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Homework answers / question archive / Chapter 3: Theoretical Models of Personality Development Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question

Chapter 3: Theoretical Models of Personality Development Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question

Nursing

Chapter 3: Theoretical Models of Personality Development

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____       1)   According to Erikson’s developmental theory, when planning care for a 47-year-old client, which developmental task should a nurse identify as appropriate for this client?

A.

To develop a basic trust in others

B.

To achieve a sense of self-confidence and recognition from others

C.

To reflect back on life events to derive pleasure and meaning

D.

To achieve established life goals and consider the welfare of future generations

 

 

____       2.   A jilted college student is admitted to a hospital following a suicide attempt and states, “No one will ever love a loser like me.” According to Erikson’s theory of personality development, a nurse should recognize a deficit in which developmental stage?

A.

Trust versus mistrust

B.

Initiative versus guilt

C.

Intimacy versus isolation

D.

Ego integrity versus despair

 

 

____       3.   A nurse observes a 3-year-old client willingly sharing candy with a sibling. According to Peplau, which psychological stage of development should the nurse determine that this child has completed?

A.

“Learning to count on others”

B.

“Learning to delay satisfaction”

C.

“Identifying oneself”

D.

“Developing skills in participation”

 

 

____       4.   When a mother brings her 9-month-old to daycare, the child smiles and reaches for the daycare caregiver. The nurse should determine that according to Mahler’s developmental theory, this child’s development is at which phase?

A.

The autistic phase

B.

The symbiotic phase

C.

The differentiation subphase of the separation–individuation phase

D.

The rapprochement subphase of the separation–individuation phase

 

 

____       5.   A 12-year-old girl becomes hysterical every time she strikes out in softball, falls down when roller-skating, or loses when playing games. According to Peplau’s interpersonal theory, in which stage of development should the nurse identify a need for improvement?

A.

“Learning to count on others”

B.

“Learning to delay satisfaction”

C.

“Identifying oneself”

D.

“Developing skills in participation”

 

 

____       6.   According to Peplau, a nurse who provides an abandoned child with parental guidance and praise following small accomplishments is serving which therapeutic role?

A.

The role of technical expert

B.

The role of resource person

C.

The role of surrogate

D.

The role of leader

 

 

____       7.   A nurse directs the client interaction and plans for interventions to achieve client goals. According to Peplau’s framework for psychodynamic nursing, what therapeutic role is this nurse assuming?

A.

The role of technical expert

B.

The role of resource person

C.

The role of teacher

D.

The role of leader

 

 

____       8.   When assessing clients, a psychiatric nurse should understand that psychoanalytic theory is based on which underlying concept?

A.

A possible genetic basis for the client problems

B.

The structure and dynamics of the personality

C.

Behavioral responses to stressors

D.

Maladaptive cognitions

 

 

____       9.   Which underlying concept should a nurse associate with interpersonal theory when assessing clients?

A.

The effects of social processes on personality development

B.

The effects of unconscious processes and personality structures

C.

The effects on thoughts and perceptual processes

D.

The effects of chemical and genetic influences

 

 

____     10.   A physically healthy, 35-year-old single client lives with parents who provide total financial support. According to Erikson’s theory, which developmental task should a nurse assist the client to accomplish?

A.

Establishing the ability to control emotional reactions

B.

Establishing a strong sense of ethics and character structure

C.

Establishing and maintaining self-esteem

D.

Establishing a career, personal relationships, and societal connections

 

 

____     11.   A 1-month-old infant is left alone for extended periods, has little physical stimulation, and is malnourished. Based on this infant’s history, in which phase of development according to Mahler’s theory, should a nurse expect to see a potential deficit?

A.

The symbiotic phase

B.

The autistic phase

C.

The consolidation phase

D.

The rapprochement phase

 

 

____     12.   A 6-year-old boy uses his father’s flashlight to explore his 3-year-old sister’s genitalia. According to Freud, in which stage of psychosocial development should a nurse identify this behavior as normal?

A.

Oral

B.

Anal

C.

Phallic

D.

Latency

 

 

____     13.   A married, 26-year-old client works as a schoolteacher. She and her husband have just had their first child. A nurse should recognize that this client is successfully accomplishing which stage of Erikson’s developmental theory?

A.

Industry versus inferiority

B.

Identity versus role confusion

C.

Intimacy versus isolation

D.

Generativity versus stagnation

 

 

____     14.   A 10-year-old child wins the science fair competition and is chosen as a cheerleader for the basketball team. A nurse should recognize that this child is in the process of successfully accomplishing which stage of Erikson’s developmental theory?

A.

Industry versus inferiority

B.

Identity versus role confusion

C.

Intimacy versus isolation

D.

Generativity versus stagnation

 

 

____     15.   A client has flashbacks of sexual abuse by her uncle. She had not been aware of these memories until recently, when she became sexually active with her boyfriend. A nurse should identify this experience as which part of Sullivan’s concept of the self-system?

A.

The “good me”

B.

The “bad me”

C.

The “not me”

D.

The “bad you”

 

 

____     16.   According to Freud, which statement should a nurse associate with predominance of the superego?

A.

“No one is looking, so I will take three cigarettes from Mom’s pack.”

B.

“I don’t ever cheat on tests. It is wrong.”

C.

“If I skip school I will get in trouble and fail my test.”

D.

“Dad won’t miss this little bit of vodka.”

 

 

____     17.   A female complains that her husband only meets his sexual needs and never her needs. According to Freud, which personality structure should a nurse identify as predominantly driving the husband’s actions?

A.

The id

B.

The superid

C.

The ego

D.

The superego

 

 

____     18.   A father of a 5-year-old demeans and curses at his child for disobedience. In turn, when upset, the child uses swear words in kindergarten. A school nurse recognizes this behavior as unsuccessful completion of which stage of development according to Peplau?

A.

“Learning to count on others”

B.

“Learning to delay satisfaction”

C.

“Identifying oneself”

D.

“Developing skills in participation”

 

 

____     19.   A nurse is caring for a hospitalized client who is quarrelsome, opinionated, and has little regard for others. According to Sullivan’s interpersonal theory, the nurse should associate the client’s behaviors with a previous deficit in which stage of development?

A.

Infancy

B.

Childhood

C.

Early adolescence

D.

Late adolescence

 

 

____     20.   According to psychoanalytic theory, treatment of symptoms should involve which nursing action?

A.

Modifying client behaviors by manipulating the environment

B.

Expressing empathy and presenting reality

C.

Encouraging the client to note cause and effects of actions

D.

Recognizing and discussing the client’s use of ego defense mechanisms

 

 

____     21.   A 29-year-old client living with parents has few interpersonal relationships. The client states, “I have trouble trusting people.” Based on Erikson’s developmental theory, which should the nurse recognize as a true statement about this client?

A.

The client has not progressed beyond the trust versus mistrust developmental stage.

B.

Developmental deficits in earlier life stages have impaired the client’s adult functioning.

C.

The client cannot move to the next developmental stage until mastering all earlier stages.

D.

The client’s developmental problems began in the intimacy versus isolation stage.

 

 

____     22.   Which statement is most likely to be made by a nurse practitioner who shares the philosophy of an interpersonal theorist?

A.

“Let’s discuss your use of defense mechanisms.”

B.

“We need to examine how your relationships affect your ability to cope.”

C.

“It is important that you take the medications that I have prescribed for you.”

D.

“Your genetic background is a factor in your predisposition to mental illness.”

 

 

____     23.   Which statement describes achievement of Erikson’s generativity versus stagnation developmental stage?

A.

“I’ve been a girl scout leader for troop 259 for 7 years.”

B.

“I feel great that I could pay for my bike with my paper route money.”

C.

“My parents are so pleased that John and I are going to be married.”

D.

“I’ve had a very full life. I’m not afraid to leave this world.”

 

 

____     24.   A psychiatric nurse uses Sullivan’s theories in group and individual therapy. According to Sullivan and other theorists like him, how are client symptoms viewed?

A.

Client symptoms are viewed as learned behaviors that are maintained because they are reinforced.

B.

Client symptoms are viewed as responses to anxiety arising from interpersonal relationships.

C.

Client symptoms are viewed as internal conflicts arising from early childhood trauma.

D.

Client symptoms are viewed as the misinterpretations of experiences.

 

 

____     25.   A nursing instructor is teaching about the application of Peplau’s theory to nursing care. Which student statement indicates that learning has occurred?

A.

“The nurse assumes the role of a parenting figure instructing the client in good health practices.”

B.

“The nurse is concerned more about psychosocial functioning than physiological functioning.”

C.

“The nurse bases the client care plan on standardized nursing approaches and physician orders.”

D.

“The nurse applies principles of human relations to the problems that arise at all levels of experience.”

 

 

____     26.   According to Peplau, treatment of client symptoms should involve which nursing action?

A.

Establishing a therapeutic nurse–client relationship

B.

Using the technique of desensitization

C.

Challenging clients’ negative thoughts

D.

Uncovering clients’ past experiences

 

 

____     27.   The nurse practitioner plans to use a psychoanalytical framework when treating a client diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Which would be the focus of this nursing intervention?

A.

Correcting inappropriate learning patterns

B.

Changing a dysfunctional social environment

C.

Exploring the “here-and-now” with the client and family

D.

Dealing with issues of physical abuse at an early age

 

 

____     28.   Which is a nursing intervention to assist a client to achieve Erikson’s developmental task of ego integrity?

A.

Encourage a life review of triumphs and disappointments

B.

Provide opportunities for success experiences

C.

Focus on embracing the future

D.

Foster the development of creativity

 

 

____     29.   From an interpersonal theory perspective, which intervention would a nurse use to assist a client diagnosed with major depressive disorder?

A.

Encourage discussion of feelings

B.

Offer family therapy sessions

C.

Discuss childhood events

D.

Teach alternate coping skills

 

 

Multiple Response

Identify one or more choices that best complete the statement or answer the question.

 

____     30.   Which concepts should a nurse identify as being included in the DSM-IV-TR definition of personality? (Select all that apply.)

A.

Personality is an enduring pattern of perceiving.

B.

Personality is influenced by relationships between the environment and self.

C.

Personality is developed in sporadic stages that vary from person to person.

D.

Personality is influenced by a wide range of social and personal contexts.

E.

Personality is inborn and cannot be influenced by developmental progression.

 

 

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