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Homework answers / question archive / Western New Mexico University BSAD 340 1)Which of the following statements about reference groups is true? a

Western New Mexico University BSAD 340 1)Which of the following statements about reference groups is true? a


Western New Mexico University

BSAD 340

1)Which of the following statements about reference groups is true?

a.Reference groups stimulate, but do not constrain, consumption behavior.

b.            Reference groups have strong influence on all brands and product purchases.

c.             A person can only belong to one reference group.

d.            Reference groups serve as information sources and influence perceptions.

e.            Understanding reference groups has not been helpful to marketers.


2.            A direct reference group is composed of:


a.            face-to-face membership groups that touch people’s lives directly

b.            only friends, neighbors, and relatives

c.             role models on television and in the movies

d.            people the individual does not want to be associated with

e.            people an individual aspires to be like



3.            A value or attitude deemed acceptable by a group is called a(n):

a.            expectation

b.            reference

c.             aspiration

d.            opinion e. norm


4.            Dustin is a member of a fraternity that sees no problem with underage drinking. In fact, it is encouraged and expected the members will party and drink alcohol regardless of their age. For this group, drinking is considered a(n):

a.            norm

b.            requirement

c.             expectation

d.            affect

e.            primer


5.            All of the following are types of reference groups EXCEPT:

a.            primary

b.            secondary c. personal

d. aspirational

e. nonaspirational


6.            Which category of reference groups represents groups in which a consumer does not have membership?

a. Direct b. Indirect

c.             Primary

d.            Secondary

e.            Incomplete


7.            David and Steven are best friends. Steven loves to compete in triathlons. David would love to compete with Steven but is a weak swimmer. David decides to take swim lessons to improve his breathing and stroke rhythms. Triathletes are a(n)         reference group for David.

a.            secondary

b.            primary

c.             aspirational

d.            nonaspirational

e.            direct


8.            Jackie and Kevin like to eat at high-end restaurants where they can sit and enjoy their meal without rushing. An ad showing food created “fast from a can” would be appealing to Jackie and Kevin’s reference group.

a.            nonaspirational

b.            direct reference

c.             membership

d.            integrated

e.            aspirational


9.            You are the brand manager for a new line of allergy-relief drugs. Which of the following methods might you employ to use opinion leadership/reference groups to help stimulate demand for your products?

a.            Create ads that show the typical consumer performing a healthy lifestyle activity.

b.            Develop a promotional campaign that tells customers they “deserve to use” these products.

c.             Drop the price of your new products to the point where customers will realize they are getting a bargain.

d.            Develop a promotional campaign that emphasizes safety and security needs being fulfilled by these healthcare products.

e.            Use a series of ads showing different healthcare associations and societies endorsing the use of these healthcare products.


10.          Opinion leaders are:

a.            wealthy, well-educated individuals.

b.            experts on all high-involvement consumer goods.

c.             usually the same individuals for all social classes. d. people who influence others.

e. easy to locate and target.


11.          UGG has a portion of its Web site featuring photographs of celebrities wearing UGG shoes. The celebrities serve as:

a.            opinion leaders.

b.            laggards.

c.             early instigators.

d.            Gatekeepers.

e.            aspirational adopters.


12.          Cultural values and norms are passed down to children through the process of:

a.            accumulation

b.            encroachment

c.             assimilation d. socialization

e. manifestation


13.          Because her mother only went to the supermarket once a month, this is how Monique prefers to do her grocery shopping. One of the reasons Monique is such an efficient shopper is that, like her mother, Monique believes, “Waste not, want not.” The passing down of norms and values to Monique is an example of:

a.            consumerism.


b.            the socialization process.

c.             acculturation.

d.            the roles opinion leaders play in business decision making.

e.            the role of society in consumer decision making.






14.          Lauren announced to her family last night that she wanted a pair of Heelys. Her sister Stephanie said she thought it was a stupid idea. Their mother, Susan, said Lauren deserved a special treat for winning the science fair. Because her father Tom said nothing, Lauren knew she was not getting the Heelys. In terms of the roles played by family members in the consumer decision-making process:

a.            Lauren was the initiator, and Tom had no role at all.

b.            Stephanie was the initiator, and Susan was the decision maker.

c.             Lauren was an influencer, and Susan was the decision maker. d. Lauren was the initiator, and Tom was the decision maker.

e. Lauren was the initiator, and Stephanie had no role at all.


15.          All of the following are individual factors influencing consumer buying decisions EXCEPT:

a.            gender

b.            age c. family

d. personality

e. life cycle stage


16.                         is an orderly series of stages in which consumers’ attitudes and behavioral tendencies change through maturity, experience, and changing income and status.

a.            Socialization

b.            The wheel of consumerism c. The family life cycle

d. Lifestyle consumption

e. Acculturation


17.          An individual’s   is a composite of psychological makeup and environmental forces. It includes people’s underlying dispositions, especially their most dominant characteristics.

a.            acculturation

b.            socialization c. personality

d. autonomy

e. attitude


18.                         is how consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and self- evaluations.

a.            Socialization

b.            Personality

c.             Socialization

d.            Normalization


e.            Self-concept


19.          Which of the following represents the way an individual actually perceives himself or herself?

a.            Personal image

b.            Ideal self-image c. Real self-image

d. Lifestyle image

e. Defined self-image


20.          Chaz wants to be a pirate like Captain Jack Sparrow in Disney’s Pirates of the Caribbean movies. He wears a bandanna and carries a toy cutlass. Though Jack Sparrow is fictional, Chaz’s role play reveals his .

a.            superego

b.            compliant orientation c. ideal self-image

d. real self-image

e. socialization process


21.          The process by which people select, organize, and interpret stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture is called:

a.            identification

b.            retention

c.             comprehension d. perception

e. cognitive adaptation


22.          Imagine life without that little spinning wheel icon to remind you that your computer is still searching for a Web site or copying documents. Without this wheel, consumers might think the computer had stopped working. This process in which consumers interpret this stimulus into a meaningful and coherent picture is called:

a. exposure b. perception

c.             retention

d.            cognition

e.            selection


23.          On any given day, a person may be subjected to over 2,500 advertising messages but may only be aware of 11 to 20 of them. This is called:

a.            selective distortion

b.            selective learning

c.             sporadic reinforcement

d.            intermittent selectivity e. selective exposure


24.          When consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs, it is called:

a.            selective distortion

b.            selective dissonance


c.             intermittent reinforcement

d.            selective retention

e.            selective exposure






25.          Families of police officers often alter information they hear about officers who die in the line of duty. This                allows them to live and function without constant anxiety while their loved one is engaged in a potentially dangerous job.

a. selective retention b. selective distortion

c.             selective exposure

d.            faulty selectivity

e.            adaptive stimulus


26.          A few years ago, Toro introduced a small, lightweight snow blower called the Snow Pup. Even though the product worked great, sales failed to meet expectations because consumers perceived the name to mean that the Snow Pup was a toy or too light to do any serious snow removal. This is how

                can influence the consumer decision making process. a. selective distortion

b.            incorrect problem recognition

c.             lifestyle dissonance

d.            Americanization

e.            selective exposure


27.                         occurs when consumers remember only information that supports their personal feelings or beliefs.

a.            Intermittent reinforcement

b.            Selective exposure c. Selective retention

d. Faulty selectivity

e. Selective distortion


28.          Cassandra, an accounting major, read an article stating that accounting graduates are receiving the highest starting salary offers for business majors. The article also stated that marketing majors start with lower salaries but surpass all other majors’ salaries within ten years. A week later, Cassandra doesn’t remember reading this last part of the article, just the first part. This is an example of:

a.            selective distortion

b.            selective exposure

c.             intermittent reinforcement

d.            selective socialization e. selective retention


29.          Which of the following is the minimum difference in a stimulus that the consumer will notice?


a.            Minimum level of perception

b.            Absolute level of perception

c.             Differential threshold of perception d. Threshold level of perception

e. Unique threshold of perception






30.          A driving force that causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs is called a(n):

a. instigator b. motive

c.             enforcer

d.            stimulus

e.            belief






















31.          Ranked from the lowest to the highest level, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model includes:

a.            safety, esteem, social, physiological, and self-actualization needs

b.            physiological, social, esteem, economic, and self-actualization needs

c.             psychological, safety, economic, esteem, and social needs

d.            physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs

e.            safety, economic, social, esteem, and self-development needs


32.          According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model, the first needs most people would try to satisfy are their                needs.

a.            safety

b.            physiological

c.             economic

d.            esteem

e.            derived


33.          Dennis Haysbert stars in Allstate ads reminding consumers that they could be in a car crash or another event requiring insurance. Hence the slogan “You’re in Good Hands with Allstate.” These ads focus on which of Maslow’s needs?

a.            Esteem needs

b.            Economic needs c. Safety needs

d. Physiological needs

e. Social needs


34.          Jan’s twin sister Joan is a fantastic cook who makes wonderful homemade meals for her family. Jan cannot cook and wishes she could do the same. An ad for Stove Top stuffing promises “one box, three meal ideas, 30 minutes.” Jan makes a point of adding this item to her grocery list. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this ad appeals to Jan’s needs.

a.            physiological

b.            interactive c. esteem


d. safety

e. self-actualization








35.          Ralph played mediocre golf for over 20 years. Then he retired and vowed to improve his golf game by buying one of the sets of new golf clubs that promise increased distance and have a $700 price tag. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Ralph is most likely trying to satisfy his            needs.

a.            social

b.            safety

c.             self-actualization

d.            physiological

e.            psychological


36.          The slogan used by the manufacturer of Jaguar automobiles, “Don’t dream it. Drive it.” was intended to appeal to consumers’:

a.            physiological needs

b.            social needs

c.             safety needs

d.            esteem needs

e.            self-actualization needs


37.          If an advertiser wanted to create ads for a restaurant that stimulate the self-actualization motivation, it would create ads that:

a.            emphasize hunger.

b.            emphasize that only those people who want to tell others they have risen to the top of their profession use the restaurant.

c.             inform consumers about the cleanliness of the food preparation areas and procedures.

d.            show people enjoying others’ company while eating in the restaurant. e. indicate eating in the restaurant is what “you have earned and deserve.”


38.          The process that creates changes in behavior is called:

a. selective adaptation. b. learning.

c.             involvement manipulation.

d.            attitude adjustment.

e.            behavior normalization.


39.          Manufacturers of consumer goods often give away trial sizes of new products to encourage: a. experiential learning.

b.            selective perception.

c.             continuous reinforcement.


d.            conceptual learning.

e.            problem recognition.


40.                         is a form of learning that occurs when one response is extended to a second stimulus similar to the first.

a.            Belief generalization

b.            Belief discrimination c. Stimulus generalization

d. Stimulus discrimination

e. Attitude formation


41.          Kent Longino is the marketing VP for Andersen, one of the largest manufacturers of windows in the world. He is directing the introduction of a glass-encased sunroom that can be assembled in a weekend. He wants to capitalize on Andersen’s existing reputation. Which learning method should he attempt to stimulate when introducing the new product?

a.            Conceptual learning

b.            Experiential learning

c.             Repetition learning

d.            Stimulus generalization

e.            Stimulus discrimination


42.          Celestial Seasonings is a well-recognized brand of tea. It has differentiated itself from traditional teas by producing herbal teas and others using the more exotic white tea leaves. It has recently introduced Celestial Seasonings Tea Dreams ice cream, a product it hopes will be successful due to consumers’ awareness of the brand. Celestial Seasonings is relying on              to make its new product a success.

a.            conceptual learning

b.            experiential learning

c.             repetition learning

d.            stimulus generalization

e.            stimulus discrimination


43.          Omega is a prestigious brand of watch that is sold as a luxury product. It has a reputation based on quality and attention to detail. When the company introduces new timepieces, it can count on a well-established market already existing for the new product due to:

a.            perceptual generalization

b.            stimulus discrimination

c.             perceptual discrimination

d.            selective distortion

e.            stimulus generalization


44.          At the beginning of every trailer for Disney’s Pixar film Monsters University, the announcer said, “From the minds that brought you Toy Story, A Bug’s Life, and Monsters Inc., we are proud to present Monsters University.” Here, Pixar was using:

a.            stimulus discrimination

b.            selective retention

c.             stimulus generalization

d.            social learning


e.            product reinforcement


45.                         is the learned ability to differentiate between similar objects such as packages of different brands of aspirin.

a.            Incentive discrimination

b.            Stimulus generalization

c.             Selective perception

d.            Selective generalization e. Stimulus discrimination



46.          Rayshawn’s favorite soft drink is Coca-Cola. If he orders a Coke at a restaurant and is told that the restaurant serves only Pepsi products, he will often just order water rather than order a Pepsi. He insists that he can tell the difference between the two brands. Which learning concept is Rayshawn demonstrating?

a.            Selective retention

b.            Stimulus discrimination

c.             Perceptual generalization

d.            Selective generalization

e.            Stimulus generalization


47.          Which of the following is an organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world?

a.            Belief

b.            Value

c.             Affect

d.            Attitude

e.            Descriptor


48.          Christian understands that a Black Diamond brand tent is suitable for several weather conditions, such as rain, snow, and sweltering heat. This is a description of his           about the Black Diamond tent.

a.            beliefs

b.            attitudes

c.             standards

d.            motives

e.            valuations


49.                         are learned tendencies to respond consistently toward a given object.

a.            Motivational cues

b.            Cultures

c.             Lifestyles

d.            Perceptions e. Attitudes


50.          An attitude toward a product is:

a.            easy to change.

b.            a person’s point of view about the product.


c.             the same as a belief.

d.            the same as “intention to buy”.

e.            of short duration.








51.          A few years ago, tea was a product with relatively little growth and was considered to be a product for the old and the middle-aged. Then tea manufacturers started promoting the health benefits of tea. Since the introduction of the research on how tea provides the body with useful antioxidants, tea consumption has increased by more than 25 percent, and it appears its market share will continue to grow, especially among young women in their twenties. This is an illustration of how promotion can:

a.            change the importance of beliefs about product attributes.

b.            change beliefs about product attributes. c. add new beliefs about product attributes.

d. reinforce current beliefs about product attributes.

e. discover consumer needs about product attributes.


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