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Homework answers / question archive / 1)Inbreeding violates the Hardy-Weinberg assumption of random mating and leads to Sickly, ignorant runts An increase in homozygotes and an increase in f (a) An increase in homozygotes and a decrease in f (a) An increase in homozygotes and no allele frequency change An increase in heterozygotes The probability that the two alleles present in the offspring of a sib mating is ____ if the grandparents is D1D2

1)Inbreeding violates the Hardy-Weinberg assumption of random mating and leads to Sickly, ignorant runts An increase in homozygotes and an increase in f (a) An increase in homozygotes and a decrease in f (a) An increase in homozygotes and no allele frequency change An increase in heterozygotes The probability that the two alleles present in the offspring of a sib mating is ____ if the grandparents is D1D2

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1)Inbreeding violates the Hardy-Weinberg assumption of random mating and leads to

    1. Sickly, ignorant runts
    2. An increase in homozygotes and an increase in f (a)
    3. An increase in homozygotes and a decrease in f (a)
    4. An increase in homozygotes and no allele frequency change
    5. An increase in heterozygotes
  1. The probability that the two alleles present in the offspring of a sib mating is ____ if the grandparents is D1D2. In order words if grandma is D1D2 what is the probability that the offspring is D1D1 or D1D2?
    1. 1/16      
    2. 1/8        
    3. 1/4
    4. ½           
    5. 1
  2. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium means that genotype frequencies may be predicted by multiplying allele frequencies, because the alleles are inherited independently.  Linkage equilibrium treats alleles at two loci and predicts haplotype frequencies. At linkage equilibrium the coefficient of linkage disequilibrium, D = g ABgab – gAbgaB =
    1. 0.0
    2. 0.25
    3. 0.0625
    4. 1.0
    5. 1.73

 

 

QUESTIONS 120-123 (See table below for understanding)

A

a

B

b

P

q

s

t

 

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium calculations of observed and expected genotype frequencies employ the binomial (or multinomial if there are more than two alleles). If there are two alleles with frequencies p and q, expected genotype frequencies are (p+q)2. Organisms, however, have genomes organized into chromosomes or long DNA molecules; thus many genes are physically linked and linkages are broken by recombination. If we wish to consider genotypes at two loci simultaneously we must know or at least predict the frequencies of haplotypes. In this example the frequencies of the A and a alleles are p and q; the frequencies of B and b alleles are s and t.

  1. Thus the expected frequency of the AB haplotype is ____.
    1. pq
    2. ps
    3. pt
    4. qp
    5. qt
  2. The expected frequency of the aB haplotype is ____.
    1. qs
    2. ps
    3. pt
    4. pq
    5. qt
  3. The expected frequencies in this example are ____ frequencies.
    1. Diploid
    2. Triploid
    3. Tetraploid
    4. Allele
    5. haploid
  4. The expected frequency of AABB individuals in the next generation is ____.
    1. P2q2
    2. pqst
    3. p3r
    4. strv
    5. P2S2

 

Question 120&124 VARY SLIGHTLY SEE RED

A

a

B

b

P

q

t

s

 

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium calculations of observed and expected genotype frequencies employ the binomial (or multinomial if there are more than two alleles). If there are two alleles with frequencies p and q, expected genotype frequencies are (p+q)2. Organisms, however, have genomes organized into chromosomes or long DNA molecules; thus many genes are physically linked and linkages are broken by recombination. If we wish to consider genotypes at two loci simultaneously we must know or at least predict the frequencies of haplotypes. In this example the frequencies of the A and a alleles are p and q; the frequencies of B and b alleles are t and s.

  1. Thus the expected frequency of the AB haplotype is
    1. pq
    2. ps
    3. pt
    4. qp
    5. qt
  2. The signature of recent strong positive selection is ______. This allows deleterious alleles to increase in frequency if they are ________.
    1. Great haplotype variability                   :           linked to a favored allele
    2. Reduced haplotype variability  :           linked to a favored allele
    3. Linkage equilibrium                              :           linked to a deleterious allele
    4. Lowered mutation rates                        :           acting only on these loci
    5. Both a & b are true
  3.  

 

 

IMAGINE that the A & B treatments both lead to retreat of jumping spiders, mantids and lizards. Now we conclude that _____________.

    1. The mimicry is directed to spiders
    2. The mimicry is ineffective
    3. The mimic is a generalized predator deterrent
    4. The mimicry is in linkage disequilibrium to FRU and GAP
    5. The mimicry is a learned behavior
  1. For which of the following conditions is there no evidence correlating disease incidence and geography?
    1. Sickle cell anemia
    2. Plague
    3. Multiple sclerosis
    4. Tuberculosis
    5. Hemophilia
  2. Cells with membrane receptors for _______ such as macrophages are more effective in fighting infections than those lacking these receptors.
    1. Calcitriol
    2. Vitamin D
    3. Nonitol
    4. Melanin
    5. Hemoglobin
  3. TB infection spikes the production of ___________.
    1. Calcitriol and vitamin D
    2. Calcineurin and calcitriol
    3. Vitamin D and cathelicidin
    4. Nitric oxide and vitamin D
    5. Nitric oxide and calcitriol
  4. For evolution by natural selection to work, there must be individual to individual character variation in populations. Some of this variation must, as Darwin knew, be inherited and the inherited variation must be associated with relative reproductive success. Until the 1930’s evolution was without a generally accepted explanation of inherited variation. The Modern Synthesis provided the genetic mechanisms required to explain natural selection. The crucial genetic insight was that ___.
    1. Mutation provides the raw material of inherited character variation
    2. Changes in the relative proportion of characters can be tied to changes in the relative frequencies of alleles that influence these characters
    3. Changes in the relative frequencies of alleles that influence these characters
    4. Natural selection provides an inflexible mechanism for differential survival and reproduction
    5. Heritable variation and not environmental changes drive selection
  5. The allele frequencies for A1, A2, A3 are p, q, and r in generation one. If the population size is infinite, if there is no differential reproduction, if there is no mutation or migration and if mating takes place at random, the frequency of A1A3 heterozygote’s in the second generation will be ____.
    1. 2pr
    2. P2r2
    3. 2pq
    4. 2qr
    5. undefined
  6. Population geneticists, a little chauvinistically, often define evolution as “change in allele frequency”. Which of the following is not a mechanism of evolutionary change by this definition?
    1. Inbreeding
    2. Selection
    3. Mutation
    4. Migration
    5. drift
  7. Stable allele frequency equilibria are achieved under which of the following selection models?

AA          Aa        aa

    1.  1            1          1+s
    2. 1 + s       1 + s     1
    3. 1+ s        1          1
    4. 1 + s       1          1 + t
    5. 1 1          1

 

  1. Which of these curves, relating B1 allele frequency to generations, represents the strongest selection favoring B1?
    1. The leftmost
    2. The next
    3. The middle
    4. The fourth from left
    5. The last
  2. One of the reasons for the presence of deleterious alleles in all populations is that they are constantly arising through mutation, µ, and natural selection is fairly ineffective at eliminating recessive homozygotes , because they are present as the square of allele frequency. Which of the following is the formula for the equilibrium allele frequency of a deleterious recessive allele?
    1. WAA = 1 + t
    2. p’ = 1- µ
    3. s = p’ + t
    4. q = (µ/s)1/2
    5. q’ = µ2
  3. Genetic drift has long been a contentious issue in population genetics with some authorities claiming that it has played a major role in the evolutionary changes of allele frequency while other authorities gave it only a minor role. Genetic drift is fundamentally the result of ____.
    1. Limitations on the number of alleles at a locus
    2. Finite population size
    3. Mutation/migration – selection balance
    4. Avoidance of mating between relatives
    5. Both a & d are true
  4. If a large number of experimental populations are set up with two allele frequencies of 50:50, genetic drift predicts ____.
    1. Fixation or loss
    2. Only loss
    3. Only fixation
    4. Maintenance of the 50:50 balance
    5. A shift to 75:25 allele frequency balance
  5. In elder flower orchids visiting bees seek food, but none is available to them; they switch to a different color orchid when they do not find food. Assume that 90% of flowers are color A and 10% are color B. Most visiting bees will start at an orchid which is A (90%), but will switch to B (10%) for the second visit. As the bees are responsible for pollination, which statement is true?
    1. The A color morph is at a selective advantage at the outset
    2. The A and B color morphs offer no reward to the bees and are of equal fitness
    3. The bees visit the lower frequency color morph more than predicted by its frequency and this sets up a frequency dependent selection advantage for the lower frequency color.
    4. The bees visit the higher frequency color morph more and this sets up a frequency dependent selection advantage for the high frequency color
    5. None of this makes any sense, because I didn’t buy the text or come to class
  6. Nonrandom mating includes mating between close relatives as well as outbreeding which is mating between unrelated individuals. The introduction of panthers from nonEverglades populations is a good example of outbreeding. Generally we humans are more concerned with inbreeding with its consequent loss of genetic variation and the appearance of deleterious homozygotes. Of course outbreeding is socially prohibited in some societies. The most sever form of inbreeding is selfing and this leads to ____.
    1. No change in allele frequencies and 50% loss of heterozygotes every generation.
    2. No change in allele frequencies and 50% loss of heterozygotes every generation
    3. Accumulation of deleterious mutations in males
    4. Accumulation of deleterious mutations in females
    5. No change in genotype frequencies and 50% loss of homozygotes
  7. Linkage disequilibrium is created by selection, mutation, migration and genetic drift; it is eliminated by ___.
    1. Transposition
    2. Recombination
    3. Inversion
    4. Consciousness
    5. Haplotypic methylation
  8. The signature of recent strong positive selection is ____.
    1. Great haplotype variability
    2. Reduced haplotype variability
    3. Linkage equilibrium
    4. Lowered mutation rates
    5. Both a & b are true
  9. If the CCR5Δ32 allele occurred on a particular haplotypic background we may estimate its age knowing that the two forces altering associations of this allele and the GAAT and AFMB marker loci are mutation and recombination. Let Pg be the probability that the resistant allele is still associated with the same alleles, then Pg = (1 – rec – mut)g  and we may estimate the age of the resistant mutation by ____.
    1. Calculating expected haplotype frequencies
    2. Solving for g
    3. Solving for Pg
    4. Calculating haplotype equilibrium frequencies
    5. Both c & d
  10. The primary evolutionary explanation for sexual reproduction is _____.
    1. Convenience
    2. Recombination
    3. Muller’s Ratchet
    4. Kin selection
    5. Linkage equilibrium
  11. The long neck of the giraffe has been attributed to a link between foraging higher and reproductive fitness; the data suggest that giraffes do not, on average ____.
    1. Feed at head level
    2. Drink tea
    3. Do handsprings
    4. Drive on the left
    5. Play bridge
  12. Hamilton’s rule, summarizes the relationships among benefit to the actor, cost to the actor and the coefficient of relationship:                   

Br –C >0

 

If the cost is 1 and the benefit is 3, what value for the coefficient of relationship will allow the alleles for this altruistic behavior to increase in frequency?

    1.  1/16
    2. ½
    3. ¼
    4. 1/6
    5. 9
  1. The evolution of social insects has been greatly facilitated by ___.
    1. Recombination
    2. Reciprocal altruism
    3. Haplodiploidy
    4. Linkage equilibrium
    5. Sperm storage
  2. Hardy and Weinberg both published papers in 1908 which, in essence, explained the application of the binomial (two alleles) or the multinomial (more than two alleles)  to the estimation of genotype frequencies from allele frequencies.  Simplifying assumptions must be made in order to prove the Hardy-Weinberg algebraically.   Which of the following is not one of the simplifying assumptions made in the mathematical formulations of Hardy and Weinberg?
    1. No Mutation or migration
    2. Random mating
    3. Infinite allele size
    4. Infinite population size
    5. No selection

QUESTIONS 147-150 (See table below for understanding)

A1A1

A1A2

A2A2

A1A3

A2A3

A3A3

14

25

18

11

20

12

 

 

N=100

 

 

 

 

  1. The allele frequency of A1 is
    1. 0.25
    2. 0.84
    3. 0.64
    4. 0.32                                14+12.5(half of 25)+5.5(half of 11) = 32/100= 0.32
    5. 0.12
  2. The A3 allele frequency is
    1. 0.1275
    2. 0.32
    3. 0.64
    4. 0.84
    5. 0.275                              12+10(half of 20)+ 5.5(half of 11) = 27.5/100 = 0.275
  3.     The allele frequency of A2 is in the next generation, under Hardy-Weinberg conditions
  1. 0.25
  2. 0.32
  3. 0.64
  4. 0.405                           18+10(half of 20)+ 12.5(half of 25) = 40.5/100 = 0.405
  5. 0.125
  1. The A2A2 frequency at equilibrium is
  1. 0.0625
  2. 0.10
  3. 0.164
  4. 0.405
  5. 0.125
  1. Under Hardy-Weinberg conditions the expected frequency of the genotypes in the next generation will be
          1. .1024(A1A1): .2592(A1A2): .164025(A2A2): .176(A1A3): .22275(A2A3):  .075625(A3A3)
  2. Hardy-Weinberg genotype frequencies are calculated as expectations under the assumptions required for a formal mathematical proof of the H-W equilibrium law. Violations of the assumptions are detected by comparing expected and observed genotype frequencies.

A1A1

A1A2

A2A2

 

0.25

0.50

0.25

generation 0

0.26

0.51

0.24

generation 1

0.24

0.48

0.28

generation 2

0.25

0.50

0.25

generation 3

0.27

0.50

0.23

generation 4

The genotype frequencies over five generations recorded above do not show perfect concordance between expected and observed values. The departures from expectation are, most likely, the result of

  1. Mutation
  2. Drift
  3. Phlebotomy
  4. Nonrandom mating
  5. Selection
  1. Hardy-Weinberg genotype frequencies are calculated as expectations under the assumptions required for a formal mathematical proof of the H-W equilibrium law. Violations of the assumptions are detected by comparing expected and observed genotype frequencies.

A1A1

A1A2

A2A2

 

0.25

0.50

0.25

generation 0

0.29

0.51

0.20

generation 1

0.31

0.53

0.16

generation 2

0.32

0.55

0.13

generation 3

0.35

0.60

0.05

generation 4

The genotype frequencies over five generations recorded above do not show perfect concordance between expected and observed values. The departures from expectation are, most likely, the result of

    1. Mutation
    2. Drift
    3. Phlebotomy
    4. Nonrandom mating
    5. Selection
  1.  Darwin’s origin of species relies heavily on examples of artificial breeding in organisms like the pigeon to explain the possibility of natural selection. That is artificial selection works when we exercise control over animal breeding and we should expect that similar reproductive advantages will work in nature. In the early days of genetics eugenics became very popular and many U.S. states passed laws requiring sterilization of undesirables. Following World War II eugenics fell into disrepute, because of the Nazi breeding programs, but the eugenics methods don’t work well in human society for a plethora of reasons. One reason is _____.
  1. That it takes hundreds of years to reduce the frequency of a recessive allele if we only sterilize homozygotes.
  2. Overdominance counters the effects of human selection
  3. Underdominance leads to allelic fixation
  4. That dominant ells may be eliminated quickly by sterilization
  5. Epitasis is methylation of CpG islands during metaphase
  1. Mutation is the source of all heritable variation, and it is algebraically the same as migration as far as the treatment of Hardy-Weinberg violations is concerned. When island populations (these may be land surrounded by water or simple biological islands such as a park in the middle of a metropolis.) are examined, biologists frequently find that the resident population came from the mainland and that allele frequencies reflect migration distance. That is to say ____.
  1. Island and mainland allele frequencies tend to be vastly different when the island and mainland populations are close
  2. Island and mainland allele frequencies tend to be similar when the island and mainland populations are far apart
  3. Island and mainland allele frequencies tend to be similar when the island and mainland populations are close.
  4. Island and mainland populations do not exchange genetic materials
  5. Island and mainland allele frequencies tend to drift to identical values
  1.  

 

 

The jumps in this graph of bacterial cell size over generations are the result of ____.

  1. Genetic drift
  2. Migration
  3. Nonrandom mating
  4. Mutation and selection
  5. Sloppy experimentation
  1.  Genetic drift favors ____.
    1. Dominant alleles
    2. Recessive alleles
    3. Codominant alleles
    4. No particular physiological form of an allele
    5. Both dominant and codominants
  2.  

 

 

 

These populations of Drosophila melanogaster (dew loving pigmented belly) all started from a set of populations with bw75 at 50%. The expectation is that ½ of those will end up with 100% bw75 and ½ will be 100% wild-type. This is based on _____.

  1. Drift
  2. Mutation
  3. Nonrandom mating
  4. Selection
  5. Polymorphism
  1. Human ancestors evolved adaptation which allowed our species to dominate the biological world. At one point in our view of evolution anthropologist felt that hominids making tools during the Paleolithic separated us from all of our close relatives. But other primates use tools today. About 60,000 years ago our ancestors began migrating out of Africa. Mary Stiner and her coworkers identified fossil beads and other “ornaments” in sedimentary layers approximately 40,000 years old. This suggests that the early days of modern humans were largely devoted to social interactions with correlated decorations (jewelry). Burial remnants of Neanderthals suggest that they ____ also fashioned jewelry.
    1. Also
    2. Seldom
    3. Both a & b
  2. Upper Paleolithic modern humans used ____ to transit culture among subpopulations, largely using ___ painting.
    1. Art       :           oil
    2. Art       :           spit
    3. Tools    :           phone
    4. Tools    :           water
    5. Print    :           oil
  3. Human uniqueness may depend on the ability, generally seen in humans at or around five years of age, to identify____.
    1. Thousands of plants and animals
    2. Letters
    3. Sounds
    4. Feelings in others
    5. Aggressive signs in other animals
  4. One of the possible reasons that we find it difficult to engage in conversation while “sitting on our hands” is that human spoken language “evolved” as an add on to
    1. Written language
    2. Irish language
    3. Sign language
    4. Oral language
    5. Alphabetic and ..?
  5.  

 

 

This table presents expected _____. The expectation for AAbb is ____.

  1. Allele frequencies             :           0.0384
  2. Haplotype frequencies      :           0.0384
  3. Gamete frequencies                     :           0.0576
  4. Genotype frequencies                   :           0.0576
  5. Genotype frequencies                   :           0.0144
  1. Since we can calculate expectations and we can observe actual frequencies we can compare observed with expected frequencies.  There are a number of metrics used, but one which is obvious is ____.
    1. Q = prt
    2. V = str
    3. D = gabgAB – gaBgAb
    4. D = pq + pr + qs + rt
    5. ? = ∑??
  2. It is expected that linkage disequilibrium will break down and approach linkage equilibrium as a function of _____.
    1. Selection
    2. Frequency
    3. Recombination distance
    4. Drift
    5. Gene conversion
  3. All mutations arise on a specific DNA strand or molecule, that is they occur in an area of the genome. If we know the frequencies of haplotypes, _______ and _______, we can estimate the time of occurrence of a particular allele of a haplotype.
    1. Transcription               :           translation
    2. Mutation                     :           recombination
    3. Mutation                     :           transposition
    4. Transposition              :           translation
    5. Vlopotion                     :           ecrotiom
  4. Traits or characteristics which are partially determined often plot as normal or bell-curve distributions. We may estimate the genetic contribution to individual-individual variation as ____.
    1. Genotype
    2. Fitness
    3. Variance
    4. LE
    5. Heritability
  5. The adaptive value of a trait or characteristic may be tested using _____ methods.
    1. Predictive, hypothetical, or comparative
    2. Experimental, observational or comparative
    3. Logarhythmic
    4. Exponential
    5. Bayesian
  6. When comparing adaptive characteristics of traits across taxa it is important that these traits be compared among _____ taxa. Joe Felsenstein has proposed methods for doing these analyzes properly.
    1. Mammalian
    2. Related
    3. Independent
    4. Phenotypic
    5. viral
  7. [ Passage- Evo Genetics: Mobile DNAs…] Mobile genetic may insert at random; the most damaging site for an insertion is likely to be _____.
    1. An intron
    2. A spacer
    3. An exon
    4. A plasmid
    5. A telomere
  8. R.A. Fisher’s evolution of dominance theory is an attempt to explain the observation that most new mutations are recessive and most wild-type alleles are dominant.  The major component of this theory is ___.
    1. Modifier loci
    2. Episomes
    3. Exons
    4. Desmosomes
    5. Spacers
  9. A selective sweep might result if a mobile element was inserted near an enhancer or controlling element, thereby ____.
    1. Eliminating the mutations phenotypic effect
    2. Reversing the evolution of dominance
    3. Altering the level of gene expression
    4. Generating a massive frame shift
  10. It may be that adaptive sweeps are based on mobile element insertion rather than upon single nucleotide mutations, because ____.
    1. Purines are less common in these environments
    2. Strong selective agents such as insecticides favor rare major genomic alterations
    3. Insecticide and antibiotic resistance are both recessive characters
    4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms are extremely rare.
  11. Traits selected for use in construction of evolutionary trees must be ____________.
  12. Characters used in phylogenetic inference must also be homologous, because evolutionary relationships are only revealed by shared derived traits or ___________.
  13. Influenza viruses produce hemagglutinins which bind to _____________ on cell membranes to enter cells and are the ______________.
  14.  

 

 

 

The phylogeny was produced by sequencing influenza viruses frozen at varying times. Two things are obvious: __________ and _____________

  1.  A phylogenetic species is a __________ set of populations.
  2. Amino acid replacements in the hemagglutinin gene are far more common in strains of the influenza virus which have survived than in those which are extinct if you look only at the regions of the hemaglutinin molecule which are ____________
  3. The influenza strains considered most dangerous to humans are to some extent predictable if nucleoprotein phylogenies are examined and hemagglutinin and neurominadase ___________ are identified
  4. Synapomorphies are used to construct evolutionary trees or phylogenies because they are ________ and ____________ characters
  5. A key idea in estimating evolutionary trees is that _________ identify branch points or points of speciation.
  6.   Monophyletic groups are collection of taxa with a ________ ancestor.
  7.  Species are, according to the biological species concept or BSC, _______
  8.   Premating reproductive isolation is often more pronounced or stronger for _______ populations.
  9.   Thomas Henry Huxley proposed in 1863 that humans should be placed with the African great Apes. In 1967 Sarich and Wilson provided data which was consistent with Huxley’s proposal. They used antibodies to albumin to measure ape relationship to humans. The fact that Huxley’s morphological-based phylogeny and Sarich and Wilson albumen based phylogeny placed humans squarely into the African Primate group suggest that
    1. Both
    2. Humans originated in Africa
    3. Humans derived from chimps or gorillas
  10. The congruent tress produced by using molecular traits or anatomical traits increased confidence in the accuracy of the phylogenies. The molecular data also appeared to show fairly constant change over time. This meant that
  11.    The central problem of consciousness is routed in the fact that it is unique to each of us and this forces our descriptions to be

 

  1.  Consciousness, for example the brains processing of sensory input involves
  2.  Daniel Dennett’s description of the computational mathematics of consciousness is that it is

 

  1.  Consciousness is
  2.  Human uniqueness and consciousness is thought to be based in

 

  1.  Expression of Hoxd11 in fish and tetrapod limbs provides strong evidence for homology; however the _______. This leads to the development of additional structures in the tetrapod.
  2.  The MADS domain is the plant analog of the homeodomain; it was named after __________
  3.  Homeotic genes are responsible for segmentation; they ___________.
  4.  The apical ectodermal ridge establishes the proximal-distal axis in limb development. Surgical excision of the AER leads to ________ of the limb, and the degree depends on _______ of excision.
  5.  The link between extrinsic signaling, progenitor cell specification and neuronal subtype identity is central to the developmental organization of the vertebrate central nervous system. Cdx and ______ genes are important dominants of rostrocaudal identity of neural progenitor cells.

 

 

  1. According to the Hardy Weinberg principle, allele and genotype frequencies remain at equilibrium throughout different generations. They do not change. However, several factors may disrupt these constant frequencies; they include:
    1. Limited population size, random mating, and gene flow
    2. Mutation, random genetic drift, and selection
    3. Non-random mating, gene flow, and limited population size
    4. Only choices A & B are correct
    5. Only choices B & C are correct
  2. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that affects the lungs and digestive system of about 30,000 children and adults in the United States (700,000 worldwide).  A defective gene and its protein product cause the body to produce unusually thick, sticky mucus, which clogs the lungs and pancreas leasing to life-threatening lung infections and digestive upsets.  Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common life-shortening genetic diseases.
    1. CF is caused by many mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene.
    2. CF develops when neither allele can produce a functional CFTR protein
    3. CF is an autosomal recessive disorder
    4. CF alleles in heterozygotes may confer resistance to diseases, such as cholera, which produce excessive fluid loss
    5. All of these statements are thought to be true at the time
  3. The Hardy-Weinberg Law allows calculations of expected genotype frequencies when mating is random and neither selection nor drift are operating. For two alleles (A and a) with frequencies p and q, there are three genotypes: AA, Aa, and aa. The Hardy-Weinberg genotype predictions or expectations for the three is: p2 AA: 2pqAa: q2 aa. It is the starting point for much of the theory of population genetics. Based on these equations, we can determine useful but difficult-to-measure facts about a population. For example, if eleven percent of an African population is born with sickle cell anemia (ss), what percentage of the population will be more resistant to malaria because they are heterozygous (Ss) for the sickle cell gene.
    1. 67%
    2. 44%     
    3. 31%
    4. 11%
    5. None of these % estimates
      1. p+q=1….. p+0.331=1….. q2=0.11…q=0.331….p=0.669……2pq=2(0.669)(0.331)=0.4401=44%
  4. One of the most important roles of vasopressin is to regulate the body’s retention of water.  It is released when the body is dehydrated and causes the kidneys to conserve water, thus concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume.  The leader sequence for the vasopressin receptor varies in length; in voles males with longer leader sequences are ___.  A similar leader sequence length correlation has been reported in men.
    1. Unable to concentrate their urine
    2. More monogamous
    3. Prone to depression
    4. Often diabetic
    5. None of the above
  5. In the human genome 0% of genes are polymorphic.  Studies on dog’s SNP to facial phenotype correlations have related that cis regulatory sequences are implicated as being a ____ source of variation in their morphological evolution driven by selective breeding.
    1. Codominant
    2. Vital
    3. Predominant
    4. Tertiary
    5. recessive
  6. If a population is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, it can be said that it is
  7. The proposition that Allele and genotype frequencies do not change after one generation of random mating, infinite population size, absence of mutation and migration and no selection. Was published in 1908. It is known as the ____.
    1. Tracey lemma
    2. Tracey corralary
    3. Hardy-Weinberg Law
    4. Hardly-Weisberg Equilibrium
    5. Gauches bolero
  8. A population known to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is also known as to have the following allele frequency distribution:

p1= 0.0176 p2= 0.0954 p3= 0.1659 p4= 0.4000 …………… pn=0.0347.

The frequency of 4, 4 homozygote’s will be _______ ten generations after the initial data collection.

    1. 0.0047
    2. 0.0081
    3. 0.1600
    4. 0.937                           [(.4)2]0.0347= 0.937
    5. 0.998
  1. Fitness or reproductive performance may be treated algebraically allowing the testing of hypothesis.  For a single locus, two allele model we ma write

W AA

W Aa

Waa

Fitness phenotypes

1

1

1+ s

fitness

 

p = f (A) and q = f (a) and q’ = [q (1 + sq)] / [1+ sq2] is the f (a) next generation  if

s= -1 and q0 = 0.001, q1 = _____ ?

  1.  0.002
  2. 0.01
  3. 1.0
  4. 0.0000099
  5. 0.00099
  1. If s = -1 and lower case a is dominant, the frequency of q1= ____?
    1. 0.0
    2. 0.001
    3. 1.0
    4. 0.0000099
    5. 0.002
  2. Under selection allele and genotype frequencies change and eqilibria may be predicted.  When the heterozygote is the fittest genotype n the above graph, equilibria are predictable at p = 0.0, p= 1.0 and p = 0.6.  if selection coefficients are s = -0.04, t = -0.06 and s = 0.04, t = 0.06instead of the values in the figure the equilibria will be 0.0, 1.0 and _____?
  1. 0.2
  2. 0.3
  3. 0.6
  4. 0.5
  5. 0.4
  1. Genetic drift has a more pronounced effect in smaller populations; although all populations will eventually become fixed for a single allele.  The probability that a new mutation will become fixed is 1/2N.  if there are X copies of an allele at generation zero, the chance that the allele will become fixed is:
  1. Xq0/2N
  2. q0/2N
  3. 6/2N
  4. p0/2N
  5. x/2N
  1. The absence of mutation and migration are assumptions required for the formal proof of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.  They are surely not applicable in the real world.  Still they allow us to predict equilibria.  When mutations rates are equal, the predicted equilibrium allele frequencies are
  1. p=0 .50                  q= 0.50
  2. p = 0.55                 q= 0.45
  3. p = 0.75                 q = 0.25
  4. p = 0.65                 q= 0.35
  1. The Δ32 CCR5 mutation confers resistance to HIV, and it is present in some European populations at a frequency of approximately ten percent.  Stephen beneficial in the plague environments of Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries.  Initial results were in agreements with his hypothesis, but subsequent study, looking at more extensive data failed to support his hypothesis.  Although HIV is widespread, it has not risen to the point of 50%+ +HIV rates of infection.  If we assume that people carrying the Δ32 CCR5 allele currently enjoy a 1% selective advantage, we would expect their relative fitness to ______ if the frequency of HIV+ individuals increases to more than 50%.
  1. Remain constant
  2. Increase
  3. Decrease
  1. Evolutionary change and adaptation are dependent on genetic variation which is a function of population size and generation time.  More mutations will occur in larger populations.  And, since mutations occur at DNA replication, more mutations will occur in species with shorter generation times.  The data, however, show that nucleotide substitution rates are roughly the same for all species.  There is a rough biological clock.  The explanation is:
  1. s = t
  2. s = F ST
  3. s = 1/2Ne
  4. s ≤ 1/2Ne
  5. s  ≥ 1/3Ne

 

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