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Homework answers / question archive / QUESTION 2 The influence of the National Rifle Association (NRA) has been demonstrated in repeated studies by political scholars

QUESTION 2 The influence of the National Rifle Association (NRA) has been demonstrated in repeated studies by political scholars


QUESTION 2 The influence of the National Rifle Association (NRA) has been demonstrated in repeated studies by political scholars. stems as much from an enhanced reputation for influence as actual influence. was smaller in the 1990s but has increased since the George W. Bush administration. is based upon the effective lobbying of members of both parties. QUESTION 3 What was notable about interest group spending in the 2016 election? PAC contributions were greater than independent expenditures for the first time. There was significant spending from outside groups in presidential andcongressional races. Democrat groups outspent Republican groups in Senate races. None of these answers are correct. QUESTION 4 What worries does interest group involvement in campaigns raise? Candidates may feel beholden to interest groups that donate to them or advertiseon their behalf. Interest groups will spend money on television advertisements rather than onorganizing members. Citizens may perceive interest groups primarily as partisan organizations rather than as organizations focused on particular interests. Parties may think of interest groups as essentially adjuncts of the party rather than as independent entities. QUESTION 5 Interest groups spend more money on campaigns than they do on lobbying. about the same amount of money on campaigns as they do on lobbying. more money on lobbying than on campaigning. more money on campaigns in presidential election years, but more money on lobbying in other years. QUESTION 6 Interest groups are more likely to represent constituencies that are poor and have more to gain from government policy. constituencies that are wealthier and have more to gain from government policy. constituencies that are African American and have more to gain from government policy. None of these are correct. QUESTION 7 One reason there are increasingly numerous interest groups in the United States today is that the public's interests have changed over time. politicians prefer to delegate issues to interest groups. the country's increasing diversity of ideas and backgrounds. recently there have been changes in the economy. QUESTION 8 The Arab American Institute interest group aims to represent the political interest of all Arab Americans. The group undertakes activities to mobilize Arab Americans and engage them in the political process. We might describe this group as one that claims to speak for this broader constituency. various ethnic or religious groups in the United States. the Democratic Party. the Republican Party. QUESTION 9 In 2012, data from the Center for Responsive Politics shows that business groups account for ________ percent of large federal campaign contributions. 1 25 60 95 QUESTION 10 Suppose your interest group is trying to decide when to spend money on a congressional campaign for a new candidate with little name recognition. When are interest group expenditures more likely to have an impact? during the early days of the primary election campaign later in the campaign, after a competent campaign organization is built before the announcement of the candidate's candidacy None of these are correct. QUESTION 11 What characterized the behavior of the Koch brothers during the 2016 elections? They raised millions of dollars to support Trump. There were no ads attacking the Koch brothers. They spend more money on down ballot candidates. They shifted their support to Hillary Clinton. QUESTION 12 "Social context" refers to the constraints on mobilization appeals created by societal expectations. mobilization and organizational practices the Barack Obama campaign borrowed from Social Democratic parties in Europe. people with whom an individual communicates and interacts. name psychologists give to people's willingness to vote after being told that whether they show up to vote is a matter of public record. QUESTION 13 Attendance at Trump's rallies in the 2016 presidential election often required tickets, which did not guarantee admission if the venue became filled to capacity, yet many people waited in long lines hoping to get inside. These individuals are best described as having a high level of political interest. those with a lesser likelihood to vote than most. mobilized voters. a generational cohort. QUESTION 14 The people who turn out in midterm elections are best described as ________ voters. periodic erratic habitual uninformed QUESTION 15 Why were voter registration requirements created? Progressive era reformers sought to limit the power of urban political machines and the immigrant and working-poor voters who supported them. Southerners began implementing these laws after the Union army ended the military occupation of the South at the end of Reconstruction. Republicans implemented these laws in the 1940s and 1950s in an attempt to stop the Democrats' New Deal Coalition. Conservative state legislatures implemented registration in an effort to reduce support for Barack Obama. QUESTION 16 Compared to the turnout of whites, African American turnout is higher. about the same. the same in presidential elections, but higher in midterm elections. lower. QUESTION 17 The 2004 campaign for George W. Bush included volunteers holding "parties for the president." Participants enjoyed being part of the collective effort and friendship with fellow volunteers. This is a form of material benefits. purposive benefits. solidarity benefits. None of these are correct. QUESTION 18 Why do young people vote less often than older people? Young people are more mobile, which makes it harder for them to register to vote and harder for campaigns to find them to mobilize them. Young people are more likely to be independents, and independents are less likely to participate in politics. Young people have lower levels of education than older generations, and education is related to turnout. Young people are more likely to be African American than older generations, and African Americans have lower turnout rates than whites. QUESTION 19 What is the relationship between an individual's level of partisanship and political participation? Strong partisans are more likely to participate in politics because they are more invested in the success of their party. Independents are more likely to participate in politics because they spend more time and effort examining candidates. Democrats are more likely to participate because the Democratic Party runs on a more participatory model. Republicans are more likely to participate in politics because older people are more likely to participate in politics. QUESTION 20 Why do different generational cohorts have different levels of participation? Different generational cohorts have differently inspiring political leaders to urgethem to vote. Political issues affect each age cohort differently, and some are more directly impacted by government policies. The norm of nonparticipation for women has faded since the rise of the feminist movement and now only affects older generations. There are distinctive patterns that come from norms of behavior and civil and political engagement that were pervasive when that generation came of age. QUESTION 21 The intent of the Motor Voter Act was to boost voting rates among Republicans. boost voting rates among Democrats. increase registration costs. lower registration costs. QUESTION 23 Use of the telegraph was instrumental in news reporting because it eliminated the journalist's role as the intermediary in news reporting. it automated much of the work of reporters. it led to the creation of wire services, which allowed news media to share news and reproduce content quickly. All of these answers are correct. QUESTION 24 After airing the 2016 election presidential debates, the news network CNN often aired a follow-up program in which reporters and pundits provided further analysis and interpretation of the debates. This is known as horse race journalism. interpretive journalism. yellow journalism. All of these answers are correct. QUESTION 25 What type of stories does network news coverage tend to favor? detailed policy stories that focus on the details of new legislation still pictures and text, which helps them to be as credible as newspapers long sound bites from presidential candidates stories with good visuals but less depth than newspaper articles QUESTION 26 The media's focus on conflict leads to more coverage of candidates' policy proposals. positive advertisements than negative ones. negative advertisements than positive ones. candidate biography. QUESTION 27 Where do most Americans get their news? television newspapers radio online QUESTION 28 Which of the following claims about news media bias is supported by political science evidence? Democratic candidates for Congress obtain substantially more positive coverage. Republican candidates with financial support from large corporations aretreated favorably. Newspapers favor incumbent candidates whom their editorial boards endorse. Television news coverage is more negative toward the frontrunner. QUESTION 29 How do the values of the media affect the strategies of candidates? Because of the press's liberal bias, Republican candidates must find ways to go around the press to communicate with voters. The value of novelty prompts campaigns to organize a continuous stream of new events to gain media attention. The value of national unity prompts campaigns to avoid attacking their opponent atpublic events. The value of objectivity prompts campaigns to try to conduct joint events withtheir opponents. QUESTION 30 What is the most common effect of media coverage? persuasion indoctrination reinforcement alienation QUESTION 31 In priming, the media influence the criteria citizens use to make judgments by the degree of emphasis that issues receive. news coverage of campaigns helps citizens learn relevant facts about the candidates, including their biographies and issue positions. the media shape perceptions of how an issue is viewed by focusing on particular aspects of that issue. news coverage changes citizens' positions on key issues. QUESTION 32 What is pack journalism?an attempt by reporters to tell their audience why the candidates are doing what they are doing and thereby reveal the candidates' underlying strategy the idea that reporters who travel together, talk to each other, and read each other's stories converge on similar ideas and themes a focus on tawdry personal scandals in campaign coverage an attempt to use charts, graphs, and maps to explain the consequences of the candidates' policy proposals QUESTION 33 Reinforcement means getting more campaign resources to battleground states. adding computers and staff to campaign headquarters. encouraging voters who are predisposed to support you to actually do so. repeating a familiar campaign message. QUESTION 34 What is party identification? voting for one party's presidential candidate in both the primary and the general election a voter's temporary preference for one political party based upon economic conditions a psychological attachment to a political party a mental tally of each party's merits and demerits QUESTION 35 According to surveys, about ________ percent of Americans are very interested in political campaigns. 15 27 44 65 QUESTION 36 Why are presidential campaigns in general elections less likely to affect election outcomes than campaigns at other levels of office? Voters have already made their mind up about state and local elections but wait until the campaign to learn about presidential candidates. Congressional candidates are usually better known than presidential candidates. Congressional candidates begin campaigning well before the November election, whereas presidential candidates only begin after the national conventions. Presidential candidates are very well known and have been campaigning formonths or more. QUESTION 37 Which of the following is an example of retrospective voting? In 2008, Republican voters vote for Barack Obama, the Democratic Party candidate, because they are unhappy with the economic collapse that took place under George W. Bush's leadership. A group of voters support Clinton in 2016 because they credit Democrats with bringing greater financial stability to their state. After a series of devastating tornadoes in the South, people in the affected regions vote against the incumbent party due to the administration's disaster relief response. All of these are correct. QUESTION 38 When the Trump campaign used the immigration issue to court Democratic voters who favored restrictions on immigration, we might say these voters were persuaded. targeted. cross-pressured. mobilized. QUESTION 39 How is a voter's social identity related to the choice of whom to vote for? Voters tend to vote for the candidate their neighbor supports. Voters are aligned with political parties because of factors such as class, background, ethnicity, or religion. Voters who are part of a community group vote for the candidate endorsed by thegroup leader. Voters are individuals with free choice, and their friends and neighbors have little influence on their vote choice. QUESTION 40 When a campaign affects the criteria that voters use in choosing a candidate, the process is known as priming. reinforcement. cross-pressure. sociotropic voting. QUESTION 41 Voters rely ________ on their assessments of the national economy (sociotropic voting) than on assessments of their own financial situation (pocketbook voting). more less equally rarely QUESTION 42 Voting for the candidate whose issue positions most closely correspond to your own is referred to as directional voting. median voter theorem. proximity voting. None of these are correct. QUESTION 43 Why do party organizations try to contact voters? Parties have traditionally done this task and do not want to give it up. Voter contact programs serve as a key means of fundraising for parties. Studies have shown that knocking on voters' doors or calling them increases their likelihood of participating in the election. Candidates refuse to create their own volunteer organizations to do this task. QUESTION 44 Political parties serve the needs of politicians for all of the following reasons EXCEPT politicians with shared interests and policy goals want durable legislative majorities topass legislation. politicians want a party reputation or "brand" that voters recognize and can use when voting. politicians need an infrastructure that helps persuade and mobilize voters during an election. politicians need party leaders to whom they can shift blame when the economy goes bad. QUESTION 45 Political parties help democratic governments work better by aggregating the public's interests. organizing coalitions. coordinating elections and the legislative process. All of these are correct. QUESTION 46 What benefits do political parties provide to voters? They increase free choice for voters by ensuring that multiple candidates run for office. They give money directly to voters as part of their mobilization programs. They reduce the need for campaign phone calls and television advertisements, which most people do not like. They provide voters with clear choices and an effective way to identify the candidate whose views accord more with their own. QUESTION 47 Political parties are a group of people hired by the candidate in an effort to win an election. with a common interest who band together in an effort to further that interest. who vote the same way in a particular election. with the shared interest of electing public officials under a common label. QUESTION 48 Imagine that you are a campaign strategist for the Republican Party working with voter files for the state of Ohio. You identify 35 independent voters in the files for one county. It would be safe to assume from this information that these thirty-five voters do not form part of your base. there is a chance some of these thirty-five voters identify as independent but vote consistently Republican. these thirty-five voters are members of the Democratic Party. these thirty-five voters do not vote with any of the two major parties in any election. QUESTION 49 Where do party organizations tend to concentrate their resources? on the most closely contested races in the districts with the most members of their party on candidates with the most loyal party voting records in Congress across all races equally QUESTION 50 New York state has a closed election primary, only members of a specific party can participate. During the 2016 primary elections some Democratic voters supported Senator Bernie Sanders, while others supported Hillary Clinton. Does V.O. Key Jr.'s term "the party in the electorate" describe these voters? No, because the term refers to citizens who identify with the same candidate within the party. Yes, because these voters all identify with the Democratic Party. Yes, because these voters share the same ideological inclinations. No, because "party in the electorate" refers to the administration of the party's institutions. QUESTION 51 During the 2016 presidential election Donald Trump's and Bernie Sander's positions on trade policy were viewed as similar, but Trump emphasized the role of the Democratic Party in trade policy, whereas Sanders focused on class divisions. This is an example of how Republicans explain division between the parties as a split in partisan coalitions intrade policy. Democrats align to the left on public policy. Republicans explain party competition as an ideological battle between the left and right, whereas Democrats view the division as group competition between the richand the vulnerable. Democrats explain divisions between the parties as a group competition between the left and right. QUESTION 52 The partisan complexion of a state or district has little impact on the results of an election. is very important in elections, but not as important as a candidate's resume. is very important in elections, but in the end, it has little impact on the ability of candidates to recruit volunteers to help their campaign. is the central feature of the reality that confronts candidates for office.

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