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Generated by having respondents report about themselves


  1. Generated by having respondents report about themselves. Self-report data are common in sociaorgal and behavioral sciences, but their validity is often questioned because of potential bias
  2. Degree of social cohesion which exists in communities. It refers to the processes between people which establish networks , norms, and social trust, and facilitate co-ordination and co-operation for mutual benefit." Social capital is "usually characterized by four interrelated constructs: trust, cooperation, civic engagement, and reciprocity.
  3. Health behavior theory that describes the reciprocal influence and dynamic interaction between an individual's personal factors, the environment, and specific health behaviors. Major constructs of the SCT include environments , situations (an individual's cognitive perceptions of the environment that may affect his behavior), behavioral capability , outcome expectations , outcome expectancies (the value an individual places on an expected outcome), self-regulation (ability to engage in goal-directed behavior), observational learning, reinforcements, perceived self-efficacy , emotional coping responses, and reciprocal determinism . The SCT maintains that personal factors within individuals—their behavioral capability, self-efficacy, outcome expectations and expectancies, coping mechanisms, and self control—are key determinants of behavior and both influence and are influenced by the environment. The environment is important partially because it provides models for and opportunities for observational learning and reinforcement, increasing the likelihood that certain behaviors are performed. Based on the concept of reciprocal determinism any change in the person, environment or behavior results in a situational change, necessitating a reevaluation of the interaction between the three.
  4. Study of the influence of the social context on behavior, including institutional and cultural variables
  5. Approach to health education that goes beyond individual behavior change to examine and modify the social, political, and economic factors impacting health behavior decisions." The social ecological framework (see also ecological approach/levels) recognizes the individual, interpersonal, community, organizational and policy-level influences on health.
  6. Application of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to influence the voluntary behavior of target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that of their society." 4 Social marketing emphasizes the 4 P's of product, price, place and promotion.
  7. Web of social relationships that surround individuals." Social network structures can be described both in terms of dyadic characteristics and characteristics of the network as a while. Dyadic characteristics include reciprocity, intensity, and complexity in interpersonal relationships. Network characteristics include levels of homogeneity, geographic dispersion, and density.
  8. Perceived social patterns of and expectations for behavior
  9. Social and economic characteristics like education, income, and occupation that influence an individual's ability to function or "compete" in society. Socioeconomic factors are often correlated with an individual's health status.
  10. Temporal progression towards behavior change that individuals go through over time. The stages of change are part of the Transtheoretical model, in which five stages of change are defined: precontemplation (no intention to take action in the next six months); contemplation (thinking about taking action in the next six months); preparation (intending to take action in the next month and has taken some behavioral steps toward change); action (has adopted behavior change for less than six months); and maintenance (has adopted behavior change for longer than six months). Although there is technically a sixth stage of change—termination (no longer tempted to engage in old behavior and has complete self-efficacy)—defined for use in the Transtheoretical model, very few people seem to reach this stage.

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