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Homework answers / question archive / University of California, Berkeley - NST 10 NST 10: Fall 2015 Midterm 2 Thursday October 29th, 2015 1)This study’s hypothesis is: Oatmeal consumption might increase nutrient intake Oatmeal consumers tends to have better bone development than non-consumers Oatmeal consumers are often adults 19 years or older Oatmeal might decrease fat accumulation All of the above   are examples of quantifiable data measured in the study: Nutrient intake profile Body weight Feelings of satiety Both a and c Both a and b   Which of the following is an INCORRECT conclusion from the study? Because someone consumes less alcohol, he/she will also eat more oatmeal

University of California, Berkeley - NST 10 NST 10: Fall 2015 Midterm 2 Thursday October 29th, 2015 1)This study’s hypothesis is: Oatmeal consumption might increase nutrient intake Oatmeal consumers tends to have better bone development than non-consumers Oatmeal consumers are often adults 19 years or older Oatmeal might decrease fat accumulation All of the above   are examples of quantifiable data measured in the study: Nutrient intake profile Body weight Feelings of satiety Both a and c Both a and b   Which of the following is an INCORRECT conclusion from the study? Because someone consumes less alcohol, he/she will also eat more oatmeal

Health Science

University of California, Berkeley - NST 10

NST 10: Fall 2015

Midterm 2 Thursday October 29th, 2015

1)This study’s hypothesis is:

    1. Oatmeal consumption might increase nutrient intake
    2. Oatmeal consumers tends to have better bone development than non-consumers
    3. Oatmeal consumers are often adults 19 years or older
    4. Oatmeal might decrease fat accumulation
    5. All of the above

 

  1. are examples of quantifiable data measured in the study:
    1. Nutrient intake profile
    2. Body weight
    3. Feelings of satiety
    4. Both a and c
    5. Both a and b

 

  1. Which of the following is an INCORRECT conclusion from the study?
    1. Because someone consumes less alcohol, he/she will also eat more oatmeal.
    2. Someone who consumes oatmeal most likely has higher overall nutrient intake.
    3. Consumption of oatmeal seems to be correlated with lower body weight.
    4. A person who consumes oatmeal will most likely have higher intake of dietary fiber.
    5. None of the above.

 

  1. When a nonessential amino acid is not available from the diet, it can be made in the body by the process of:
    1. Oxidation
    2. Transamination
    3. Hydrogenation
    4. Digestion
    5. Reduction

 

  1. Antioxidants protect cells from DNA damage by neutralizing:
    1. Toxins
    2. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
    3. Oxygen (O2)
    4. Free radicals
    5. None of the above

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a potential pitfall of research performed on animals?
    1. Animals have a different genetic makeup than humans do.
    2. Animals are the closest biological match to a human model.
    3. Animals have somewhat different metabolic pathways.
    4. Animals have different diets than humans do.
    5. Controlled environments can affect the variable outcomes.

 

  1. Adaptive change in energy expenditure means that it is:
    1. Easy to lose weight
    2. Hard to lose weight
    3. Hard to maintain weight loss
    4. Easy to maintain weight loss
    5. Both a and c

 

  1. ______ are the pre-formed versions of vitamin A found in animal products and__________ are

the precursors of vitamin A found in plant products.

    1. Haloids, Carcinogens
    2. Carotenoids, Retinoids
    3. Steroids, Retinoids
    4. Retinoids, Carotenoids
    5. Antigens, Carotenoids

 

  1. Metabolic syndrome is based on 5 conditions. Which of the following is NOT one of these conditions?
    1. Fasting glucose
    2. Waist circumference
    3. Serum triglycerides
    4. LDL cholesterol
    5. Blood pressure

 

  1. There are three main metabolic responses we see during phase 2 of starvation. Which of the following is NOT one of these responses?
    1. Fatty acid oxidation
    2. Ketosis
    3. Reduced nitrogen losses
    4. Increased nitrogen losses
    5. None of the above

 

  1. Based on the relationship between fitness and risk for cardiovascular disease, which of the following people will have the LOWEST risk of cardiovascular disease?
    1. John; a bodybuilder who consumes massive amounts of protein.
    2. Jamie, an obese man who gets regular exercises.
    3. Roger; a thin man who is out of shape.
    4. Billy; a thin man who gets regular exercise.
    5. None of the above; they all are at high risk.

 

  1. Folic acid is added to many different cereals. This is an example of___________ , and has helped

decrease_______ birth defects in infants.

    1. Fortification; neural tube
    2. Enrichment; neural tube
    3. Fortification; hand and foot
    4. Enrichment; limb
    5. Fortification; digestive tract

 

14________ are the building blocks of proteins.

  1. Phosphates
  2. Bases
  3. Glycerols
  4. Amino Acids
  5. Enzymes

 

  1. Labels of supplements ARE allowed to:
    1. Make health claims that are scientifically supported
    2. Claim that lack of a nutrient can cause a deficiency disease
    3. Make a structure-function claim
    4. State that general well-being results from consuming those ingredients
    5. All of the above

 

  1. What role do B vitamins largely play in the body?
    1. They act as coenzymes in many metabolic reactions.
    2. They help absorb fat-soluble vitamins.
    3. They help absorb calcium and promote bone health.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above

 

  1. Consider the following:

Jean Paul is a 28-year-old attorney who weighs 160 lbs. Here is what his diet looked like on Monday:

Breakfast: Omelet with 3 scrambled eggs and coffee

Lunch: Turkey sandwich on whole wheat bread with avocado, lettuce, and tomato Dinner: 2 McDonald’s cheeseburgers and fries

Based on his suggested RDA, what potential problem do you see with Jean Paul’s protein intake?

    1. Too much total protein with not enough plant-based foods
    2. A healthy amount of protein, but not enough plant-based foods
    3. Not enough total protein
    4. Not enough complete sources of protein
    5. There are no problems with Jean Paul’s protein intake

 

  1. Vitamin D, the “sunshine vitamin,” increases:
    1. Water retention
    2. Sugar absorption
    3. Calcium absorption
    4. Protein absorption
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Supplement manufacturers are required to comply with the FDA’s regulation regarding which of the following?
    1. Safety
    2. Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)
    3. Effectiveness
    4. Both a and c
    5. All of the above

 

  1. An amino acid is composed of a central carbon, an acid group, a hydrogen, an amino group, and a(n)             _.
    1. Nitrogen
    2. Methyl
    3. Aromatic ring
    4. Side chain
    5. Aldehyde

 

  1. Essential amino acids:
    1. Can be synthesized in the human body
    2. Must be obtained from the diet
    3. Are mainly found in plant-based food
    4. Are basic building block of fats
    5. Are the only amino acids used to synthesize protein

 

  1. Which of the following mechanisms might extend lifespan while a person is on a calorie restricted diet?
    1. Glycolysis
    2. Thermogenesis upregulation
    3. Gluconeogenesis
    4. Scarcity adaptation
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Riboflavin (B2) can:
    1. Increase absorption of other vitamins
    2. Decrease blood clotting
    3. Aid fat metabolism
    4. Maintain bone development
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and helps to:
    1. Maintain the immune system
    2. Support collagen
    3. Absorb fat
    4. Both a and b
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Fat-soluble vitamins include:
    1. A, B, D, and K
    2. A, C, D, and E
    3. A, C, E, and K
    4. A, D, E, and K
    5. B, C, D, and E

 

  1. What is the best way to obtain all of the necessary vitamins?
    1. Consume a broad diet high in diversity
    2. Consume supplementation
    3. Consume a daily multivitamin
    4. Consume a diet lacking diversity
    5. Consume a plant-based diet only

 

  1. Supplements are defined as products taken by mouth that contain a “dietary ingredient” intended to supplement the diet. These “dietary ingredients” can include which of the following?
    1. Vitamins and minerals
    2. Herbs or other botanicals
    3. Active drug components
    4. Both a and b
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Once vitamin E is consumed, it is transported out of the digestive tract by which of the following?
    1. Enzymes
    2. Lipoproteins
    3. Minerals
    4. Glycogen
    5. None of the above

 

  1. Multiple risk factors have a/an_________ effect in CVD patients.
    1. Small
    2. Synergistic
    3. Simple
    4. Antagonistic
    5. All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a function of protein in the human body?
    1. As enzymes that catalyze metabolic reactions
    2. As antibodies that aid the immune system
    3. As hormones that regulate physiology
    4. As transporters that move substances across membranes and throughout the body
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Based on the lecture, what is a potential benefit calorie restriction can have?
    1. Increased lifespan
    2. Increased thermogenesis
    3. Decreased blood clotting
    4. Reduced calcium uptake
    5. Increased heart rate

 

  1. Under high temperatures, proteins will unfold. This process is known as:
    1. Saturation
    2. Catabolism
    3. Denaturation
    4. Chopping
    5. Anabolism

 

  1. Abnormal blood coagulation may be caused by a:
    1. Vitamin A deficiency
    2. Vitamin B over-supplementation
    3. Vitamin C deficiency
    4. Vitamin K deficiency
    5. Vitamin E overconsumption

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a current characteristic of the U.S. obesity epidemic?
    1. Higher prevalence is observed in minority groups in the U.S.
    2. Higher prevalence is observed in higher socioeconomic groups in the U.S.
    3. Increased prevalence is observed in young people
    4. Accelerated increase is observed in third world countries
    5. Prevalence is highest in southern states

 

  1. Maintaining a high-protein diet for a long period of time is most likely to result in:
    1. Kidney stones
    2. Hypertension
    3. Increased risk of heart disease and cancer
    4. Both a and c
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Jillian, a healthy adult, weighs 50 kg. How much protein she should consume daily based on RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) values?
    1. 100 g
    2. 40 g
    3. 6 g
    4. 500 g
    5. None of the above.

 

  1. Of the options discussed in class, what is the best way to maintain weight loss?
    1. Drug therapy
    2. Calorie restriction
    3. Fidgeting
    4. Voluntary exercise
    5. Low-carbohydrate diets

 

  1. Protein synthesis occurs in the:
    1. Lysosome
    2. Mitochondria
    3. Nucleus
    4. Ribosome
    5. Golgi

 

  1. If a person were to consume a cup of ice cream every night for the rest of their lives, and not change anything else about food intake or activity, what would happen?
    1. They would continuously gain weight.
    2. They would lose weight.
    3. They would gain weight, and then maintain that weight.
    4. They would gain weight, and then lose that weight once their body acclimated.
    5. They would see no change in weight.

 

  1. An individual with which of the following disorders is most likely to be harmed by foods containing a specific amino acid?
    1. Kwashiorkor
    2. Marasmus
    3. Phenylketonuria
    4. PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition)
    5. All of the above

 

  1. (A) benefit(s) of a healthy vegetarian diet may include:
    1. Lower blood pressure
    2. Reduced risk of heart disease
    3. Reduced risk of some cancers
    4. Better digestive health
    5. All of the above

 

  1. What property of water-soluble vitamins allows them to interact with water?
    1. They are non-polar molecules.
    2. They contain no or few oxygens or nitrogens.
    3. They are polar molecules.
    4. They contain many carbons and hydrogens.
    5. They are hydrophobic molecules.

 

  1. Niacin (B3) can be synthesized from________ _ .
    1. Fat
    2. Tyrosine
    3. Vitamin D
    4. Tryptophan
    5. Coenzyme A

 

  1. Which type of fat(s) is/are associated with the poorest health outcomes?
    1. Big fat cells
    2. Gluteofemoral adipose
    3. Internal fat
    4. Both a and b
    5. Both a and c

 

  1. Protein can be found in which of the following foods?
    1. Fish
    2. Tofu
    3. Kidney beans
    4. Oatmeal
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Vitamin A deficiency can be caused by:
    1. Insufficient intake of vitamin A
    2. Insufficient intake of zinc
    3. Insufficient intake of carbohydrates
    4. Both a and b
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Which of the following foods is highest in Vitamin B12 ?
    1. Rice
    2. Beef
    3. Whole wheat bread
    4. Corn
    5. All of the above

 

  1. Folate (B9) is important for________ synthesis.
    1. Mineral
    2. Glucose
    3. DNA
    4. ATP
    5. Fat

 

  1. Theoretically, in order to lose weight, a person would need to:
    1. Increase calorie intake, increase energy expenditure
    2. Decrease calorie intake, decrease energy expenditure
    3. Increase calorie intake, decrease energy expenditure
    4. Decrease calorie intake, increase energy expenditure
    5. Decrease calorie intake, decrease energy expenditure

 

  1. Thiamin (B1) deficiency can lead to:
    1. Beriberi
    2. Ariboflavinosis
    3. Anemia
    4. Pellagra
    5. None of the above

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