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Homework answers / question archive / San Jacinto College - RNSG 2201 Chapter 23: The Child with Cardiovascular Dysfunction Hockenberry: Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, 10th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)A chest radiograph film is ordered for a child with suspected cardiac problems

San Jacinto College - RNSG 2201 Chapter 23: The Child with Cardiovascular Dysfunction Hockenberry: Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, 10th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)A chest radiograph film is ordered for a child with suspected cardiac problems

Nursing

San Jacinto College - RNSG 2201

Chapter 23: The Child with Cardiovascular Dysfunction Hockenberry: Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, 10th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1)A chest radiograph film is ordered for a child with suspected cardiac problems. The child’s parent asks the nurse, “What will the radiograph show about the heart?” What knowledge about the x-ray should the nurse include in the response to the parents?

    1. Bones of chest but not the heart
    2. Measurement of electrical potential generated from heart muscle
    3. Permanent record of heart size and configuration
    4. Computerized image of heart vessels and tissues

 

 

  1. The nurse is assessing a child after a cardiac catheterization. Which complication should the

 

nurse be assessing for?

    1. Cardiac arrhythmia
    2. Hypostatic pneumonia
    3. Heart failure

 

    1. Rapidly increasing blood pressure

 

 

  1. José is a 4-year-old child scheduled for a cardiac catheterization. What should be included in preoperative teaching?
    1. Directed at his parents because he is too young to understand
    2. Detailed in regard to the actual procedures so he will know what to expect
    3. Done several days before the procedure so that he will be prepared
    4. Adapted to his level of development so that he can understand

 

 

 

  1. Which explanation regarding cardiac catheterization is appropriate for a preschool child?
    1. Postural drainage will be performed every 4 to 6 hours after the test.
    2. It is necessary to be completely “asleep” during the test.
    3. The test is short, usually taking less than 1 hour.
    4. When the procedure is done, you will have to keep your leg straight for at least 4 hours.

 

  1. The nurse is caring for a school-age child who has had a cardiac catheterization. The child

tells the nurse that the bandage is “too wet.” The nurse finds the bandage and bed soaked with blood. What is the priority nursing action?

    1. Notify physician
    2. Apply new bandage with more pressure
    3. Place the child in Trendelenburg position
    4. Apply direct pressure above catheterization site

 

 

  1. The nurse is preparing an adolescent for discharge after a cardiac catheterization. Which statement by the adolescent would indicate a need for further teaching?
    1. “I should avoid tub baths but may shower.”

 

    1. “I have to stay on strict bed rest for 3 days.”
    2. “I should remove the pressure dressing the day after the procedure.”
    3. “I may attend school but should avoid exercise for several days.”

 

 

  1. What does the surgical closure of the ductus arteriosus do?
    1. Stop the loss of unoxygenated blood to the systemic circulation
    2. Decrease the edema in legs and feet
    3. Increase the oxygenation of blood
    4. Prevent the return of oxygenated blood to the lungs

 

 

  1. Which defect results in increased pulmonary blood flow?
    1. Pulmonic stenosis
    2. Tricuspid atresia
    3. Atrial septal defect
    4. Transposition of the great arteries

 

 

  1. The nurse is conducting a staff in-service on congenital heart defects. Which structural defect constitutes tetralogy of Fallot?
    1. Pulmonic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy
    2. Aortic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy
    3. Aortic stenosis, atrial septal defect, overriding aorta, left ventricular hypertrophy
    4. Pulmonic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, aortic hypertrophy, left ventricular hypertrophy

 

 

  1. A nurse is teaching nursing students the physiology of congenital heart defects. Which defect results in decreased pulmonary blood flow?
    1. Atrial septal defect
    2. Tetralogy of Fallot
    3. Ventricular septal defect

 

    1. Patent ductus arteriosus

 

 

 

  1. Which is best described as the inability of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the systemic circulation at normal filling pressures?
    1. Pulmonary congestion
    2. Congenital heart defect
    3. Heart failure
    4. Systemic venous congestion

 

 

 

  1. Which is a clinical manifestation of the systemic venous congestion that can occur with heart failure?
    1. Tachypnea
    2. Tachycardia
    3. Peripheral edema
    4. Pale, cool extremities

 

 

  1. The nurse is preparing to administer a dose of digoxin (Lanoxin) to a child in heart failure (HF). Which is a beneficial effect of administering digoxin (Lanoxin)?
    1. It decreases edema.
    2. It decreases cardiac output.
    3. It increases heart size.
    4. It increases venous pressure.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A nurse is preparing to administer an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Which drug should the nurse administer?
    1. Captopril (Capoten)
    2. Furosemide (Lasix)
    3. Spironolactone (Aldactone)
    4. Chlorothiazide (Diuril)

 

 

  1. An 8-year-old child is receiving digoxin (Lanoxin). The nurse should notify the practitioner and withhold the medication if the apical pulse is less than                  beats/min.
    1. 60
    2. 70
    3. 90

d.   100

 

 

  1. A 6-month-old infant is receiving digoxin (Lanoxin). The nurse should notify the practitioner and withhold the medication if the apical pulse is less than                      beats/min.
    1. 60
    2. 70

c.   90 to 110

d.   110 to 120

 

  1. The nurse is teaching parents about signs of digoxin (Lanoxin) toxicity. Which is a common sign of digoxin toxicity?
    1. Seizures
    2. Vomiting
    3. Bradypnea
    4. Tachycardia

 

 

  1. The parents of a young child with heart failure tell the nurse that they are “nervous” about giving digoxin (Lanoxin). The nurse’s response should be based on which statement?
    1. It is a safe, frequently used drug.

 

    1. It is difficult to either overmedicate or undermedicate with digoxin.
    2. Parents lack the expertise necessary to administer digoxin.
    3. Parents must learn specific, important guidelines for administration of digoxin.

 

 

  1. The nurse is talking to a parent of an infant with heart failure about feeding the infant. Which statement about feeding the child is correct?
    1. “You may need to increase the caloric density of your infant’s formula.”
    2. “You should feed your baby every 2 hours.”
    3. “You may need to increase the amount of formula your infant eats with each feeding.”
    4. “You should place a nasal oxygen cannula on your infant during and after each feeding.”

 

 

  1. As part of the treatment for heart failure, the child takes the diuretic furosemide (Lasix). As part of teaching home care, the nurse encourages the family to give the child foods such as bananas, oranges, and leafy vegetables. These foods are recommended because they are high in which nutrient?
    1. Chlorides
    2. Potassium
    3. Sodium
    4. Vitamins

 

 

  1. An 8-month-old infant has a hypercyanotic spell while blood is being drawn. What is the priority nursing action?
    1. Assess for neurologic defects
    2. Place the child in the knee-chest position
    3. Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    4. Prepare family for imminent death

 

 

  1. The nurse is caring for a child with persistent hypoxia secondary to a cardiac defect. The nurse recognizes that a risk exists of cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Which is an important objective to decrease this risk?
    1. Minimize seizures
    2. Prevent dehydration

 

    1. Promote cardiac output
    2. Reduce energy expenditure

 

 

 

  1. Parents of a 3-year-old child with congenital heart disease are afraid to let their child play with other children because of possible overexertion. The nurse’s reply should be based on which statement?
    1. The child needs opportunities to play with peers.
    2. The child needs to understand that peers’ activities are too strenuous.
    3. Parents can meet all of the child’s needs.
    4. Constant parental supervision is needed to avoid overexertion.

 

 

 

  1. Which should the nurse consider when preparing a school-age child and the family for heart surgery?
    1. Unfamiliar equipment should not be shown.
    2. Let the child hear the sounds of an ECG monitor.
    3. Avoid mentioning postoperative discomfort and interventions.
    4. Explain that an endotracheal tube will not be needed if the surgery goes well.

 

  1. Seventy-two hours after cardiac surgery, a young child has a temperature of 101° F. Which action should the nurse take?
    1. Keep child warm with blankets.
    2. Apply a hypothermia blanket.
    3. Record temperature on nurses’ notes.
    4. Report findings to physician.

 

 

  1. Which is an important nursing consideration when suctioning a young child who has had heart surgery?
    1. Perform suctioning at least every hour.
    2. Suction for no longer than 30 seconds at a time.
    3. Administer supplemental oxygen before and after suctioning.
    4. Expect symptoms of respiratory distress when suctioning.

 

 

  1. The nurse is caring for a child after heart surgery. What should the nurse do if evidence of cardiac tamponade is found?
    1. Increase analgesia
    2. Apply warming blankets
    3. Immediately report this to physician
    4. Encourage child to cough, turn, and breathe deeply

 

 

  1. Which is an important nursing consideration when chest tubes will be removed from a child?
    1. Explain that it is not painful.
    2. Explain that only a Band-Aid will be needed.
    3. Administer analgesics before the procedure.
    4. Expect bright red drainage for several hours after removal.

 

 

 

  1. Which is the most common causative agent of bacterial endocarditis?
    1. Staphylococcus albus
    2. Streptococcus hemolyticus
    3. Staphylococcus albicans
    4. Streptococcus viridans

 

 

  1. Which painful, tender, pea-sized nodules may appear on the pads of the fingers or toes in bacterial endocarditis?
    1. Osler nodes
    2. Janeway lesions
    3. Subcutaneous nodules
    4. Aschoff nodes

 

 

  1. What is the primary nursing intervention to prevent bacterial endocarditis?
    1. Institute measures to prevent dental procedures.
    2. Counsel parents of high-risk children about prophylactic antibiotics.
    3. Observe children for complications, such as embolism and heart failure.
    4. Encourage restricted mobility in susceptible children.

 

 

 

  1. Which is a common, serious complication of rheumatic fever?
    1. Seizures
    2. Cardiac arrhythmias
    3. Pulmonary hypertension
    4. Cardiac valve damage

 

 

  1. The nurse is conducting a staff in-service on childhood-acquired heart diseases. Which is a major clinical manifestation of rheumatic fever?
    1. Polyarthritis
    2. Osler nodes
    3. Janeway spots
    4. Splinter hemorrhages of distal third of nails

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The nurse is admitting a child with rheumatic fever. Which therapeutic management should the nurse expect to implement?
    1. Administering penicillin
    2. Avoiding salicylates (aspirin)
    3. Imposing strict bed rest for 4 to 6 weeks
    4. Administering corticosteroids if chorea develops

 

 

  1. Which action by the school nurse is important in the prevention of rheumatic fever?

 

    1. Encourage routine cholesterol screenings.
    2. Conduct routine blood pressure screenings.
    3. Refer children with sore throats for throat cultures.
    4. Recommend salicylates instead of acetaminophen for minor discomforts.

 

 

  1. When discussing hyperlipidemia with a group of adolescents, which high level labs should the nurse explain can prevent cardiovascular disease?
    1. Cholesterol
    2. Triglycerides
    3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
    4. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs)

 

  1. Which is the leading cause of death after heart transplantation?
    1. Infection
    2. Rejection
    3. Cardiomyopathy
    4. Heart failure

 

 

  1. When caring for the child with Kawasaki disease, the nurse should know which information?
    1. A child’s fever is usually responsive to antibiotics within 48 hours.
    2. The principal area of involvement is the joints.

 

    1. Aspirin is contraindicated.
    2. Therapeutic management includes administration of gamma globulin and aspirin.

 

 

  1. The nurse is teaching nursing students about shock that occurs in children. What is one of the most frequent causes of hypovolemic shock in children?
    1. Sepsis
    2. Blood loss
    3. Anaphylaxis
    4. Congenital heart disease

 

 

  1. Which type of shock is characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction causing massive vasodilation and capillary leaks, which may occur with drug or latex allergy?
    1. Neurogenic
    2. Cardiogenic
    3. Hypovolemic
    4. Anaphylactic

 

 

  1. Which clinical manifestation should the nurse expect to see as shock progresses in a child and becomes decompensated shock?
    1. Thirst

 

    1. Irritability
    2. Apprehension
    3. Confusion and somnolence

 

 

  1. Which occurs in septic shock?
    1. Hypothermia
    2. Increased cardiac output
    3. Vasoconstriction
    4. Angioneurotic edema

 

 

  1. A child is brought to the emergency department experiences an anaphylactic reaction to a bee sting. While an airway is being established, the nurse should prepare which medication for immediate administration?
    1. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
    2. Dobutamine (Dobutarex)
    3. Epinephrine (Adrenalin)
    4. Calcium chloride (calcium chloride)

 

 

  1. What clinical manifestation is included in toxic shock syndrome?
    1. Severe hypertension
    2. Subnormal temperature
    3. Erythematous macular rash
    4. Papular rash over extremities

 

 

 

  1. A preschool child is scheduled for an echocardiogram. Parents ask the nurse whether they can hold the child during the procedure. The nurse should answer with which response?
    1. “You will be able to hold your child during the procedure.”
    2. “Your child can be active during the procedure, but can’t sit in your lap.”
    3. “Your child must lie quietly; sometimes a mild sedative is administered before the procedure.”
    4. “The procedure is invasive so your child will be restrained during the echocardiogram.”

 

  1. The nurse is caring for an infant with congestive heart disease (CHD). The nurse should plan which intervention to decrease cardiac demands?
    1. Organize nursing activities to allow for uninterrupted sleep.
    2. Allow the infant to sleep through feedings during the night.
    3. Wait for the infant to cry to show definite signs of hunger.
    4. Discourage parents from rocking the infant

 

 

  1. The nurse is admitting a child with coarctation of the aorta. Which figure depicts this congenital heart defect?

 

a.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Nursing interventions for the child after a cardiac catheterization should include which actions?
    1. Allow ambulation as tolerated.
    2. Monitor vital signs every 2 hours.
    3. Assess the affected extremity for temperature and color.
    4. Check pulses above the catheterization site for equality and symmetry.
    5. Remove pressure dressing after 4 hours.
    6. Maintain a patent peripheral intravenous catheter until discharge.

 

 

  1. Which clinical manifestation should the nurse expect to see as shock progresses in a child and becomes decompensated shock?
    1. Thirst and diminished urinary output
    2. Irritability and apprehension
    3. Cool extremities and decreased skin turbor.
    4. Confusion and somnolence
    5. Normal blood pressure and narrowing pulse pressure
    6. Tachypnea and poor capillary refill time

 

 

  1. The nurse is conducting discharge teaching about signs and symptoms of heart failure to parents of an infant with a repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Which signs and symptoms should the nurse include?
    1. Warm flushed extremities
    2. Weight loss
    3. Decreased urinary output
    4. Sweating (inappropriate)
    5. Fatigue

 

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

1. Which is the highest acceptable mg/dl level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol for a child from a family with heart disease? (Record your answer in a whole number.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER

 

 

  1. An infant with an unrepaired tetralogy of Fallot defect is becoming extremely cyanotic during a routine blood draw. Which interventions should the nurse implement? Place in order from the highest-priority intervention to the lowest-priority intervention. Provide the answer using lowercase letters separated by commas (e.g., a, b, c, d).

 

    1. Administer 100% oxygen by blow-by.
    2. Place the infant in knee-chest position.
    3. Remain calm.
    4. Give morphine subcutaneously or by an existing intravenous line.

 

 

 

 

  1. A child is brought to the emergency department experiencing an anaphylactic reaction to a bee sting. Once the airway is established, the nurse should do which action? Place in correct sequence. Provide the answer using lowercase letters separated by commas (e.g., a, b, c).

 

    1. Administer epinephrine.
    2. Keep the child warm and calm.
    3. Obtain vascular access.

 

 

 

 

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