pay his soldiers. D) seemed to want to make himself a god.

E) all of the above.



  1. After the death of Julius Caesar A) Pompey became dictator.

B) Mark Antony and Octavian ruled jointly. C) a war with Egypt fatally wounded the Roman Empire. D) peace returned.

E) Rome was unified.


  1. Octavian?s decisive naval victory over Antony and Cleopatra took place near A) Actium.

B) Crete. C) Alexandria. D) Cairo.

E) Syracuse.


  1. Augustus disguised his role as monarch by calling himself ?first citizen? or A) princeps.

B) dyarch. C) fasces. D) imperator.

E) latifundia.


  1. Throughout his reign, Augustus A) failed to check moral decline.

B) discredited traditional religious beliefs. C) assumed the title of emperor. D) controlled the army.

E) all of the above.



  1. Roman occupation of England began during the reign of the emperor A) Claudius.

B) Tiberius. C) Vespasian. D) Augustus.

E) Nero.  3 62

  1. The emperor who began the persecution of Christians was A) Caligula.

B) Claudius. C) Titus. D) Hadrian.

E) Nero.


  1. Pax Romana refers to A) the end of a century of violence.

B) the end of the Roman Republic. C) 200 years of Roman imperialism and peace. D) the fairness of Roman law which enhanced the unity of the diverse empire.

E) all of the above.


  1. An emperor whose contributions to Stoicism have made him known as the ?philosopher king? was
    1. Vespasian. B) Julius Caesar.

C) Claudius. D) Marcus Aurelius.

E) Domitian.


  1. Which of the following was NOT an economic consequence of the Pax Romana? A) a great expansion of commerce

B) establishment of a reliable coinage C) the widespread distribution of wealth D) peace

E) suppression of piracy and brigandage


  1. Which of the following is NOT true of the economic stagnation in Italy during the first century?
    1. economic aid to support needy children B) Italian agricultural overproduction

C) subsidies to Italian farmers D) drain of money to the East for luxuries

E) agricultural goods from Italy purchased by Roman provinces



  1. Pompeii was A) a term used to denote freed slaves.

B) a famous general. C) a city buried by a volcanic eruption. D) the wealthiest Asian province in the Roman Empire.

E) a huge gladiatorial arena.


  1. Which of the following is NOT true of Roman life? A) The Roman calendar had few official holidays.

B) The Circus Maximus provided the largest site for chariot races. C) Public baths were a popular venue for social activity. D) The Colosseum was the site of gladiatorial contests.

E) Both rich and poor enjoyed numerous recreation activities.


  1. Jewish groups outside Palestine and away from the Temple met in the         for local worship and instruction in the scriptures.
    1. synagogue B) Septuagint

C) pharisee D) Torah

E) Petateuch


  1. The first five books of the Old Testament are known as the A) Dead Sea Scrolls.


B) Doctrines. C) Septuagint. D) Pentateuch.

E) Torah.


  1. The Roman official under whose authority Christ was crucified was A) Augustus Caesar.

B) Pontius Pilate. C) Herod the Great. D) Narc Anthony.

E) Mark Antony.



  1. With which of the following Jewish groups at the time of Christ were the ?rabbis? and the ?oral law? associated?
    1. Pharisees B) Sadducees

C) Gospels D) Zealots E) Essenes


  1. According to the Gospels, Jesus was born at A) Tarsus.

B) Nazareth. C) Bethlehem. D) Jerusalem.

E) an unknown location.


  1. Among the earliest followers of Jesus, the most widely traveled and successful missionary was A) St. Paul.

B) St. Peter. C) St. Thomas. D) St. Luke.

E) St. Matthew.


  1. Which of the following people were the first to convert to Christianity in significant numbers? A) Romans

B) Hellenized Jews C) Jews of Judea D) Greeks

E) Roman slaves


  1. Which of the following ideas was NOT accepted by St. Paul? A) Jesus was the Messiah prophesied in Jewish tradition.

B) Christians may look forward to an afterlife. C) Only Jews could be Christians. D) Gentiles could be saved by Christ?s death and resurrection.

E) Obedience to Jewish law was unnecessary for salvation.



  1. Christianity spread quickly because A) its followers used force on non-believers.

B) the Roman Empire became the leader of Christianity. C) it upheld the spiritual equality of all people. D) non- believers were taxed.

E) there was little opposition.


  1. Roman persecution of the early Christian church resulted mainly from the refusal of Christians to
    1. work. B) accept Roman law.

C) worship Roman gods. D) worship the Roman emperor.

E) all of the above.


  1. The most intensive persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred during the reign of the Emperor
    1. Julian the Apostate. B) Tacitus.

C) Constantine the Great. D) Diocletian.

E) Nero.



  1. Which of the following officials of the Christian church?s organization held the highest authority?
    1. bishop B) patriarch C) presbyter

D) procurator E) priest


  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason for Rome?s position of preeminence in the Christian church hierarchy?
    1. Although the Roman Empire ended, the city of Rome remained undestroyed. B) Peter had been made leader of the apostles by Jesus and was the first bishop of Rome.

C) After the fall of the Roman Empire, the bishop of Rome emerged as a dominant figure. D) Rome was the largest city in the West.

E) Christian doctrine was more easily accepted in Rome than in the other major cities.



  1. The Petrine doctrine was used to provide support for the A) dominance of the Roman emperors over the church.

B) concept of Christ?s divine nature. C) authenticity of the Vulgate. D) the dominance of the eastern Christian church.

E) authority of the Bishop of Rome over the church.


  1. Pope Leo the Great is associated with A) Arianism.

B) the Council of Nicaea. C) the Petrine doctrine. D) the legalization of Christianity in the Roman Empire.

E) the sacking of Rome by the Huns.


  1. An opinion or doctrine contrary to the official teaching of the church is A) liturgy.

B) heresy. C) dogma. D) regula.

E) asceticism.


  1. St. Augustine?s major contribution to Christianity was A) the definition of the concept of the Trinity.

B) a translation of the Bible into Latin. C) the assertion of church authority over the state in spiritual matters. D) to establish the foundation of Christian theology.

E) all of the above.


  1. The monastery originally founded in the 6th century at Monte Cassino in southern Italy was established by
    1. St. Simeon Stylites. B) St. Basil.

C) St. Benedict. D) St. Ambrose.

E) St. Francis.  2 67

  1. Which of the following Roman emperors declared Christianity to be the official state religion? A) Flavius

B) Titus C) Theodosius D) Galerius

E) Julian


  1. In the third century C.E., which of the following was NOT consistent with Rome? A) internal anarchy

B) corruption C) increase in the number of small farmers D) foreign invasion

E) despotism



  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the Germanic tribes? A) Saxons

B) Huns C) Lombards D) Goths

E) Angles


  1. Unlike the Romans, Germans A) lacked written laws

B) had no native currency. C) used vengeance rather than compensation for crimes. D) used cattle for barter.

E) all of the above


  1. The association of a band of warriors and their chief in Germanic tribal society was called A) a colonus.

B) a comitatus. C) feudalism. D) a bot.

E) jus civile.  4 68

  1. The Battle of Adrianople (378) is significant due to A) the victory of the Romans.

B) the defeat of the Germans. C) the defeat of the Romans. D) the death of Valens, the Roman emperor.

E) the defeat of the Huns.


  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the retreat of the Huns from Rome? A) disease

B) Roman military advances C) Pope Leo I D) lack of supplies

E) none of the above


  1. After the death of Theodosius I in 395, which of the following happened? A) the total collapse of the Roman Empire

B) the fall of Constantinople to the Greeks C) a division of the empire between his two sons D) the rule of Rome by a Germanic king

E) all of the above


  1. The last capital of the Western Roman emperors and also Theodoric?s capital in the sixth century was
    1. Venice. B) Naples.

C) Milan. D) Ravenna.

E) Rome.


  1. The general who overthrew the last Roman Emperor in the West and established a government in Italy with himself as king was
    1. Constantine. B) Odovacar.

C) Orestes. D) Attila.

E) Romulus Augustulus.




  1. The Romans were most gifted in which one of the following areas? A) science

B) philosophy C) art D) literature

E) government


  1. Still intact today, the largest domed structure built by the Romans is the A) Colosseum.

B) Forum. C) Pantheon. D) Appian Way.

E) Circus Maximus.



  1. Which one of the following is NOT associated with Roman architecture and engineering? A) post-and-lintel construction

B) basilicas C) domes D) barrel vaults

E) concrete


  1. Roman sculpture was characteristically/typically A) devoted mainly to religious themes.

B) a poor imitation of Etruscan models. C) one dimensional. D) imported exclusively from Greece.

E) realistic, secular, and individualistic.


  1. The oldest surviving examples of Latin literature are twenty-one comedies written by A) Homer.    B) Virgil. C) Plautus.   D) Cicero.     E) Horace.



  1. The greatest master of Roman prose and one of the outstanding intellectual influences in Roman history was
    1. Livy.          B) Catullus.  C) Cicero.      D) Ovid.        E) Virgil.



  1. In the great national epic by Virgil called the Aeneid, the hero A) is Augustus Caesar.

B) conquers Gaul. C) defeats the Greeks. D) travels from his home in Troy to the Italian peninsula.

E) defeats invading Carthaginian forces.


  1. The literary period between the deaths of Augustus and Hadrian A) emphasized morality.

B) emphasized military themes. C) is known as the Ovidian Age. D) ended the Ciceronian Age.

E) failed to contribute any lasting achievements.

8 84) The author of the series of biographies of famous Greeks and Romans called Parallel Lives


  1. Tacitus.    B) Plutarch.  C) Juvenal.   D) Livy.          E) Pliny.


  1. The most important Roman interpreter of the ethical philosophy known as Epicureanism was A) Seneca.
  1. Pliny the Elder. C) Lucretius. D) Tacitus.

E) Virgil.


  1. What major Roman philosophy stressed the importance of a just life, constancy to duty, courage in adversity, and service to humanity?
    1. Stoicism B) Emperor worship

C) Skeptism D) Latinism

E) Epicureanism


  1. The scientific encyclopedia called the Natural History was compiled by A) Seneca.

B) Pliny the Elder. C) Pliny the Younger. D) Marcus Aurelius.

E) Virgil.  9 71

  1. The famous geographer, astronomer, and mathematician Claudius Ptolemy resided in A) Athens.

B) Spain. C) Alexandria. D) Paris.

E) Rome.



  1. Science in the Roman Empire was mainly based on what tradition? A) Cretan               B) Persian         C) Hellenic         D) Oriental   E) Egyptian



  1. The Roman medical encyclopedia that remained the standard authority until the 16th century was compiled by
    1. Pergamum. B) Livy.

C) Ptolemy. D) Pliny.

  1. Galen.  


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