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Homework answers / question archive / Baltimore City Community College - BIOLOGY EN1 ch25 1)The study of the practical use of microbes in various industries and technologies is    A

Baltimore City Community College - BIOLOGY EN1 ch25 1)The study of the practical use of microbes in various industries and technologies is    A


Baltimore City Community College - BIOLOGY EN1


1)The study of the practical use of microbes in various industries and technologies is    A. applied microbiology.

    1. biotechnology.
    2. bioengineering.
    3. microbial ecology.
    4. industrial microbiology.


  1. The mass, controlled culture of microbes to produce desired organic compounds is    A. biotechnology.
    1. fermentation.
    2. biosynthesis.
    3. biodegradation.
    4. bioremediation.


  1. Which is the first step in water purification?        
    1. chlorination
    2. aeration and settling
    3. sedimentation
    4. storage
    5. filtration


  1. In which step of water purification does water move through sand beds and activated charcoal?    A. chlorination
    1. aeration and settling
    2. sedimentation
    3. storage
    4. filtration


  1. Primary sewage treatment includes    A. sludge digesting.
    1. skimming.
    2. filtration.
    3. chlorination.
    4. aeration.


  1. The final treatment of sewage before release into the environment is    A. sludge digesting.
    1. skimming.
    2. filtration.
    3. chlorination.
    4. aeration.


  1. What chemical is used in both water purification and sewage treatment to give long-term disinfection?              
    1. fluorine
    2. activated charcoal
    3. copper sulfate
    4. chlorine



A pure or mixed sample of known microbes added to food is a/an

    1. leavening.
    2. fermenter.
    3. starter culture.
    4. flavor inducer.
    5. aerator.


  1. Which of the following is not a desired outcome from using microbes in bread-making?    A. leavening
    1. giving flavor and odor
    2. producing ethyl alcohol
    3. conditioning the dough to make it workable
    4. helping the dough rise


  1. Which of the following is not a gas-forming microbe used to make bread?       
    1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    2. Clostridium perfringens
    3. Coliform bacteria
    4. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria
    5. Streptococcus lactis


  1. The products of yeast fermentation in breads are           A. ethanol and water.
    1. ethanol and carbon dioxide.
    2. carbon dioxide and water.
    3. lactic acid and water.
    4. lactic acid and carbon dioxide.


  1. The yeast used in making bread, beer, and wine is    A. Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    1. Leuconostoc mesenteroides.
    2. Streptococcus lactis.
    3. Propionibacterium.
    4. Spirulina.


  1. Which step in making beer involves sprouting and softening the barley to release amylases to act on starch and proteases to digest protein?             
    1. preparing a mash
    2. malting
    3. aging
    4. wort boiled with hops
    5. fermentation


  1. Which step in making beer involves soaking malt grain, grinding it, and heating with sugar and starch?            
    1. preparing a mash
    2. malting
    3. aging
    4. wort boiled with hops
    5. fermentation


  1. Which step in making beer involves inoculating the wort with a species of Saccharomyces?         A. preparing a mash
    1. malting
    2. aging
    3. wort boiled with hops
    4. fermentation


  1. Which step in wine making involves the crushing of the fruit?                
    1. aging
    2. fermentation
    3. preparation of must
    4. storage
    5. malting


  1. The source of wild yeasts carried in a biofilm on grapes is the    A. must.
    1. malt.
    2. wort.
    3. bloom.
    4. lager.


  1. Which organism is used to initiate the fermentation of cabbage to make sauerkraut?              
    1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    2. Leuconostoc mesenteroides
    3. Streptococcus lactis
    4. Propionibacterium
    5. Spirulina


  1. Which organisms are used to make salt pickles?             A. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Leuconostoc mesenteroides
    1. Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus
    2. Pediococcus cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum
    3. Propionibacterium and Spirulina
    4. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Spirulina


  1. The first stage in making vinegar involves fermentation by    A. Gluconobacter.
    1. Saccharomyces.
    2. Acetobacter.
    3. Propionibacterium.
    4. Spirulina.


  1. Which bacteria ferment milk lactose, producing acids that curdle milk?            
    1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    2. Leuconostoc mesenteroides
    3. Streptococcus lactis and Lactobacillus
    4. Propionibacterium
    5. Spirulina


  1. The organism used to make bleu cheese is    A. Penicillium roqueforti.
    1. Leuconostoc mesenteroides.
    2. Streptococcus lactis.
    3. Propionibacterium.
    4. Micrococcus.


  1. What is made by adding Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus to milk?    A. kefir
    1. cheese
    2. sour cream
    3. tofu
    4. yogurt


  1. Which of the following is a/are microorganism/s that can be used as food?      
    1. Spirulina
    2. Methylophilus methylotrophus
    3. algae
    4. Fusarium graminearum
    5. All of the choices are correct.


  1. All of the following are food-borne pathogens except    A. Salmonella.
    1. Campylobacter jejuni.


Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    1. Clostridium perfringens.
    2. Staphylococcus aureus.


  1. Preservation of food to limit microbial survival and growth includes      A. high temperature and pressure.
    1. pasteurization.
    2. refrigeration and freezing.
    3. irradiation.
    4. All of the choices are correct.



Preventing the incorporation of microbes into food can by achieved by

    1. washing of fruits and vegetables.
    2. aseptic techniques for handling meat, eggs, and milk.
    3. handwashing and proper hygiene in the kitchen.
    4. avoiding cross-contamination of utensils and cutting boards.
    5. All of the choices are correct.


  1. A good range of temperature to store food is      A. 0° to 50°C.
    1. 20° to 80°C.
    2. below 10°C and above 80°C.
    3. below 4°C and above 60°C.
    4. below –10°C and above 100°C.


  1. What type of radiation is best for destroying microbes throughout food?          
    1. ultraviolet
    2. visible light
    3. gamma rays
    4. infrared
    5. microwaves


  1. Which is not used as a chemical preservative in food?               
    1. antibiotics
    2. organic acids
    3. sulfite
    4. ethylene oxide gas
    5. salt


  1. Nitrates and nitrites are used in cured meats to prevent    A. botulism intoxication.
    1. S. aureus food poisoning.
    2. mold growth.
    3. infection from fruits and nuts.


  1. Bacteriophages sprayed on cold-cuts are effective against    A. Mycobacterium.
    1. S. aureus.
    2. Listeria.
    3. Clostridium.
    4. coliforms.


  1. Industrial microbiology is used in the production of    A. antibiotics.
    1. hormones.
    2. vitamins.
    3. vaccines.
    4. All of the choices are correct.


  1. Which of the following is not true of industrial microbiology?     A. Primary metabolites are essential to a microbe's function.
    1. Secondary metabolites include vitamins, antibiotics, and steroids.
    2. Growth environment is enhanced to increase metabolite synthesis.
    3. Select microbial strains are not controlled by feedback mechanisms.


  1. A device in which mass cultures are grown, reactions take place, and product develops is a/n    A. sparger.
    1. activator.
    2. fermentor.
    3. vat.
    4. incubator.


  1. Bacillus thuringiensis    A. causes food poisoning.
    1. produces a biopesticide.
    2. is used in cheese making.
    3. is a microorganism used as food.


  1. Which enzyme is used in medicine as a blood thinner?               
    1. streptokinase
    2. protease
    3. catalase
    4. rennet
    5. cellulase


  1. Which of the following pathogens does not match its condition?         
    1. E. coli - diarrhea
    2. Vibrio cholerae - cholera
    3. Shigella dysenteriae - dysentery
    4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae - vomiting
    5. Listeria monocytogenes - listeriosis


  1. What is missing from the following equation:

Yeast + _________ 2C2H5OH + 2CO2                

    1. C5H12O5
    2. O2
    3. C6H12O6
    4. H2O
    5. CH3CHO


  1. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principle (HACCP) procedures include            A. determining the microbial load in preprocessed food.
    1. determining adequate separation of waste and ready-to-eat product/s.
    2. sanitary guidelines and sufficient employee training.
    3. All of the choices are correct.


  1. In the secondary phase of water treatment, organic matter undergoes biodegradation by a diverse mix of bacteria, algae, and protozoa.                True    False


  1. Yeast fermentation in breads is aerobic.              True    False


  1. Rennin is added to cheese to help preserve it.     True    False



True    False

Most cases of food poisoning occur in the home, not restaurants.


  1. A quick warming of chicken or eggs is enough to kill Salmonella.            True    False


  1. Freezing chicken does not kill Salmonella.            True    False


  1. Irradiated food becomes radioactive.       True    False


  1. Dehydration is an excellent microbicidal method.           True    False


  1. In batch fermentation, substrate is added continuously and the product is siphoned off throughout the run.    

True    False


  1. Secondary metabolites are essential molecules needed by the microorganism.      True    False



Place the steps of the water purification process in order.

    1.  filtration and settling, chemical disinfection, aeration, release into a water reservoir
    2. aeration, filtration and settling, chemical disinfection, release into a water reservoir
    3. chemical disinfection, aeration, filtration and settling,  release into a water reservoir


release into a water reservoir, aeration, filtration and settling, chemical disinfection


  1. The difference between water purification and sewage treatment is:          A. the types of microorganisms used for the treatment.
    1. the amount of air pumped into the water for treatment.
    2. whether the water comes out of peoples' house or not.
    3. there is microbial degradation in sewage treatment, but not at all in water purification.


  1. Sewage treatment processes result in the production of _________, which can then be used to make electricity.     A. carbohydrates
    1. hydrogen gas
    2. methane
    3. nitrates



Potable water must be:

    1. absolutely clear.
    2. free of pathogens.
    3. totally free of microorganisms.


free of all elements.



Indicator bacteria for contaminated water are:

A. coliforms.






all bacteria, since there should be no bacteria at all in treated water.



Analysis of a water sample by a series of presumptive, confirmatory, and completed tests that help establish an estimate of coliform numbers in the water is called:

    1. membrane filter method.
    2. most probable number (MPN).
    3. standard plate count.





Which of the following is not true of coliforms?

    1. gram-negative, lactose-fermenting, and gas-producing
    2. include E. coli, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter


Coliform counts are not specific for a particular species of bacteria.


All coliforms come from feces, so finding any of them in water indicates fecal contamination.



The most prominent water-borne pathogens of recent times include all except:






Norwalk viruses.




59. The basis of the membrane filter technique is:                 

A.the various dilutions of the water sample allow a total bacterial count when plated out using pour or       spread plates.

  1. the membrane has an antibiotic which kills bacteria in the water sample.
  2. bacteria are small enough to go right through the filter.
  3. bacteria are larger than the holes in the filter.



Which of the following statements is true?


Microorganisms can be a food source.


Microbial metabolism can alter a food to improve its flavor.


Not all microorganisms in food cause foodborne disease.


All statements are true.


61. Picking a nice sirloin roast, you ask the meat manager to grind it up into ground beef, to be used for hamburger meat.  Since your husband likes his hamburgers rare, you undercooked the meat just as he likes it.  Unfortunately, within 2 days he develops the signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal disease-diarrhea, bloating, and vomiting.  Which of the following statements best describes what might have happened?             

AThe meat grinder was not cleaned well with disinfectant. When the sirloin was ground up with . the grinder, bacteria were transferred to the meat and thoroughly distributed throughout the meat.

B.The sirloin was already contaminated when it was in the whole animal, probably due to the animal  being sick.

C. The hamburger meat became contaminated by bacteria that were in other foods in your refrigerator.

D.The meat became contaminated by bacteria on the barbeque grill, coating both sides of the hamburger  patties.



Which statement is true regarding pasteurization?


It does not kill all microorganisms in milk.


The process was first used in the wine industry.


     During pasteurization the heating is done very quickly as to not change the integrity and taste of the product.


All statements are true.



You have to determine what method is best to prevent the growth of microorganisms in your company's food---ham roasts.  This method should be efficient, have a high kill rate, not change the food integrity or taste for the most part, and not add much in the way of chemicals.  What would you choose?

  1. filtration
  2. pasteurization
  3. gamma radiation
  4. freezing
  5. food preservatives


64. You have never seen a container of jelly go bad or be contaminated with microbial growth, even though it is continuously used for months at a time.  Which is the best explanation?                 A. Jelly is pasteurized.

  1. Jelly has a high osmotic pressure.
  2. Jelly is filter sterilized.
  3. A variety of chemicals are added to jelly to make it inhospitable for bacteria.



Which microorganism would likely be found in cured bacon?




  1. coli







The starting substrate for vinegar production is:

  1. fruit juice
  2. an alcoholic solution
  3. water


a salt solution


  1. The disadvantage of batch fermentations, as opposed to continuous feed systems, is:             
    1. there has to be new substrate added to the fermentor all of the time for the fermentation to continue. B.there is a limit to the amount of product that can be produced since all materials are added to the  fermentor at the beginning.
    1. it is small scale production of a product.
    2. the end product is not as pure as the product made by the continuous feed process.


  1. Methane can be produced from agricultural or industrial products by:     A. anaerobic respiration.
    1. oxidation of nitrogen gas.
    2. fermentation.
    3. glycolysis.



You made your first batch (ever) of wine about 6 weeks ago.  You used a new plastic garbage can, covered with plastic wrap over the top, for the process.  Now you get a cup of it out of the  container only to find no alcohol--just really bad juice.  What went wrong?


The plastic of the container released chemicals that killed the yeasts.


The yeasts were not under anaerobic conditions.


Your yeasts mutated into non-alcohol producing organisms.


You bought the wrong yeast species at the store.



Bread production involves a(n) ____________ fermentation.

  1. lactic acid
  2. alcohol
  3. mixed acid
  4. aldehyde


71. You want to make wine that will be 20-25% alcohol, but wine rarely gets to that concentration of alcohol.  What can you do to accomplish your goal of high-yield alcohol production?           A. Add more sugar to your starting material.

  1. Let your fermentation go longer.
  2. Find an alcohol-tolerant yeast strain.
  3. Add brandy to your wine.



A common substrate for industrial fermentation products is:

  1. alcohol
  2. cholesterol
  3. nucleotides
  4. molasses



An organism used to make a large variety of industrial products by fermentation is:




  1. coli






74. What is the best definition of biotransformation?             

  1. the production of alcohol from a substrate
  2. the production of a toxin from a nontoxic chemical
  3. the oxidation of sugar to carbon dioxide
  4. the use of microorganisms to modify substances that are not normally used for growth



Which of the following activities uses microbial biotransformation?

  1. production of human hormones
  2. alcohol production
  3. production of fermented milk products
  4. production of antibiotics



The first product produced by genetic manipulation and recombinant technology was:

  1. penicillin.
  2. insulin.
  3. cortisone.
  4. amylase.





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