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Homework answers / question archive / University of Texas, Rio Grande Valley - SOCIOLOGY 1301 CHAPTER 7: Stratification, Class, and Inequality MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)In systems of stratification, people are typically ranked by: personality

University of Texas, Rio Grande Valley - SOCIOLOGY 1301 CHAPTER 7: Stratification, Class, and Inequality MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)In systems of stratification, people are typically ranked by: personality


University of Texas, Rio Grande Valley - SOCIOLOGY 1301

CHAPTER 7: Stratification, Class, and Inequality


1)In systems of stratification, people are typically ranked by:

    1. personality.                                             c.   intelligence.
    2. social categories.                                    d. social capital.




  1. According to the textbook, what is one of the reasons that slavery does not exist in most societies around the world today?
    1. It is an inefficient economic system.
    2. Slaves are too expensive to buy.
    3. The Civil War outlawed it.
    4. Around the world, slavery has always been considered immoral.



  1. Today people are taken against their will and forced to work as bricklayers in Pakistan or as sex workers in Thailand. According to the textbook, these examples are best described as:
    1. modern-day slavery.
    2. a caste system based on occupation.
    3. cheap labor in a capitalist system.
    4. the worst occupations in a class system.



  1. A stratification system in which certain people are owned as property is known as:
    1. capitalism.                                              c.   estate.
    2. caste.                                                       d. slavery.



  1. Which of the following is an example of a caste system?
    1. forcing rural women in Thailand into sex work
    2. the racial wealth gap in the United States
    3. forcing children to accept their parents’ status as their own in India
    4. high rates of child poverty in Slovenia



  1. Caste systems like the one in India require that individuals marry within their social group. This is referred to as:
    1. caste marriage.                                      c.   social marriage.
    2. endogamy.                                              d. endomarriage.




  1. Scholars believe that             has encouraged a shift to class-based systems in countries such as India that have been traditionally caste-based systems.
    1. morality                                                  c.   the Internet
    2. globalization                                           d. a high divorce rate



  1. We can conclude that one of the main differences between a society based on caste versus one based on class is that:
    1. boundaries between groups are not prevalent in systems based on class.
    2. caste societies are spreading to countries around the world.
    3. social mobility is more prevalent in class-based societies.
    4. globalization will eventually do away with class positions.



  1. Oprah Winfrey was born into poverty and raised by a single mother, yet today she is one of the richest women in America. According to the textbook, the social position we are born into affects our life chances, but our class position is also:
  1. based on caste.
  2. based on looks.


  1. in some part achieved.
  2. determined by affirmative action.








  1. Davis and Moore’s explanation of class stratification differs from that of Marx and Weber because:
    1. they tend to focus more on the role of inheritance in attaining social status.
    2. they argue that blue-collar occupations deserve more prestige in our society.
    3. they argue that one’s social position is based on skills, talents, and hard work.
    4. they pay more attention to the need for the redistribution of resources to make society more equal and stable.



  1. According to Karl Marx, the working class in industrialized countries would remain poor and live near subsistence level. Marx was right about the persistence of poverty in industrialized countries, but he was wrong in thinking that:
    1. there would be very few poor people in most industrialized countries.
    2. most people would own the means of production collectively in capitalist countries.
    3. the income of most of the population would remain extremely low.
    4. industrial capitalism would decrease the wealth and income gap.



  1. Karl Marx called those who own the means of production        and those who make their living by selling their own labor power for a wage             .
    1. capitalists; the working class                  c.   merchants; consumers
    2. producers; consumers                            d. the working class; capitalists



  1. Workers picking strawberries can pick 100 baskets an hour, but the value of 20 baskets is all it costs the employer to pay them their hourly wages. According to Karl Marx, the income the employer collects from the extra baskets is:
  1. extra wages.
  2. surplus value.




wage theft. extra income.










  1. One of the main differences between Marx’s and Weber’s understanding of social class is that:
    1. Marx emphasized one’s life chances in his understanding of social class.
    2. Weber recognized that social classes also differ with respect to their power.
    3. Marx put more emphasis on how race and gender intersected with class.
    4. Weber argued that social discrimination can lead to class inequality.




  1. Andrew is a twenty-something, currently unemployed Jewish male from a wealthy background. Louis is a thirty-year-old Puerto Rican man who currently works in retail. Which difference might Max Weber point to in attempting to understand their respective social statuses?
    1. status distinctions                                   c.   ethnic distinctions
    2. class distinctions                                     d. age distinctions



  1. The social honor or prestige that other members of society accord to individuals is referred to as:
    1. status.                                                      c.   social class.
    2. reputation.                                              d. fame.



  1. Studies in which people are asked to rate jobs in terms of “prestige” show some differences in ratings by age. Which person would a millennial be most likely to categorize as having the highest occupational prestige?
    1. Mary Dolan, a doctor                             c.   Colin Kaepernick, a professional athlete
    2. June Brewer, a sociologist                      d. Jerry Valdez, a police officer



  1. Dr. Smith is an open-heart surgeon who was trained at a top-tier medical school. Which of the following theorists would be most likely to argue that Dr. Smith achieved the position solely based on her own talent and efforts?
    1. Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E. Moore     c.   Karl Marx
    2. Max Weber                                             d. Charles Murray



  1. Wealth and income are both important determinants of social class. Which of the following best characterizes the relationship between wealth and income in the United States?
    1. Income disparities between rich and poor have increased in the past three decades, whereas


wealth disparities have decreased during the same time.

    1. Wealthy people almost always inherited their money; thus there is no relationship between wealth and income.
    2. The same factors that limit people’s incomes also limit their ability to accumulate wealth.
    3. Whereas race, education, and age influence income, wealth is independent of these variables.




  1. Income inequality has increased dramatically since the 1970s, as the richest 20 percent saw its incomes rise , while the poorest 20 percent saw its incomes rise by       .
    1. 54 percent; 1 percent                             c.   100 percent; 0 percent
    2. 15 percent; 60 percent                           d.   75 percent; 95 percent



  1. The money a person gets from a wage, salary, or investments is     ; the assets an individual owns are              .
    1. wealth; property                                     c.   wealth; income
    2. income; wealth                                       d. income; inherited




  1. Suheir Shedd is a university professor. Which of the following would constitute her wealth?
    1. the value of her home                            c.   the money she makes in a year
    2. all the assets she owns                           d. the estimated earnings over her life



  1. According to the textbook, what is one conclusion we can draw about how social class is defined in the United States?
    1. Racial disparities in wealth can be explained solely by family advantages.
    2. Most American sociologists can agree on the boundaries between social classes.
    3. Famous people have higher the highest occupational prestige.
    4. One’s educational attainment is the strongest predictor of one’s occupation, income, and wealth later in life.



  1. According to the textbook, what has been the relationship between higher education and social stratification in recent years?
    1. College education has become much more difficult, causing students to drop out.
    2. College education has become more accessible, causing more students to enroll.
    3. The importance and value of a college education in the job market have increased.
    4. Colleges have become less selective.



  1. Dr. Ramirez is a sociology professor, and while he makes much less money than doctors and lawyers, he is viewed as having relatively high prestige because of:


    1. his professional clothing.                        c.   his education.
    2. his work hours.                                        d. his publications.



  1. According to the textbook, one conclusion we can draw about the upper class in the United States is that:
    1. it is made up of the wealthiest 20 percent of the population.
    2. it has a distinctive lifestyle and is politically influential.
    3. it does not include people who get their wealth from investments.
    4. it is accessible to all Americans with a college education.



  1. The super-rich in the United States were able to accumulate vast amounts of wealth partly because globalization enabled them to:
    1. use low-wage labor in other countries.
    2. sell products to consumers in the United States.
    3. make investments locally.
    4. produce their products in one place.



  1. Though there used to be a widespread belief that “we are all middle class,” that adage has eroded. In recent years, many Americans have experienced downward mobility. What is the best explanation for this shift?
    1. changing definitions of social class
    2. shifts in the country’s racial composition
    3. a declining work ethic
    4. the 2008 economic recession



  1. According to the textbook, members of the lower middle class today:
    1. work at primarily blue-collar jobs.
    2. make up about 90 percent of American households.
    3. are racially and ethnically diverse.
    4. make over $200,000 annually.



  1. Which of the following individuals is most likely to identify as a member of the lower middle class?
    1. professor                                                 c.   school teacher
    2. doctor                                                      d. upper-level manager



  1. Eddie is a factory worker who makes about $32,000 a year. Eddie’s husband, Dustin, works part time as a dental assistant and makes about $15,000. Their combined income is just enough to pay their mortgage and make ends meet. Eddie and Dustin are considered:


    1. lower middle class.                                 c.   old middle class.
    2. upper middle class.                                 d. working class.



  1. People in blue-collar occupations, such as plumbers and hotel workers, make up the:
    1. professional class.                                   c.   old middle class.
    2. working class.                                         d. new middle class.



  1. Working-class children are most likely to do which of the following after graduating from high school?
    1. travel around Europe                              c.   attend a two-year college
    2. attend a four-year college                      d. immediately start working



  1. In the U.S. class system, the poorest of the poor, who are structurally disadvantaged and are least likely to move out of their class position, are called the:
    1. poor class.                                               c.   left-behind class.
    2. lower class.                                             d. Underclass.



  1. Today, the gap between rich and poor in the United States is the largest it has been since:
    1. 1929, after the stock market crash.
    2. 1970, when the United States started to outsource jobs.
    3. 1947, when the United States started to measure the gap.
    4. None of the above; the gap has been getting smaller.



  1. Which of the following best explains why Latino household income has stagnated and fallen far behind that of white households?
    1. A culture of poverty among Latinos discourages achievement and saving money.
    2. A large number of immigrants from Mexico and Latin America are in low-wage jobs.
    3. The unemployment rate among Latinos is high.
    4. The divorce rate among Latinos is high.



  1. According to the textbook, what factor accounts for racial disparities in wealth and income?
    1. ambition                                                  c.   genetics
    2. education                                                d. luck




  1. Which of the following is an example of social mobility?
    1. Jasper, who grew up in a middle-class neighborhood and became a wealthy doctor
    2. Antonio, who moved from New York City to a suburb
    3. Smita, who does not identify with her Brahmin caste background
    4. Tia, who was raised as a man but identifies as a woman




  1. Intergenerational mobility is best described as when:
    1. a person achieves a different class position than the one he or she thought they would have.
    2. a person maintains the same class position as his or her parents or grandparents.
    3. a person has a different class position from that of his or her parents or grandparents.
    4. a person achieves a different class position from his or her siblings.



  1. Who among the following is most likely to experience intergenerational mobility?
    1. the child of a high school teacher
    2. the child of unemployed, struggling parents
    3. the child of the CEO of a large corporation
    4. the child of a school janitor




  1. When sociologists examine how far an individual moves up or down the socioeconomic scale in his or her lifetime, they are studying:
    1. absolute poverty.                                    c.   life change.
    2. social reproduction.                                d. intragenerational mobility.




  1. Which of the following is an example of what Pierre Bourdieu refers to as cultural capital?
    1. the ability to pay for cultural events and resources such as art museums, opera companies, and symphony orchestras
    2. parents paying for school tutoring
    3. parents reading to their children and encouraging them to do well in school
    4. having an uncle who works for Goldman Sachs



  1. According to Pierre Bourdieu, working-class parents are just as interested in their children’s education as middle- and upper-class parents, but they lack the      to help their children experience social mobility.



    1. dependency culture                                c.   tuition capital
    2. cultural capital                                        d. educational capital



  1. Which of the following is an example of downward mobility?
    1. Danisha, who was just fired from his job at Wells Fargo bank.
    2. George, who stopped receiving welfare payments after getting hired at a shoe store.
    3. Harel, who took a leave of absence to care for his ill parents.
    4. Jane, who was raised in a middle-class household and now works at a grocery store full time.



  1. When a person moves from one position in a class structure to a nearly identical position, the person is said to experience:
    1. short-range downward mobility.            c.   declining mobility.
    2. long-range downward mobility.             d. across-position mobility.



  1. How does the government determine the poverty line?
    1. It calculates a strict, no-frills budget based on cost estimates for different family sizes.
    2. It multiplies the cost of an average household’s rent by three.
    3. It calculates the average cost of living in each of four regions of the United States and divides that number by the average cost of rent in those places.
    4. Because the cost of living varies across the country, it calculates the cost of living in each region and determines a poverty line for each U.S. region.



  1. At the beginning of her sophomore year of high school, Janis’s family cannot afford to buy her new clothes and shoes or enough supplies for school. Janis feels poor compared to her classmates who can afford these things. Janis is experiencing:


    1. absolute poverty.                                    c.   downward mobility.
    2. relative poverty.                                     d. exchange mobility.



  1. When a person does not have adequate resources to maintain his or her health, such as enough food to eat, the person is said to be in:
    1. absolute poverty.                                    c.   downward mobility.
    2. relative poverty.                                     d. exchange mobility.



  1. What is meant by the phrase feminization of poverty?
    1. the fact that women are more likely not to marry until they find a rich man
    2. the fact that a majority of the poor are women
    3. the notion that women are not as likely to pursue education or other skill development and end up in lower-paying jobs
    4. the idea that women do not work as hard as men and are therefore more likely to be poor



  1. According to the textbook, which phenomenon erased many of the gains in child well-being made in the past twenty years?
    1. the 2008 economic recession                 c.   student debt
    2. the war in Afghanistan                            d. increases in welfare benefits



  1. Although official estimates show that relatively few elderly people live in poverty, these statistics may be misleading because:
    1. they do not consider the large number of elderly people who go hungry.
    2. they do not consider the large number of elderly people who live alone.
    3. they do not consider the vast gender, race, and marital status differences of older adults.
    4. they do not consider the high cost of rent.



  1. Riley Vidal is a seventy-five-year-old who lives in a nursing home. Like many elderly people in the United States, Vidal likely relies on       for his income.
    1. a part-time job                                        c.   savings
    2. money from children                              d. Social Security



  1. Those who believe that poverty results from structural factors beyond the control of individuals would see which of the following as a source of poverty?
    1. unequal distribution of educational resources
    2. universal health care
    3. decreasing income inequality
    4. immorality of the poor




  1. Sarah believes her neighbors are poor because they have been socialized into a set of values, beliefs, and norms that result in behavior that leads to poverty. Sarah supports which of the following theories of poverty?
    1. culture of poverty                                   c.   value poverty
    2. structural poverty                                   d. dependency poverty



  1. Those who believe that the culture of poverty theory explains why most people are in poverty would most likely favor which of the following antipoverty programs?
    1. subsidized housing                                  c.   welfare-to-work programs
    2. universal health care                              d. food stamps



  1. Individuals living in rural communities cut off from resources and opportunities, like individuals living in inner cities with high crime rates, are likely to experience what sociologists call:
    1. social exclusion.                                      c.   unequal education.
    2. social deprivation.                                  d. absolute poverty.



  1. One of the most distressing signs of the growing stratification in the United States is the growth in the number of:
    1. substance abusers.                                  c.   women with college degrees.
    2. mentally ill individuals.                           d. homeless people.





  1. In two or three sentences, compare and contrast caste and class as systems of stratification.




  1. According to the textbook, what three main characteristics do social systems of stratification share? Provide an example of each.




  1. Whose explanation of social stratification do you think best describes the United States today: Karl Marx’s, Max Weber’s, or Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E. Moore’s? Justify your answer in a short paragraph.




  1. Answer the following questions in a few sentences. What is the difference between income and wealth? How are income and wealth related?




  1. Answer the following question in three to five sentences. How has the distribution of income in the United States changed over the past thirty years? Apply one of the stratification theories discussed in the chapter to explain the reason for this change.






In a short paragraph, answer the following questions: What are the differences in average income and wealth between whites, African Americans, and Latinos? What are the sociological explanations for why these gaps exist?




  1. Do you think you will experience intragenerational mobility in your lifetime? In two to four sentences, consider why or why not. Be sure to mention at least one sociological explanation of mobility in your answer.





  1. In two to three sentences, describe the working poor. What is one explanation for why those who are working are still in poverty?




  1. In one to two sentences, explain how the official definition of poverty is calculated. Based on what you read in the text, how do sociologists distinguish some of the problems with this way of calculating poverty today?




  1. In three to four sentences, consider why sociologists say we are seeing the feminization of poverty?





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