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Homework answers / question archive / Kent State University - SOC 1000 CHAPTER 4 Social Interaction and Everyday Life in the Age of the Internet MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)The sociologist who contributed to the field of microsociology and emphasized the importance of understanding the seemingly trivial aspects of everyday social behavior was Erving Goffman

Kent State University - SOC 1000 CHAPTER 4 Social Interaction and Everyday Life in the Age of the Internet MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)The sociologist who contributed to the field of microsociology and emphasized the importance of understanding the seemingly trivial aspects of everyday social behavior was Erving Goffman


Kent State University - SOC 1000

CHAPTER 4 Social Interaction and Everyday Life in the Age of the Internet


1)The sociologist who contributed to the field of microsociology and emphasized the importance of understanding the seemingly trivial aspects of everyday social behavior was

    1. Erving Goffman.                                      c.   Émile Durkheim.
    2. Elijah Anderson.                                       d. Karl Marx.



  1. According to Erving Goffman, reality is neither fixed nor static but created through
    1. mass medi                                            c.   human interactions.
    2. human ideas.                                           d. human mistakes.



  1. According to Erving Goffman, one of the reasons it is important to study subtle day-to-day interactions is because
    1. they reveal how humans are like other primates.
    2. they can be used to measure a person's intelligence.
    3. we can learn a great deal about ourselves as social beings.
    4. they can inform us about political and military strategy.



  1. Two people are standing together in an elevator, but they do not speak to each other or look each other in the eye. Erving Goffman called this type of interaction
    1. focused interaction.                                c.   civil inattention.
    2. interactional vandalism.                         d. compulsion of proximity.



  1. Civil inattention is defined as
    1. acknowledging the presence of others but avoiding interaction.
    2. totally ignoring the presence of others.
    3. acting rude and inappropriate.
    4. pretending you do not know someone whom you have met before.



  1. What is the definition of agency?
    1. having responsibility for someone else’s welfare
    2. the ability to think, act, and make independent choices
    3. being part of a formal, institutionalized social structure
    4. the capacity to perceive reality and form opinions




  1. Unfocused interaction is when people
    1. ignore each other completely in a small space.
    2. exhibit mutual awareness but do not engage in face-to-face interaction.
    3. demonstrate how they perceive others through body language.
    4. communicate over email or text message.



  1. Trevor takes the subway to and from work. He usually wears his headphones and listens to his music on the subway. He is careful not to bump shoulders with the passengers next to him when he is standing on the crowded train. Trevor engages in       on the subway.
    1. social positioning                                     c.   impression management
    2. focused interaction                                 d. unfocused interaction



  1. When Jane arrived at the party, her friend Alyssa came over immediately to say hello. According to Erving Goffman, this is an example of
    1. controlled alertness.                               c.   unfocused interaction.
    2. focused interaction.                                d. interactional vandalism.



  1. How does our current age of Internet communication complicate Goffman's concepts of focused and unfocused interaction?
    1. In online interactions, people generally have more control over how they are perceived than people engaging in face-to-face interactions.
    2. In online interactions, people are constantly sharing their feelings and have less control over how they are perceived than those engaging in face-to-face interactions.
    3. Online interactions allow for more focused interactions than face-to-face social encounters.
    4. The clever and funny use of emojis makes it much easier to express one's feelings online than in face-to-face interactions.



  1. Encounters always need          , which indicates that civil inattention is being discarded and focused interaction will begin.
    1. impression management                        c.   an opening
    2. audience segregation                              d. controlled alertness



  1. Identify which of the following social interactions is focused.
    1. A seated bus rider moves his feet so a rider who is carrying luggage can pass.
    2. Someone repairing a machine gives instructions to an assistant.
    3. A surfer riding a wave steers to avoid hitting another surfer.
    4. A woman rolls her eyes and sighs when a man shoves her on the train.




  1. The exchange of information about human emotion through facial expressions, gestures, and movements of the body is called
    1. nonverbal communication.                     c.   agency.
    2. response cries.                                        d. projection.



  1. Gestures and body postures that are an important part of nonverbal communication are
    1. universal and the same in all cultures.
    2. neither universal nor the same in all cultures.
    3. unique to each person.
    4. embedded in our DNA.



  1. According to the research by Paul Ekman and W. V. Friesen, who developed the Facial Action Coding System, the modes of human emotional expression
    1. vary across cultures.                               c.   are similar across cultures.
    2. change as we grow older.                       d. are the same among almost all mammals.



  1. According to Charles Darwin, basic human emotional expressions
    1. are exactly the same as the basic emotional expressions of other primates.
    2. are the same in all human beings.
    3. vary widely, depending on the culture one is in.
    4. are learned and vary among cultures.



  1. If one wanted to show that the relationship between emotions and facial expressions has nothing to do with culture, which research technique would make the most sense?
    1. Observe the facial expressions of children who were born blind.
    2. Ask children how they learned to frown when angry, and so on.
    3. Ask children to draw pictures of a sad person, a surprised person, and so on.
    4. Observe the facial expressions children make when they don’t know they’re being watche



  1. Katrina, who is sixteen years old, would consider it rude for someone to read a book during a conversation. However, she thinks that someone reading and responding to messages on his or her phone is socially acceptable. One reason that young people may find nothing wrong with answering texts during a conversation is that
    1. they believe online interaction can enhance face-to-face interaction, especially if one is looking up information relevant to the conversation.
    2. they believe online communication is more important than face-to-face communication.


    1. people can use nonverbal communication in face-to-face interactions.
    2. there is an expectation to keep up with the latest technology and applications.



  1. Jane sent her boss an email suggesting that they have a performance review to see whether she was ready for a raise. Her boss replied in an email that Jane was out of line and that she would give her a performance review at the same time as other employees. Face-to-face communication may have helped Jane avoid upsetting her boss by
    1. allowing her to pressure her boss by looking her straight in the eye.
    2. allowing her to respond to her boss's anger in real time.
    3. allowing Jane to claim gender discrimination without putting it in writing.
    4. allowing her to evaluate her boss's body language before suggesting she was ready for a raise.



  1. An example of           is when humans endow nonhumans with human capacities, making them viable others in social interaction.
    1. projection
    2. microanalysis
    3. ethnos
    4. a cosmopolitan canopy



  1. Alexa, a virtual personal assistant, is an example of
    1. how artificial intelligence has allowed human–nonhuman interaction to become more and more sophisticated.
    2. how nonhumans cannot be viable others in social interaction.
    3. how nonhumans cannot evoke human empathy and feelings of companionship.
    4. how Erving Goffman’s predictions of human–nonhuman interaction has come true.



  1. According to Erving Goffman, social interaction is like
    1. playing basketball in a gym.                   c.   swimming in a pool.
    2. playing baseball in a stadium.                d. performing a play in a theater.



  1. You may be a sibling, a spouse, a student, an employee, and a parent. These are called
    1. background expectancies.                       c.   occupations.
    2. stereotypes.                                             d. social positions.



  1. Another term for status is
    1. structure.                                                 c.   saving face.
    2. agency.                                                    d. social position.




  1. Socially defined expectations of a person in a given social position are referred to as
    1. social facts.                                              c.   values.
    2. social roles.                                             d. background expectancies.



  1. Arrive to class on time, raise your hand before speaking, turn in assignments on time—these expectations are part of the      of students.
    1. back region                                              c.   background expectancies
    2. social role                                                d. values



  1. What do sociologists call the social prestige (high or low) that society accords to a group of people?
    1. status                                                       c.   front region
    2. agency                                                     d. structure



  1. As a medical doctor, Enrique has the privilege of being called Dr. Chavez. This is because our society gives high        to medical doctors.
  1. agency
  2. wages




status expectations





  1. Social positions can be both general and specific. Which of the following is an example of a general

social position in American society?

  1. politician
  2. doctor




woman basketball player





  1. Social positions can be both general and specific. Which of the following is an example of a specific

social position in American society?

    1. Asian American                                       c.   man
    2. doctor                                                      d. lesbian



  1. The social positions that a person occupies determine that person's
    1. social roles.                                             c.   gender.
    2. ideas.                                                       d.   agency.



  1. A teacher might be quite formal in the classroom but use profanity or substandard speech in the teacher’s lounge. According to Erving Goffman, if students are the “audience,” then the teacher’s lounge would be the teacher’s
    1. front region.
    2. back region.
    3. neutral space.
    4. “extended” personal space.



  1. A student might sit upright in the classroom but engage in “sloppy sitting” in the cafeteria at lunch time. According to Erving Goffman, if the “audience” is the teacher, then the classroom would be the student’s
    1. front region.
    2. back region.
    3. neutral space.
    4. “extended” personal space.



  1. If a CEO wears a suit and tie to a board meeting and later in the day changes into jeans and a T-shirt to attend a football event with friends, he is engaging in
    1. saving face.                                             c.   controlled alertness.
    2. impression management.                       d. ethnomethodology.



  1. Wearing a new dress on a first date is an example of
    1. nonverbal communication.                     c.   impression management.
    2. controlled alertness.                               d.   compulsion of proximity.



  1. Maria's friend posted an unflattering and unprofessional picture of her on Facebook. Maria was embarrassed and quickly took it down because she is friends with many of her coworkers on Facebook. This is an example of
    1. impression management.                       c.   controlled alertness.
    2. regionalization.                                       d. interactional vandalism.



  1. People engage in            to reconcile their role in one part of life with their role in another part of their social world.
    1. social distance                                         c.   zoning
    2. audience segregation                              d. regionalization



  1. An example of audience segregation is
    1. a student asking their parent not to chaperone on a class trip.


    1. inviting the families of both spouses over for a holiday, even though they are uncomfortable around each other.
    2. a woman texting with her friend while sitting with her family.
    3. taking a friend to a concert to introduce her to music she has never heard before.



  1. While grocery shopping, you run into your sociology professor. This creates an awkward interaction because you are not used to seeing her outside of class and you are not sure how to behave. The interaction is awkward because it violated (your)
    1. audience segregation.                             c.   sense of agency.
    2. status.                                                      d. social position.



  1. To understand a conversation, we need to understand    , which is why electronic communication, such as email or text messaging, can lead to miscommunication.
    1. the social context                                    c.   search procedures
    2. personal space                                        d. emoticons



  1. Ethnomethodology is the study of
    1. how people make sense of what others say and do in social interactions.
    2. how people learn language.
    3. the methods sociologists use.
    4. extraordinary social events that occur over space and time.



  1. According to Harold Garfinkel, people use       to organize everyday conversations.
    1. controlled alertness                                c.   massive “search procedures”
    2. background expectancies                        d. time space



  1. Harold Garfinkel asked his students to engage a friend or relative in conversation and to insist that casual remarks or general comments be actively pursued to make their meaning precise. The students were asked to engage in what Garfinkel calls
    1. a search procedure.
    2. a response cry.
    3. catfishing.
    4. compulsion of proximity.



  1. Which expression comes closest to being a synonym for “ethnomethodology”?
    1. conversational norms
    2. commonsense psychology


    1. the study of race
    2. macrosociology



  1. Suppose an employee of a large corporation feels that she is being treated unfairly by the firm but needs the income and does not want her supervisors to be angry with her. To draw negative attention to the firm without risking her own job, she writes a weekly blog harshly criticizing her employers and revealing unflattering information about the firm. This is an example of
    1. response cries.                                        c.   audience segregation.
    2. interactional vandalism.                         d. impression management.



  1. An example of interactional vandalism in an online setting can be
    1. users who rely on profanity to get their message across.
    2. users who intentionally post inappropriate comments to provoke an emotional response.
    3. bosses who prohibit their employees from posting on social media.
    4. employees who post pictures of themselves on social media enjoying their day off.



  1. Interactional vandalism is defined as
    1. a subordinate person breaking the tacit rules of interaction.
    2. a high-status person refusing to interact.
    3. two people having a miscommunication.
    4. social avoidance.



  1. According to the textbook, interactional vandalism is likely to have the effect of
    1. challenging status positions.                   c.   leaving victims disoriented.
    2. encouraging violence.                             d. breaking down audience segregation.



  1. According to the definition in your textbook, identify the scenario that would be considered trolling.
    1. posting complaints about your coworkers on a gripe message board
    2. constantly interrupting your professor with questions about the lecture
    3. passing an untrue rumor along to a fellow student via a handwritten note
    4. a visitor to a Mac users online technical support forum intentionally posting wrong answers to other users’ questions



  1. During a dinner at a fancy restaurant, a young woman knocks over a glass of water as she reaches for the salt. As the water soaks the tablecloth she exclaims, "Oops, sorry!" This is an example of
    1. a response cry.                                        c.   a status marker.
    2. interactional vandalism.                         d. nonverbal communication.




  1. Edward T. Hall identifies how many zones for personal space?
    1. one                                                           c.   three
    2. two                                                           d. four



  1. According to Edward T. Hall, which zone of personal space is only acceptable during an encounter with your spouse or romantic partner?
    1. personal distance                                    c.   social distance
    2. public distance                                        d. intimate distance



  1. One difficulty with applying Edward T. Hall's theories of nonverbal communication, including his definition of personal space, is
    1. that the theory was written so long ago it is no longer applicable to our current moment.
    2. that most nonverbal communication now takes place in an online setting.
    3. that cultural differences play a major role in defining nonverbal communication like personal space.
    4. that the theory was written from a male perspective and does not take into account women's experiences.



  1. Whites in the United States have been known to look intently at Black people walking past. This staring behavior is most likely
    1. an attempt to conform to the norm that strangers or chance acquaintances should look intently at the other.
    2. an indication of hostile intent.
    3. an attempt to appear likable.
    4. a sign of trust.



  1. According to research cited in your textbook, Asians are more likely than persons from Europe or the United States to regard a person who makes eye contact as
    1. angry or unapproachable.
    2. likable or pleasant.
    3. intelligent or credible.
    4. confident or polite.



  1. Erving Goffman noted that people can present themselves as more tidy and formal by keeping front and guest-accessible rooms clean and nicely furnished. Today, people can use privacy settings on social media sites to limit who can see their posted content. People may also use social media to maintain close friendships with people in other parts of the world. All three of these are examples of


    1. regionalization.                                       c. civil inattention.
    2. personal space.                                       d. nonverbal communication.



  1. Before the Internet and smartphones became standard features of most people's lives in the United States, people mainly relied on phone calls or letters to exchange information with friends, dating partners, and business associates. This earlier context of communication lacked
    1. time-space.                                              c. instantaneousness.
    2. clock time.                                               d. proximity.



  1. Throughout our day we alternate our activities and where they take place according to what sociologists call
    1. time-space.                                              c.   social distance.
    2. personal space.                                       d. social expectations.



  1. Our actions throughout the day are generally organized according to both the time of day and
    1. information.                                            c.   mood.
    2. other people.                                           d.   space.



  1. A young woman sleeps from midnight to 5 AM in her apartment bedroom, eats breakfast in her kitchen from 6 to 6:30 AM, works in her law office from 8:30 AM to 5 PM, has dinner with her friends from 5:30 to 7:30 PM, and then returns to her apartment to watch TV. This scenario illustrates the sociological concept of
    1. personal space.                                       c.   social distance.
    2. regionalization.                                       d. ethnomethodology.



  1. Social life is divided into different settings or zones. These social zones, such as a kitchen and a bedroom, are separated physically but also by
    1. time.                                                        c.   modern architectural design.
    2. income.                                                    d. interior design principles.



  1. In modern societies, large-scale social institutions are organized by           , which allows for the precise timing of activities.
    1. clock time                                                c.   the “digital street”
    2. search procedures                                   d. ethnos



  1. For what social function are clocks essential?
    1. ensuring that laborers perform enough work to earn their wages
    2. coordinating the activities of workers over time and across large distances
    3. predicting natural disasters, such as storms and earthquakes
    4. governing society by the principle of representative democracy



  1. Sociologists Deirdre Boden and Harvey Molotch argue that even with the growth of electronic communication, such as text messaging and email, people have a strong need to interact in each other's presence. They call this concept
    1. focused interaction.                                c.   impression management.
    2. compulsion of proximity.                        d. status.



  1. Lenhart's 2015 study showed that the majority of teens had made new friends through online communication. This ability to establish new relationships without the benefit of face-to-face interaction challenges what Boden and Molotch (1994) called
    1. the importance of nonverbal communication.
    2. the compulsion of proximity.
    3. unfocused interaction.
    4. focused interaction.



  1. Which of the following is an example of the compulsion of proximity?
    1. John and Irma went to high school together and reconnected on Facebook.
    2. Maria and Thomas met online and communicated using email, text messages, and the phone regularly, but they did not feel a real connection until they met in person for the first time over coffee.
    3. Trevor and Alyssa broke up, and now they dislike having to see each other in their sociology class.
    4. Travis and Alma do not know each other, but the bus they are on is very crowded, which forces them to rub shoulders.



  1. Sociologist Carol Brooks Gardner linked the face-to-face interactions of women being harassed by men to the larger social system of male privilege in public spaces, women's physical vulnerability, and the omnipresent threat of rape. Her analysis of these interactions shows the importance of linking

              and              to understand social interaction.

    1. gender; class                                           c.   norms; actions
    2. harassment; violence                              d. microsociology; macrosociology



  1. How do microanalysis and microanalysis intersect when male construction workers direct catcalls at female pedestrians passing a job site?
    1. Verbal interaction is a micro-level event, but when more than two people are involved, it is


a macro-level interaction.

    1. Women tend to focus on the unique details of a situation (microlevel), while men think in broad generalities (macrolevel).
    2. The conversation is a micro-level event, but the gender dynamic is a macro-level phenomenon.
    3. The men are acting as if this event is a micro-level interaction, but their actions will have consequences for their employers on a macro-level.



  1. According to urban sociologist Jeffrey Lane in The Digital Street, what was problematic about the use of social media among teenagers in Harlem?
    1. Girls and boys felt they were more in danger when using social medi
    2. Girls and boys felt they needed to live out in-person the identities they created online.
    3. Boys messaging girls online rather than approaching them face-to-face made it more likely that if their advances went unmet, their rejection would be publicly known.
    4. The possibility of a fake page created trust issues among boys and girls.



  1. According to urban sociologist Jeffrey Lane’s The Digital Street, in Harlem, girls were
    1. more visible and acted more dominant toward boys on the sidewalk than online.
    2. more visible and in control online than boys.
    3. more likely to respond positively to a million messages rather than liking one photo and then leaving the girl to make the next move.
    4. less likely to feel pressure to objectify their bodies online than boys.



  1. Elijah Anderson observed and described places where people from different backgrounds got along, as opposed to places where they experienced tense or uncomfortable interactions. As a result of these observations, Anderson coined the term
    1. cosmopolitan canopy.                             c.   regionalization.
    2. focused interaction.                                d. unfocused interaction.



  1. According to Elijah Anderson, Reading Terminal is a place where diverse groups can come together peacefully because the people who go there are "cosmos" (shorthand for cosmopolitan). According to his observations and interpretations, the dynamic that is largely missing from Reading Terminal is
    1. status.                                                      c.   ethnocentrism.
    2. regionalization.                                       d. audience segregation.



  1. In the book Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community (1990), Elijah Anderson noted that studying everyday life sheds light on how social order is created by the building blocks of
    1. macro-level institutions.                         c.   impression management.
    2. prejudice and racism.                             d. micro-level interactions.



MSC: Understanding


  1. Dr. Williams studies police and community relations in New York City. She concludes that negative police interactions with black youth are an expression of institutional and structural racism. Which type of analysis did Dr. Williams use?
    1. macro-level analysis
    2. micro-level and macro-level analysis
    3. micro-level analysis
    4. social media coverage of police brutality




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