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Homework answers / question archive / Comment LR Action plan   Summary of findings and research questions  Recommended action targeted to findings  Who is responsible for the action? Who needs to be consulted or informed? Who will monitor? Collect data? Timeline  Resources  What student's characteristics increase poor concentration in the classroom?       Teacher, principal: · Observation · Surveys  · Intentions  The entire academic year None  Lack of enough learning materials  Increase and improve the learning materials    Teacher, principal, parents  Principal, parents        Poor classroom layout Adjust the sitting arrangement  Teacher, students  Principal       Ineffective communication Increase the level of communication via direct communication to students  Teacher          Emotional and physical conditions  Build rapport to understand student’s emotional and physical needs Teacher, parents, principal          What are some effects of poor concentration in the classroom?       Teacher, principal: · Observation · Surveys  · Intentions  The entire academic year None  Truancy and absenteeism  Improve student’s connection to the school Teacher, parents Parents       Poor performance Encourage participation in all learning activities  Teacher         Psychological problems  Understand students’ individual needs Teacher Parents        Unsocial behavior  Encourage group-work  Teacher, students          Lack of motivation Reinforce positive behavior Teacher, students          What are some effective strategies to minimize poor concentration in the classroom?       Teacher, principal: · Observation · Surveys  · Intentions  The entire academic year Money for learning resources and classroom resources Encouraging classroom standards and code of conduct Set classroom code of conduct and communicate it to all students  Teacher         Being a role model Lead by example in classroom discussion Teacher         Reinforcement and rewarding positive behavior Introduce motivation and rewards for any positive change in behavior Teacher, principal  Principal, parents        Improve direct communication  Allow students to communicate openly with both the teacher and classmates Teacher         Improve classroom layout Plan for better sitting arrangements and comfortable sitting spaces  Teacher, principal  Principal       Build rapport  Increase direct communication Teacher, students          Foster group discussion in and outside the classroom Understand individual student needs  Teacher, parents              Potential challenges in the implementation of the action plan Potential challenges in the implementation of the action plan Time is the most constraining factor in action plan implementation

Comment LR Action plan   Summary of findings and research questions  Recommended action targeted to findings  Who is responsible for the action? Who needs to be consulted or informed? Who will monitor? Collect data? Timeline  Resources  What student's characteristics increase poor concentration in the classroom?       Teacher, principal: · Observation · Surveys  · Intentions  The entire academic year None  Lack of enough learning materials  Increase and improve the learning materials    Teacher, principal, parents  Principal, parents        Poor classroom layout Adjust the sitting arrangement  Teacher, students  Principal       Ineffective communication Increase the level of communication via direct communication to students  Teacher          Emotional and physical conditions  Build rapport to understand student’s emotional and physical needs Teacher, parents, principal          What are some effects of poor concentration in the classroom?       Teacher, principal: · Observation · Surveys  · Intentions  The entire academic year None  Truancy and absenteeism  Improve student’s connection to the school Teacher, parents Parents       Poor performance Encourage participation in all learning activities  Teacher         Psychological problems  Understand students’ individual needs Teacher Parents        Unsocial behavior  Encourage group-work  Teacher, students          Lack of motivation Reinforce positive behavior Teacher, students          What are some effective strategies to minimize poor concentration in the classroom?       Teacher, principal: · Observation · Surveys  · Intentions  The entire academic year Money for learning resources and classroom resources Encouraging classroom standards and code of conduct Set classroom code of conduct and communicate it to all students  Teacher         Being a role model Lead by example in classroom discussion Teacher         Reinforcement and rewarding positive behavior Introduce motivation and rewards for any positive change in behavior Teacher, principal  Principal, parents        Improve direct communication  Allow students to communicate openly with both the teacher and classmates Teacher         Improve classroom layout Plan for better sitting arrangements and comfortable sitting spaces  Teacher, principal  Principal       Build rapport  Increase direct communication Teacher, students          Foster group discussion in and outside the classroom Understand individual student needs  Teacher, parents              Potential challenges in the implementation of the action plan Potential challenges in the implementation of the action plan Time is the most constraining factor in action plan implementation

Sociology

Comment LR

Action plan

 

Summary of findings and research questions 

Recommended action targeted to findings 

Who is responsible for the action?

Who needs to be consulted or informed?

Who will monitor? Collect data?

Timeline 

Resources 

What student's characteristics increase poor concentration in the classroom?

 

 

 

Teacher, principal:

· Observation

· Surveys 

· Intentions 

The entire academic year

None 

Lack of enough learning materials 

Increase and improve the learning materials 

 

Teacher, principal, parents 

Principal, parents 

 

 

 

Poor classroom layout

Adjust the sitting arrangement 

Teacher, students 

Principal

 

 

 

Ineffective communication

Increase the level of communication via direct communication to students 

Teacher 

 

 

 

 

Emotional and physical conditions 

Build rapport to understand student’s emotional and physical needs

Teacher, parents, principal 

 

 

 

 

What are some effects of poor concentration in the classroom?

 

 

 

Teacher, principal:

· Observation

· Surveys 

· Intentions 

The entire academic year

None 

Truancy and absenteeism 

Improve student’s connection to the school

Teacher, parents

Parents

 

 

 

Poor performance

Encourage participation in all learning activities 

Teacher

 

 

 

 

Psychological problems 

Understand students’ individual needs

Teacher

Parents 

 

 

 

Unsocial behavior 

Encourage group-work 

Teacher, students 

 

 

 

 

Lack of motivation

Reinforce positive behavior

Teacher, students 

 

 

 

 

What are some effective strategies to minimize poor concentration in the classroom?

 

 

 

Teacher, principal:

· Observation

· Surveys 

· Intentions 

The entire academic year

Money for learning resources and classroom resources

Encouraging classroom standards and code of conduct

Set classroom code of conduct and communicate it to all students 

Teacher

 

 

 

 

Being a role model

Lead by example in classroom discussion

Teacher

 

 

 

 

Reinforcement and rewarding positive behavior

Introduce motivation and rewards for any positive change in behavior

Teacher, principal 

Principal, parents 

 

 

 

Improve direct communication 

Allow students to communicate openly with both the teacher and classmates

Teacher

 

 

 

 

Improve classroom layout

Plan for better sitting arrangements and comfortable sitting spaces 

Teacher, principal 

Principal

 

 

 

Build rapport 

Increase direct communication

Teacher, students 

 

 

 

 

Foster group discussion in and outside the classroom

Understand individual student needs 

Teacher, parents 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Potential challenges in the implementation of the action plan

Potential challenges in the implementation of the action plan

Time is the most constraining factor in action plan implementation. In most cases, the teacher-researchers are engaged in other official activities, thus giving them limited time for the action plan. Action research calls for the teacher-researcher to make enough time. Nonetheless, the implementation of other curriculum activities limits productive action plan endeavors. In other cases, the teacher-researchers have less time, thus concluding into an incomplete action plan. Further, implementation can be hindered by a lack of cooperation due to resistance to change. When change is introduced, it results in the disruption of normal activities. The disturbance is viewed by some individuals as threatening. Implementation of the action plan requires changes in policies and regular routines, which is necessary but disruptive. Implementation will likely face opposition from several quarters who may feel threatened by new developments (Elliot, 1991). Administrative change requires the full participation of all education stakeholders. If the difference faces resistance, then the action plan will most likely fail. Further, successful implementation will probably be hindered by the reluctance to engage other professional's practice and admission to the truth. These two factors are constrained within the culture formed in learning facilities. Most teacher-researchers are unwilling to disrupt other professionals. As such, it becomes challenging to consult or implement changes.

Making time for action research 

Action research is a challenging aspect of teaching. However, its importance puts weight on the need for teachers to create time for action research. In most cases, teaching and implementing the curriculum consumes a large portion of a teacher's time. Nevertheless, teachers should come up with ingenious ways of expanding their time. Since action research is a process, the key to making time lies in a prolonged timeline. A more extended schedule ensures that the teacher has enough time to conduct research and reflect on all possible changes. The longer timeline also ensures that teachers do not drain all their energy in study, leaving less room for vibrant teaching. It is imperative to remember that action research is a section of curriculum implementation; thus, its schedule should fit adequately in teachers' timetables without omission of other fundamental responsibilities (Elliot, 1991). Therefore, the action research will be conducted throughout the year to ensure thoroughness. Most activities will be carried out during free time or extra time allocated in relation to my teaching timetable and workload.

As noted above, time is a significant issue when it comes to action research. To this end, my busy schedule will inform activities towards my action plan. As noted, I will conduct my research throughout the academic year. This will give me enough time during free lessons and holidays. Most work will be done when I have a few lessons or workload. The lesson distribution within a particular day will determine activities done towards my plan. I will create an action plan timetable, which will refer to the teaching timetable. The research will also be allocated during evenings, although this will be subject to other factors such as personal activities. I will design milestones to achieve within a specific time to prevent procrastination. Further, I will make use of the holidays where I will compile data gathered and also make the necessary literature review.

 

Comment JH

Designing an Action Plan

Following the chart that is modeled on Jack Reston’s action planning chart, this framework is intended to lay out some of the essential steps in my action research plan. The ultimate goal is to ensure that there is positive educational change, using the action plan to outline the steps that will be taken in order to overcome some of the challenges that will arise along the way. In the case of the project that I have decided to establish, one of the main challenges stems from the fact that the child that I will work with is nonverbal and diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), thus making communication with the child more complex and requiring additional preliminary research steps. These steps of preliminary research are especially important given the limited knowledge and lack of proven techniques that are effective in language-based interventions for children with ASD.

 

Applying an Action Plan

The action plan modelled in Mills (2014) focuses on using the findings of the research questions to guide the development of the subsequent action plan. The process begins with the asking of the initial research question. In the case of the action research that I am carrying out, the initial research question is “what special considerations must be take into account when teaching language and communication skills to nonverbal children with ASD?” The timeline was 2 weeks and has already been completed, with the principal findings somewhat inconclusive. One of the main issues in this case, as noted by Koegel et al. (2019) in a research review of over 2000 peer-reviewed articles, is that to date there are no reliably proven methodologies for interventions that can be consistently and successfully applied to nonverbal or minimally verbal children on the autism spectrum. While apparently disheartening, this first stage of the research also produced some promising findings that have informed the subsequent steps of the action plan. This led to the second research question: “what interventions have shown promise in developing language skills in nonverbal or minimally verbal children with ASD?” To this extent, researchers such as Haebig et al. (2013) and Siller et al. (2012) found some positive correlations following focused interventions involving parents, using various techniques including Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI). While not entirely conclusive, the research encountered at this stage was helpful in producing ideas about the types of interventions that could work in this case.

This brings me to the second part of the “Steps to Action,” which is decided upon a recommended action. In terms of the intervention I plan to carry out, I will research and decide upon a variation of a Focused Playtime Intervention. It will use focused and communicative play in order to establish high quality social and emotional lines of communication with the child with whom I am going to work. While the evidence overall does not point to any specific method in particular as being more effective than others, the use of play and socially oriented interventions has shown promise, as mentioned in the research studies that were cited in the literature review. Though the recommended action portion of the intervention has yet to be defined completely, it will be done in consultation with the parents and other relevant stakeholders in the child’s life (for example, including counselors or clinical workers who have worked with the child before).

The following section of the action plan includes responsibilities, which in this case are to be divided. In addition to my own responsibility, the main teacher of the child, the parents, and, as mentioned previously, any clinical workers who work with the child at this point will all share a degree of responsibility. The next step, of sharing findings with colleagues, will also incorporate the other responsible parties. The following step, ongoing monitoring or data collection, will be based on my observations during the intervention. All data, both qualitative and quantitative, will be carefully recorded in order to be analyzed at a later time. Subsequently, a timeline for action and additional resources will be defined.

There will certainly be challenges in implementing the plan at some point, though I am confident that I can overcome those that arise. The complexity of working with a child who has nonverbal ASD is certainly the foremost of the challenges, as it affects so many aspects of the project. Planning, research, data collection, and other elements are complicated by the fact that evaluating the progress of the child is made very difficult by the fact that they are nonverbal. As such, the expectations are not the typical ones associated with other issues that might be found in ESE education. There is no universal chart for language progress for children that have this diagnosis. For some, simply responding with a gesture, smile, or other kind of signal might represent an enormous triumph. For other individuals with ASD, forming sentences and communicating might be the milestone. Since there is no universal prognosis, this depends on the individual, and every situation can be very different. As such, the objectives will no doubt shift at various points throughout the project’s duration. Finally, I will make time for the action research in my schedule by coordinating regular sessions with the parents and teachers in order to decide upon a consistent and reliable schedule. I plan to allot the necessary amount of time in order for this project to be carried out, and will work with the others involved to ensure that enough time is given and that once decided, the schedule is carried out consistently.

Chart: Steps to Action Chart

Summary of findings of research questions

 

Recommended action to target findings

 

Who is responsible for the action?

 

Who needs to be consulted or informed?

 

Who will monitor or collect data?

 

Timeline

 

Resources

 

Lack of verbal communication hinders outcomes of individuals with ASD.  

 

Targeted intervention to build communication with child.

Action researcher

Teachers, parents, child

Action researcher, parents

Ongoing

Support from parents, other teachers, counselors

Lack of singular approach in developing language skills in nonverbal children with ASD

1. Identify most promising avenues for intervention (FPI)

2. Design an intervention based on communication and playtime with the child.

3. Implement this intervention after consulting with mentors, child’s parents, teachers. 

 

Action researcher

Teachers, parents, child

Action researcher (using forms for data collection, observations), parents (surveys)

Ongoing

Support from parents, other teachers, counselors

Most promising avenue for intervention might be using focused playtime intervention (FPI)

Design an intervention using playtime to build communication with the nonverbal child

Action Researcher

Teachers, parents, child

Action researcher (using forms for data collection, observations), parents (surveys)

Ongoing

Relevant research on ASD and FPIs

 

There are a number of potential challenges in implementing this action plan. The principal challenge, as cited in previous discussions, is the lack of established intervention methodologies for nonverbal and minimally verbal children who have diagnosed Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This means that there is no singular route to achieving gains in a case like this one (Koegel et al., 2019), and as such I will have to adjust my methodology to some of the more promising courses of action mentioned in the research literature (Brignell et al., 2018; Haebig et al., 2013; Lantz, 2020; Siller et al., 2012). Deciding upon the use of a model based on Focused Playtime Interventions (FPIs) was a difficult process, but now that it is chosen, it is time to move forward and actually implement some of the ideas in the intervention. Another of the primary challenges is the coordination between the various stakeholders. Being that the child is nonverbal, communication with the parents is absolutely essential for the project to work. At the same time, I will have to coordinate with teachers and clinical workers to get important guidelines and information for the actual intervention to function properly, as well as to ensure that I have all the necessary information. Finally, a major challenge resides in assessment, further complicated by the fact that the multiple stakeholders that I plan on including in the process will have different criteria. This is further complicated by the fact that assessing the verbal abilities of a nonverbal child is an extremely difficult process and the parameters and measurements are by nature difficult to make. Finally, time is always an issue that any teacher or researcher must deal with. Despite these barriers, I believe that careful planning and coordination are the key to making this work with everyone’s daily schedules. Planning ahead and setting the times for the sessions in an assertive manner will be a way of ensuring that the intervention is taken seriously and that the necessary time is allotted for it.

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