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Homework answers / question archive / Baltimore City Community College - BIOLOGY EN1 ch24 1)Using microbes to break down or remove toxic wastes in water and soil is called     A

Baltimore City Community College - BIOLOGY EN1 ch24 1)Using microbes to break down or remove toxic wastes in water and soil is called     A

Biology

Baltimore City Community College - BIOLOGY EN1

ch24

1)Using microbes to break down or remove toxic wastes in water and soil is called     A. decomposition.

  1. synergism.
  2. mineralization.
  3. bioremediation.
  4. recycling.

 

2.                      

The science called _________ involves the study of interactions between microbes and their environment and how those interactions affect the earth.

  1. applied microbiology
  2. biotechnology
  3. bioengineering
  4. microbial ecology
  5. industrial microbiology

 

  1. The study of the practical uses of microbes in various industries and technologies is    A. applied microbiology.
    1. biotechnology.
    2. bioengineering.
    3. microbial ecology.
    4. industrial microbiology.

 

  1. The thin envelope of life that surrounds the earth's surface is called the    A. atmosphere.
    1. biosphere.
    2. lithosphere.
    3. hydrosphere.
    4. ecosystem.

 

  1. A collection of organisms, together with their physical and chemical factors, are called a/an    A. atmosphere.
    1. biosphere.
    2. lithosphere.
    3. hydrosphere.
    4. ecosystem.

 

  1. The terrestrial realm of the biosphere is distributed into particular climatic regions called    A. niches.
    1. habitats.
    2. populations.
    3. communities.
    4. biomes.

 

  1. A group of organisms of the same species within a community is called a    A. niche.
    1. habitat.
    2. population.
    3. community.
    4. biome.

 

  1. The overall role that a species serves in a community is its    A. niche.
    1. habitat.
    2. population.
    3. community.
    4. biome.

 

  1. The physical location in the environment to which an organism has adapted is its    A. niche.
    1. habitat.
    2. population.
    3. community.
    4. biome.

 

  1. Which trophic level forms the base of a food chain?       
    1. primary consumers
    2. quaternary consumers
    3. secondary consumers
    4. primary producers
    5. tertiary consumers

 

  1. Organisms that inhabit soil or water, and breakdown and absorb the organic matter of dead organisms are called    
    1. primary consumers.
    2. quaternary consumers.
    3. secondary consumers.
    4. decomposers.
    5. tertiary consumers.

 

  1. A Paramecium is an example of a    A. primary consumer.
    1. quaternary consumer.
    2. secondary consumer.
    3. primary producer.
    4. tertiary consumer.

 

  1. The breakdown of man-made compounds by decomposers is called    A. mineralization.
    1. bioremediation.
    2. decomposition.
    3. parasitism.
    4. saprobism.

 

  1. Organisms whose sole source of carbon for growth is CO2 are called    A. lithotrophs.
    1. consumers.
    2. decomposers.
    3. saprophytes.
    4. autotrophs.

 

  1. Heterotrophs include         
    1. producers, consumers, and decomposers.
    2. consumers and decomposers.
    3. producers only.
    4. consumers only.
    5. producers and consumers.

 

  1. Which of the following is mismatched?                A.

parasitism - one organism benefits and the other is not affected in any way

    1. competition - one organism gives off substances that inhibit or kill other organisms
    2. predator - seeks out and ingests live prey
    3. scavengers - feed on live to dead cells and wastes
    4. mutualism - both organisms benefit from their association

 

  1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is     
    1. removed from the atmosphere during photosynthesis.
    2. a source of carbon.
    3. returned to the atmosphere during respiration and fermentation.
    4. used by marine organisms to make limestone for their hard shells.
    5. All of the choices are correct.

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of biogeochemical cycles?     A. All organisms directly participate in recycling.
    1. All elements originate from a nonliving, long-term reservoir.

C.

Cycles are very simple systems between living and nonliving components.

    1. Elements cycle through biotic and abiotic environments.
    2. Recycling keeps nutrients in balance.

 

  1. The energy of the sun is converted into chemical energy during    A. ammonification.
    1. nitrogen fixation.
    2. photosynthesis.
    3. nitrification.
    4. denitrification.

 

  1. Which of the following is incorrect about photosynthesis?          
    1. The light-dependent reactions require chlorophyll and light energy.
    2. In oxygenic photosynthesis, photolysis is the source of O2.
    3. The light-independent reactions produce ATP and NADPH.
    4. CO2 is required in the light-independent reactions.
    5. Photosynthetic pigments function to absorb light.

 

  1. Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are believed to be _____ gases that could disrupt the temperature balance of the earth.              A.

active

    1. greenhouse
    2. noble

D.

inert

 

  1. Which of the following are primary photosynthesizers?              
    1. cyanobacteria
    2. green sulfur bacteria
    3. purple sulfur bacteria
    4. purple nonsulfur bacteria E. All of the choices are correct.

 

  1. The conversion of gaseous nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH4+) occurs during    A. ammonification.
    1. nitrogen fixation.
    2. photosynthesis.
    3. nitrification.
    4. denitrification.

 

  1. The oxidation of ammonia (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) is called    A. ammonification.
    1. nitrogen fixation.
    2. photosynthesis.
    3. nitrification.
    4. denitrification.

 

  1. The conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen gas (N2) is called    A. ammonification.
    1. nitrogen fixation.
    2. photosynthesis.
    3. nitrification.
    4. denitrification.

 

  1. Which of the following genera is a nitrogen-fixing microbe that also photosynthesizes?    
    1. Rhizobium
    2. Nitrobacter
    3. Pseudomonas
    4. Nostoc
    5. Azotobacter

 

27.         

Which of the following genera is a nitrifying microbe?

    1. Rhizobium
    2. Nitrobacter
    3. Pseudomonas
    4. Nostoc
    5. Azotobacter

 

  1. Which of the following genera can carry out denitrification to completion?           
    1. Rhizobium
    2. Nitrobacter
    3. Pseudomonas
    4. Nostoc
    5. Azotobacter

 

  1. Which organism is a nitrogen fixing symbiont of legumes?         
    1. Rhizobium
    2. Nitrobacter
    3. Pseudomonas
    4. Nostoc
    5. Azotobacter

 

  1. Thiobacillus thiooxidans is found in an environmental sample. Which of the following should then apply to this sample?    
    1. contains lithotrophs
    2. may be obtained from mining drainage
    3. very acidic
    4. contains microbes that oxidize sulfur to sulfates
    5. All of the choices are correct.

 

  1. Which of the following is involved in completing the sulfur cycle?          
    1. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
    2. Thiobacillus thiooxidans
    3. Nitrosococcus
    4. Desulfovibrio
    5. Rhizobium

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the phosphorus cycle?        A.

phosphorus pool is in sedimentary rock

    1. released naturally by erosion and mining
    2. must be phosphatized to enter biological organisms

D.

mineralization occurs by microbes.

E. Thiobacillus dissolves phosphate rock by producing sulfuric acid.

 

  1. The slowly decaying organic litter from plant and animal tissues that is found in the soil is called    A. a biofilm.
    1. aggregate.
    2. the lithosphere.
    3. detritus.

 

  1. Which of the following is true of water-saturated soils?              
    1. provide gases for soil microbes
    2. contain aerobic and facultative organisms
    3. contain anaerobes
    4. have a high oxygen content
    5. have a low carbon dioxide content

 

  1. The zone of soil around roots of plants is called the    A. lithosphere.
    1. biosphere.
    2. ionosphere.
    3. rhizosphere.
    4. hydrosphere.

 

  1. The mutualistic partnership between plant roots and microbes is    A. hyphae.
    1. basidia.
    2. mycorrhizae.
    3. rhizopods.
    4. lichens.

 

  1. Where is the majority of Earth's water found?     
    1. freshwater lakes
    2. icecaps and glaciers
    3. ground water
    4. oceans
    5. soil moisture

 

  1. All of the following pertain to red tides except     A. due to overgrowth of red algae in water.
    1. due to overgrowth of toxin-producing dinoflagellates.
    2. cause paralytic shellfish poisoning.
    3. involve toxin concentrating in shellfish.
    4. humans can become ill from eating the shellfish.

 

  1. Eutrophication    A. is characterized by heavy surface algal blooms.
    1. can block the O2 supply to the lake.
    2. occurs when there are excess nutrients in aquatic ecosystems.
    3. causes massive die-off of fish and invertebrates.
    4. All of the choices are correct.

 

  1. The warmest area of a lake during the summer is the    A. epilimnion.
    1. thermocline.
    2. limnion.
    3. benthic zone.
    4. hypolimnion.

 

  1. Nutrient deficient aquatic ecosystems are called    A. eutrophic.
    1. oligotrophic.
    2. epitrophic.
    3. hypotrophic.
    4. autotrophic.

 

42.         

Which of the following harbor microbes producing methane?

    1. cow GI tract
    2. sheep GI tract
    3. goat GI tract
    4. All of the choices are correct.

 

  1. Vast numbers of microorganisms are being genetically characterized without culturing them in the laboratory today through    A. column chromatography.
    1. gas chromatography.
    2. metagenomic sampling.

D.

Western blot analysis.

E. ELISA assay.

 

  1. Which of the following converts carbon dioxide to methane?     
    1. Staphylococcus aureus
    2. Streptococcus pyogenes
    3. Methanococcus jannaschii
    4. Enterobius vermicularis
    5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa

 

  1. Living or dead organisms that occupy an organism's habitat are called biotic factors.              True    False

 

  1. The primary role of producers is the recycling of nutrients in an ecosystem.     True    False

 

47.         

True    False

Both energy and nutrients cycle through an ecosystem.

 

  1. The combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, have contributed to the steady increase in atmospheric CO2 gas over the last 25 years.                True    False

 

  1. Toxic substances accumulate through natural trophic flow of an ecosystem.     True    False

 

  1. Mycorrhizae are the mutualistic relationship between fungi and the roots of certain plants.         

True    False

 

  1. The total amount of water in the hydrologic cycle has been decreasing over the last million years.         

True    False

 

  1. Phytoplankton is composed of protozoa and small invertebrates.           True    False

 

  1. The thermocline is broken down by temperature changes that allow upwelling to occur.         True    False

 

  1. There are very few viruses in aquatic environments.       True    False

 

  1. Metagenomic analysis involves DNA sequencing of various samples taken from a particular habitat.    

True    False

 

  1. Why are waterlogged soils often infertile?           
    1. Nitrifying bacteria  require oxygen, and the excess water takes the place of oxygen-containing air.
    2. Water molecules are used instead of oxygen for cell respiration.
    3. The lack of physical space in this type of soil blocks bacterial growth.
    4. There is less carbon in waterlogged soil than dry soil.

 

57.

The metabolic process that uses carbon dioxide is:

    1. nitrification
    2. fermentation
    3. photosynthesis

D.

cell respiration

 

58.         

The major group of organisms that fix nitrogen into ammonia and then oxidize it to nitrate are:

    1. protozoa
    2. bacteria
    3. algae
    4. fungi

 

59.         

The correct sequence of events involved in nitrogen cycling is:

    1. denitrification, nitrogen fixation, nitrification
    2. nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification
    3. denitrification, nitrification, denitrification

D.

nitrification, denitirification, nitrogen fixation

 

60.

Most of the organic sulfur is located in:

    1. monosaccharides and carbohydrates.
    2. fatty acids and lipids.
    3. nulceotides and nucleic acids.

D.

amino acids and proteins.

 

61.         

The advantage of nitrogen fixation to the host plant is:

    1. the production of DNA and RNA nucleotides required for nucleic acids.
    2.  the ability to use nitrogen gas instead of oxygen gas in cell respiration, particularly when the soil is compacted.
    3. the production of antibiotics which then protects the plant against pathogenic bacteria in the soil.
    4. the ability to synthesize amino acids and proteins from the ammonia produced from nitrogen fixation.

 

62.         

Which plant(s) would likely have a mutualistic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria?

    1. potatoes
    2. beans and peas
    3. cotton
    4. wheat

 

63.

You have drained a pond that you have on your property, to then make it a deeper pond.  In the process of using a machine to dig out some of the mud, you find that the mud is almost solid black and there is a terrible smell.  Your prediction is that ________________ bacteria predominate in this area of the mud.

    1. nitrogen-fixing
    2. sulfur-oxidizing
    3. sulfur-reducing
    4. nitrifying
    5. denitrifying

 

64.         

Select the statement that explains the usefulness of metagenomic analysis in research today.

A.

It evaluates microbial diversity in a habitat.

B.

It allows the identification of unculturable microorganisms.

C.

It detects the abundance of microorganisms in an environment.

D.

All of the above.

 

65.

You hare preparing a home garden and you want to provide the very best environment for your plants.  Which of the following would you add to the potting soil while planting your garden plants?

  1. mycorrhizae inoculant
  2. sulfur oxidizers
  3. coliform bacteria like E. coli
  4. bacteriophages

 

66. What microorganisms would you pick as likely being present in high salt lakes and seas?     A. Sulfobolus B. Rhizobium

  1. Archaea
  2. Desulfovibrio

 

67.         

True    False

There are no viruses that infect the Archaea located in hypersaline habitats.

 

68.         

Which environment represents the largest pool of microbial genes?

  1. humans and animals
  2. air
  3. soil
  4. oceans
  5. freshwater lakes

 

69. You have been diagnosed with a neurotoxic poisoning after having ingested an algal toxin, called brevetoxin, produced by Karenia brevis. In what food did you likely pick this pick up?     A. freshwater trout

  1. tomatoes
  2. oysters
  3. canned tuna fish

 

70.         

Which microorganism is considered phytoplankton?

  1. nitrogen fixing bacteria
  2. cyanobacteria
  3. sulfur reducers
  4. mycorrhizae

 

71. You are "living off the grid", meaning that you are not using any public utilities---no water supply, no sewer connection, no natural gas or electricity.  You do have a septic tank, whose pipe carries sewage out into the back yard.  There is also a small pond out there that you have stocked with fish.  However, you notice that the fish are floating dead in the water, and the pond seems to have a green scum on it.  What has happened?         

  1. Chemical toxins from your septic tank cleaner have killed the fish.
  2. There are not enough nutrients in the water, so the fish died.

C.There is oxygen depletion in the pond due to the leakage of phosphates and other compounds from       your septic tank.

D. The fish died due to a lack of calcium, which then caused the algae to overgrow.

 

72.         

True    False

The bacterium Thiobacillus secretes sulfuric acid into the environment.

 

73.        

How are the sulfur cycle and the phosphate cycle interconnected?

A.

Phosphate is released from rock and soil by sulfuric acid.

B.

Phosphate is the nutrient source used by sulfur oxidizers.

C.

Sulfite is the nutrient used by phosphate reducers.

D.

Sulphate and phosphate react together to produce amino acids for protein production.

 

  1. Contributions of the bacterium Thiobacillus include:       A. production of acid.
    1. cycling of iron.
    2. nitrate conversion to nitrogen gas.
    3. all of the above.

 

  1. You have been using massive amounts of weed killer and insecticide chemicals to knock out all of those pesky weeds in your yard, as well as the grubs and aphids that are munching on your roses and your grass.  What effect might this have from a microbiological standpoint?        A. Loss of microbial diversity in the soil.
    1. Reduction in microbial numbers in the soil.
    2. Damage to the nitrogen fixing bacteria.
    3. Damage to the mycorrhizae.
    4. All of the above.

 

 

 

 

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