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Homework answers / question archive / 1)Coca leaf chewing is still widely practiced in the Andean highlands of South America

1)Coca leaf chewing is still widely practiced in the Andean highlands of South America

Health Science

1)Coca leaf chewing is still widely practiced in the Andean highlands of South America.







2 The most successful commercial use of cocaine in the nineteenth century was a mixture of coca and wine.



3 The popular beverage Coca-Cola contained cocaine in its formulation until 1903.



4 Coca-Cola still contains about 1 percent cocaine.



5 After his discovery of cocaine effects, Freud distributed the drug to his friends and family.



6 Though Freud used both nicotine and cocaine, he only became dependent on cocaine.



7 Sigmund Freud eventually gave up cocaine because he personally suffered the adverse side effects of chronic cocaine abuse.



8 Snorting cocaine produces a quicker effect than does intravenous use of cocaine.



9 No matter which method of administration is used, the effects of cocaine begin to wear off after sixty to ninety minutes.



10 The afteraffects of cocaine are uncomfortable enough to produce a powerful craving for another dose.



11 If cocaine is snorted through the nose, the effect last 15-30 minutes.



12 Long-term use of cocaine results in decreased sexual performance and loss of sexual desire.



13 Cocaine produces its stimulatory effects exclusively by the inhibition of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.



14 Cocaine produces a sudden elevation of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.



15 Formication hallucinations are components of cocaine psychosis.



16 Some cocaine abusers sense imaginary bugs crawling under their skin, forcing abusers to scratch their skin into open sores.



17 “Cocaine bugs” are never associated with symptoms of cocaine psychosis.



18 Increased snorting of cocaine can lead to small holes in the nasal septum.



19 Physical signs of possible cocaine abuse include decreased irritability, feelings of euphoria, and increased ability to sleep.



20 Physical signs of possible cocaine abuse include irritability, paranoia, feelings of depression, and insomnia.



21 Cocaine’s only legitimate medical use is as a local anesthetic.             



22 Chronic cocaine abuse leads to the loss of 20 percent of dopamine receptors in the pleasure and reinforcement area of the brain.



23 The kindling effect of cocaine is instrumental in setting off epileptic seizures.



24 Due to effects of the kindling effect, deaths from cocaine overdose occur from high levels of cocaine.



25 Cocaine hydrochloride is a form of cocaine that is typically smoked.



26 Crack cocaine presents fewer hazards in its preparation than does freebase cocaine.



27 Crack cocaine is made by treating cocaine with baking soda, resulting in small rocks.



28 A shift from poorly educated to better-educated cocaine abusers occurred in the 1980s.



29 D-amphetamine is stronger than l-amphetamine.



30 The origin of modern amphetamines dates back to a Chinese herb called ma huang.



31 The Chinese emperor credited with having discovered the herbal basis for amphetamines is also credited with having discovered marijuana and tea.           



32 Amphetamine was first used during WWII to keep soldiers alert during battles.



33 Amphetamine abuse in the United States reached a peak around 1967.


34 Amphetamines increase the activity level of dopamine and serotonin.



35 Amphetamines stimulate the brain by elevating the levels of acetylcholine and endorphins.



36 The acute effects of amphetamine resemble those of cocaine



37 While superficially similar, cocaine and amphetamines actually produce very different acute effects.



38 According to the text, heavy methamphetamine users may be predisposed to acquiring Parkinson’s symptoms later in life.


39 Amphetamine psychosis does not involve the experience of formication hallucinations, while cocaine psychosis does.



40 Evidence indicates that chemical changes in the brain caused by chronic methamphetamine use can be somewhat reversed by abstaining from the drug for a minimum of one year.



41 Methamphetamine abuse reemerged on the drug scene as crack cocaine and powder cocaine abuse began to diminish.



42 Meth abuse is now concentrated in the United States among the affluent and the very poor.



43 Crank is a slang-term for d-amphetamine.



44 Recent concentrations of meth abuse have occurred in America’s inner cities.



45 One ingredient in “homegrown” methamphetamine is pseudoepinephrine, found in numerous over-the-counter cold remedies.



46 Liquid anhydrous ammonia is one of the ingredients used to manufacture methamphetamine.



47 A recent development in present-day meth abuse has been the influx of illegal methamphetamine from France.



48 Ice is a crystallized form of methamphetamine that can be smoked.



49 The elimination half-life is longer for cocaine than it is for amphetamines.



50 Amphetamine abusers are generally warned to stay away from seeking treatment in Cocaine Anonymous self-help groups, since the process of recovery is very different.        



51 The relapse rate of methamphetamine abuses is one of the highest for any category of drug abuse.



52 Children with ADHD are usually below average intelligence and tend to overperform academically.      



53 ADHD is outgrown at the end of childhood and does not carry over into adulthood.



54 The drug Ritalin and the drug Adderall have been found to be equally effective in the treatment of ADHD.



55 When stimulant medications are taken during formative years, major side effects include suppression of height and weight gain, reducing growth to about 80 to 90 percent of normal levels.



56 When children are no longer taking stimulant medication (referred to as “drug holidays”), growth spurts usually occur in a normal fashion.




57 Treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder decreases the “signal-to-noise” ratio in the neural processing of information.



58 It is possible that lowered norepinephrine levels play a role in ADHD.



59 Medical applications of amphetamine-like drugs include narcolepsy and nasal congestion.



60 Diversion of ADHD medications by college students as a means of cognitive enhancement is a present day concern.







1 Cocaine and amphetamines are both classified as __________.

A. stimulants

B. depressants

C. drugs having both stimulant and depressant properties

D. drugs having stimulant properties similar to nicotine and caffeine



2 Why is it that coca chewing produces few instances of toxicity?

A. Little cocaine is distributed to the brain, since absorption from the digestive system is slow.

B. There is a chemical found in coca leaves which dilutes the small amount of cocaine found in the leaves.

C. As coca leaves are chewed, the cocaine is absorbed through the cheek linings, bypassing absorption in the digestive tract.

D. Ingestion of coca products never results in toxic effects.



3 Which drug or class of drugs is a substantially less powerful stimulant than cocaine?

A. d-amphetamine

B. caffeine

C. methamphetamine

D. none of the above



4 Leaves of the coca shrub __________.

A. are the source of chocolate

B. are harvested in South America

C. are frequently added to tobacco in cigarettes

D. form the basis for modern-day amphetamines



5 An average coca leaf contains about _____ percent cocaine.

A. 2

B. 60

C. 90

D. less than .001 (prior to processing into crack)



6 Coca-leaf chewing does not result in widespread abuse because __________.

A. it is carried out with friends and family only

B. the digestive system absorbs the cocaine too rapidly for there to be an effect

C. only adults are allowed to chew coca leaves

D. very low doses of cocaine are ingested



7 A bazuco is a __________.

A. mixture of heroin and cocaine

B. mixture of cocaine paste and tobacco

C. mixture of raw coca leaves and kerosene

D. form of smoked cocaine similar to crack



8 Vin Mariani was __________.

A. a popular mixture of opium and wine

B. a popular mixture of opium and cocaine

C. a popular mixture of coca and wine

D. a famed Sicilian restaurateur of the nineteenth century



9 Cocaethylene toxicity can result from a combination of __________.

A. cocaine and heroin

B. cocaine and alcohol

C. cocaine and nicotine

D. cocaine and amphetamines



10 Cocaethylene toxicity produces the following symptoms: __________.

A. greatly increased heart rate and elevated blood pressure

B. prolonged and enhanced euphoria relative to taking cocaine alone

C. an increased risk of immediate death

D. all of the above



11 Care-Cola, Dope Cola, Kola Ade, and Wiseola were among several beverage products sold in the nineteenth century. An ingredient they all had in common was __________.

A. heroin

B. cocaine

C. marijuana

D. enormous levels of caffeine



12 _________ placed restrictions on cocaine sales in the United States.

A. The Proprietary and Patent Medicine Act of 1908

B. The Parke-Davis Act of 1904

C. The Harrison Act of 1914

D. The McKinley Act of 1916



13 The 1885 formulation of Coca-Cola by James Pemberton was similar to Vin Mariani, except for the fact that Coca-Cola did not have any ________ in it.

A. cocaine

B. soda water

C. caffeine

D. alcohol



14 In 1903, Coca-Cola __________.

A. introduced pure cocaine into its cola ingredients

B. removed the alcohol from its cola ingredients

C. switched de-cocainized coca leaves into its ingredients

D. carbonated the beverage



15 William Halstead studied __________.

A. the history of coca-leaf chewing in South America

B. the effect of cocaine as an anesthetic

C. ways to avoid cocaine dependence

D. the formula for Coca-Cola and came up with Pepsi-Cola



16 De-cocainized flavor essence is a name for an ingredient in modern-day __________.

A. bazuco

B. crack cocaine

C. Vin Mariani

D. Coca-Cola



17 An early champion of cocaine use was __________.

A. Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow

B. Sigmund Freud

C. Ernest Jones

D. Martha Freud



18 Freud decided to try pure cocaine because of __________.

A. a report about how cocaine helped German soldiers endure fatigue

B. drinking a Coca-Cola beverage

C. how pleased his friends were when using it

D. the positive effects Dr. Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow found when using cocaine to treat a painful illness



19 The experiences of Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow were an example of __________.         

A. successful cocaine therapy

B. unsuccessful marketing of a coca-flavored beverage 

C. a severe cocaine-induced psychosis

D. unsuccessful treatment for depression



20 Freud became dependent on which of the following drugs?

A. nicotine

B. cocaine

C. heroin

D. both A and B



21 Freud eventually realized that cocaine __________.

A. was indeed the wonder drug that he originally thought it was

B. was structurally similar to heroin and other opiates

C. was a drug with a dangerous potential for dependence

D. would lead to dependence upon crack cocaine



22 Formication is a term for __________.

A. a form of hallucinatory experience

B. voluntary sexual intercourse between unmarried persons

C. a process of producing freebase cocaine

D. a characteristic speech pattern when under the influence of cocaine



23 What is the most characteristic reaction when using cocaine?

A. a calming sleep-like sensation

B. disorientation

C. a powerful burst of energy

D. a hallucinogenic state



24 Compared to snorting cocaine, injecting cocaine is characterized by __________.

A. a quicker effect that remains for a longer period of time

B. a quicker effect that wears off more quickly

C. a slower effect that remains for a longer period of time

D. a slower effect that wears off more quickly



25 Initial cocaine levels are to ______ as diminishing cocaine levels are to ________.

A. depression; panic attack

B. irritability; despondency

C. burst of energy; irritability

D. depression; burst of energy



26 As levels of cocaine diminish, the user may become __________.

A. melancholic

B. calm

C. irritable

D. euphoric



27 Cocaine is __________.

A. an aphrodisiac for both acute and chronic cocaine abusers

B. an aphrodisiac for chronic cocaine abusers but not for acute cocaine abusers

C. an increasingly potent aphrodisiac as cocaine abuse continues

D. a drug whose aphrodisiac properties depends heavily on the expectations of the abuser



28 Physiological effects of cocaine can be described as __________.

A. parasympathetic activation

B. sympathetic inhibition

C. sympathetic activation

D. sympathetic inhibition followed by activation



29 Autonomic effects of cocaine can lead to __________.

A. cardiac arrhythmia

B. cerebral hemorrhage

C. congestive heart failure

D. all of the above



30 The reason why cocaine has such extreme effects on the heart is due to __________.

A. excitation of the sympathetic system

B. inhibition of the parasympathetic system

C. inhibition of the autonomic system

D. both A and B



31 Chronic use of cocaine results in __________.

A. increased sexual performance

B. decreased sexual performance

C. loss of sexual desire

D. both B and C



32 Which characteristic is not a physiological effect of cocaine?

A. dilated pupils

B. increased heart rate

C. increased appetite

D. sweatiness and a pale appearance



33 Cocaine produces the following physiological effect: __________.

A. dilated pupils

B. decreased blood pressure

C. a sudden dryness of the skin and a flushed appearance

D. decreased appetite



34 Which of the following symptoms does cocaine produce?

A. increased heart rate, increased respiration, decreased blood pressure

B. sweating, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure

C. decreased heart rate, decreased respiration

D. constriction of blood vessels, increased blood pressure, increase in appetite



35 Chronic cocaine abuse results in __________.

A. irritability

B. depression

C. paranoia

D. all of the above



36 Acute effects of cocaine can produce dangerous driving behaviors such as __________.

A. “diagonal driving”

B. holding up traffic due to driving at an excessively slow speed

C. driving with the emergency brake on

D. excessive application of the brake



37 Symptoms of cocaine psychosis include __________.

A. formication

B. a renewed sense of purpose in life

C. a need to live a cocaine-free existence

D. fornication



38 What are “cocaine bugs”?

A. microscopic insects that live in cocaine powder

B. microscopic insects that breed in coca leaves

C. imaginary bugs perceived to be crawling under the skin of cocaine users

D. a slang term for cocaine abusers



39 As the cocaine wears off, the abuser experiences __________.

A. a relaxation of bronchial muscles and dilation of nasal blood vessels

B. a contraction of bronchial muscles and dilation of nasal blood vessels

C. a relaxation of bronchial muscles and constriction of nasal blood vessels

D. a contraction of bronchial muscles and constriction of nasal blood vessels



40 The only legitimate medical use of cocaine is as a(n) __________.

A. bronchial dilator

B. antidepressant

C. treatment for congestive heart disease

D. local anesthetic



41 As a local anesthetic, lidocaine __________.

A. has a more long-lasting effect than cocaine

B. is even more susceptible to abuse than cocaine

C. can only rarely be used in dentistry

D. has been discontinued from use since 1960



42 Why is cocaine not widely used as a local anesthetic?

A. There is a chance the cocaine will enter the blood stream.

B. There is possibility for abuse.

C. Since cocaine breaks down quickly, the effects are brief.

D. all of the above



43 Cocaine enhances the activity of which of the following neurotransmitters?

A. serotonin

B. dopamine


D. acetylcholine



44 The synaptic effect of cocaine is to __________.

A. speed up the reuptake of dopamine and GABA

B. slow down the reuptake of dopamine and GABA

C. block the reuptake of dopamine

D. block the reuptake of norepinephrine



45 Cocaine effects involve changes in the synaptic activity of __________.

A. dopamine and serotonin

B. serotonin

C. dopamine

D. dopamine and GABA



46 Cocaine effects are directly related to those areas of the brain that control __________.

A. pleasure and reinforcement

B. sleep and dreaming

C. respiratory control

D. balance and equilibrium



47 Although cocaine affects the activity levels of dopamine, __________.

A. only cocaine resembles this neurotransmitter structurally

B. only cocaine inhibits serotonin

C. cocaine has an inhibitory effect on the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system

D. the mechanism for the effect of cocaine on dopamine is not clear



48 Cocaine abusers develop a pattern of ________ in motor behavior and brain excitation.

A. desensitization

B. tolerance

C. sensitization

D. irritability



49 A kindling effect __________.

A. is another name for tolerance

B. means that an abuser is increasingly less sensitive to a drug

C. is essentially a reverse tolerance effect

D. is necessary when building a campfire



50 One adverse consequence from a kindling effect is the potential for __________.

A. prolonged euphoria followed by depression

B. brain seizures

C. a degeneration of cells in the lungs

D. a feeling of extreme warmth



51 Coca paste contains about ______ pure cocaine.

A. 2 percent

B. 40 percent

C. 60 percent

D. 99 percent



52 When coca paste is combined with tobacco, it cannot be injected into the bloodstream because __________.

A. it is not fat soluble

B. it is not water soluble

C. it cannot be melted down to liquid form

D. all of the above



53 Which contains the highest concentration of cocaine?

A. coca leaves

B. coca paste

C. cocaine hydrochloride

D. bazuco-type cocaine



54 Cocaine hydrochloride contains about ______ pure cocaine.

A. 2 percent

B. 40 percent

C. 60 percent

D. 99 percent



55 Which form of cocaine is typically injected?

A. cocaine hydrochloride

B. freebase cocaine

C. crack cocaine

D. coca-leaf powder



56 A speedball contains a combination of __________.

A. cocaine and amphetamines

B. cocaine and heroin

C. amphetamines and heroin

D. cocaine and LSD



57 Removal of hydrochloride from the salt form of cocaine is called __________.

A. freebase cocaine

B. crack cocaine

C. coca paste

D. salt cocaine



58 Which type of cocaine carries the increased risk of flammability?

A. cocaine hydrochloride

B. freebase cocaine

C. crack cocaine

D. coca-leaf powder



59 Crack cocaine is the result of a relatively safer chemical method because of the treatment with __________.    

A. kerosene

B. ether

C. alcohol

D. baking soda



60 According to the text, the effect of cocaine when smoked ______ the effect of cocaine when snorted.

A. is greater than

B. is less than

C. is about equal to

D. The effect depends on the user.



61 The purity of cocaine in crack averages about __________.

A. 55 percent

B. 65 percent

C. 75 percent

D. 85 percent



62 Crack cocaine has been a street drug since what time period?

A. late 1970s

B. mid-1980s

C. early 1970s

D. early 1980s



63 Medical emergencies related to cocaine abuse __________.

A. remain substantial

B. showed a sharp decline in 2001

C. remained essentially the same from 2001-2005

D. are unknown



64 Paco, a shortened name for “pasta de cocaine” (cocaine paste) is a major public health problem and social problem in __________.

A. Argentina

B. Ecuador

C. Venezuela

D. Chile



65 Which of the following are common during the first twenty-four to forty-eight hours after stopping cocaine?

A. depression

B. severe headaches

C. sleep disturbances

D. all of the above



66 Intensive interventions, medical supervision, and psychological counseling can be best carried out during __________.

A. Cocaine Anonymous sessions

B. inpatient treatment in a hospital facility

C. outpatient treatment programs

D. programs designed for adolescents



67 An inpatient treatment for cocaine abuse is probably best suited for __________.

A. a person with very little money

B. a person who is highly motivated to quit cocaine

C. an elderly person older than eighty years

D. a person in denial about his or her cocaine dependence



68 Medical professionals recommend that a cocaine abuser wishing to quit should __________.

A. reduce the amount of cocaine ingested gradually

B. maintain one’s lifestyle, only without cocaine

C. avoid situations that cause drug urges

D. undergo a fasting diet to get rid of the residual effects of cocaine



69 A popular self-help support group for cocaine abusers is modeled after __________.

A. Alcoholics Anonymous

B. several inpatient treatments programs

C. a treatment program for cocaine psychosis

D. a pre-World War I educational program for immigrants to America



70 Which experience might induce a craving in a former cocaine abuser?

A. seeing a mound of baby powder

B. seeing a mound of sugar

C. seeing a mound of white sand

D. both A and B



71 Analogy: D-amphetamine is to methamphetamine as __________.

A. Dexedrine is to Methedrine

B. stronger is to weaker

C. dopamine is to norepinephrine

D. norepinephrine is to dopamine



72 Which of the following atoms is NOT contained in the molecular structure of amphetamine?

A. carbon

B. oxygen

C. nitrogen

D. hydrogen



73 Methamphetamine is stronger than d-amphetamine because __________.

A. it can cross the blood-brain barrier more easily

B. it is less susceptible to abuse

C. it more nearly resembles levoamphetamine

D. it bears no resemblance to dopamine or norepinephrine



74 In its earliest medical application, the herb from which amphetamines are derived was used as a treatment for __________.

A. constipation

B. depression

C. asthma

D. heart failure



75 The earliest form of amphetamine was a synthetic form of __________.

A. ephedrine

B. norepinephrine

C. l-amphetamine

D. heroin



76 Which of the following has been a medical application of amphetamine?

A. treatment for insomnia

B. appetite enhancement

C. bronchial dilator

D. CNS depressant



77 The stimulant properties of amphetamines were considered superior to those of cocaine because amphetamines __________.

A. were less easily absorbed by the bloodstream

B. produced effects over a shorter period of time

C. could be taken orally

D. have higher stimulant properties when taken on a full stomach



78 Amphetamines have been taken by all of the following individuals or groups of individuals EXCEPT for __________.

A. long-distance truck drivers

B. students studying for exams

C. people trying to fall asleep more easily

D. people trying to lose weight



79 Amendments to federal drug laws in 1965 changed the pattern of amphetamine abuse in the following way: __________.

A. injectable amphetamines could now be obtained by forged prescriptions

B. phone-in prescriptions were now permitted

C. pharmacies were given more freedom to dispense amphetamines      

D. amphetamines became available from illegal laboratories rather than legitimate pharmacies



80 The euphoric effects of amphetamines result from changes in __________.

A. dopamine activity

B. serotonin activity

C. the reuptake of epinephrine

D. the blood-brain barrier



81 Prior to its reemergence in the 1990s, amphetamine abuse in the United States had peaked earlier around __________.

A. 1955

B. 1967

C. 1929

D. 1900



82 The acute effects of amphetamine closely resemble the acute effects of __________.

A. heroin

B. most CNS depressants

C. cocaine                               

D. serotonin-related drugs



83 The behavioral features of amphetamine psychosis is highly similar to __________.

A. major depression

B. paranoid schizophrenia

C. panic attack

D. serotonin-related drugs



84 If a person is using speed, they are abusing which drug?

A. d-amphetamine

B. methamphetamine

C. levoamphetamine

D. ephedrine



85 Chronic effects of amphetamine include __________.

A. paranoia

B. compulsive behaviors fixated on trivial aspects of life

C. delusions that insects are lodged underneath the skin

D. all of the above



86 Heavy methamphetamine users have shown changes in the brain commonly associated with __________.

A. schizophrenia

B. heroin abuse

C. Parkinson’s disease

D. narcolepsy



87 The primary form of amphetamine abuse in recent years is __________.

A. d-amphetamine

B. l-amphetamine

C. Dexedrine

D. methamphetamine



88 Methamphetamine has recently become a favored stimulant of abuse among the __________.

A. middle class of society

B. homeless population

C. urban poor

D. upper class of society



89 Illicit methamphetamine laboratories are typically situated in __________.

A. urban centers

B. rural or desert areas of the U.S.

C. Alaska and Hawaii

D. Georgia and Florida



90 Methamphetamine is a popular stimulant of abuse in which region(s) of the U.S.?

A. north and northeast

B. Pacific coast

C. Atlantic seaboard

D. central and western



91 Which of the following is NOT a slang term for methamphetamine?

A. meth

B. speed

C. solid

D. crank



92 As of 2006, retail stores are required by law to limit the sales of drugs containing __________.

A. acetaminophen

B. ibuprofen

C. amoxicillin

D. pseudoepinephrine



93 Which of the following CANNOT be said about the meth epidemic?

A. Meth abuse has been concentrated in mostly non-urban areas.

B. The meth epidemic has led to an increased number of foster children.

C. As of 2013, domestic meth lab seizures have been declared illegal.

D. A recent shift from domestic to international trafficking of meth has occurred.



94 Ice is a __________.

A. smokable form of methamphetamine

B. smokable form of heroin

C. smokable form of cocaine, similar to crack

D. none of the above



95 Outbreaks of ice abuse began in the late 1980s in __________.

A. San Francisco

B. Japan

C. South Korea

D. Hawaii



96 One difference between the effects of amphetamines and the effects of cocaine is that __________.

A. the effects of cocaine extend over a longer period of time

B. the effects of amphetamine extend over a longer period of time

C. cocaine impacts the sympathetic nervous system and amphetamine affects the parasympathetic nervous system

D. amphetamines impact the sympathetic nervous system and cocaine affects the parasympathetic nervous system



97 Amphetamine withdrawal symptoms include all of the following except for __________.

A. intense depression

B. mild euphoria

C. agitation

D. anxiety



98 Withdrawal from amphetamines takes approximately __________.

A. two to six hours

B. three to six hours

C. one to two months

D. six to eighteen weeks



99 Someone with amphetamine dependence would benefit most from joining which of the following groups?

A. Cocaine Anonymous

B. the American Legion

C. Overeaters Anonymous

D. Americans against Amphetamines (AAA)



100 Adults with a history of ADHD are more likely than other adults to __________.

A. be diagnosed with an antisocial personality disorder

B. have been institutionalized for delinquency

C. be serving a prison sentence

D. all of the above



101 Two widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of ADHD are __________.

A. Methedrine and Dexedrine

B. Ephedrine and antihistamines

C. Ritalin and Adderall

D. Dexedrine and Ephedrine



102 Adderall, a widely prescribed ADHD treatment drug, contains __________.

A. cocaine and amphetamine

B. cocaine and coca

C. a variety of depressant substances

D. dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine


103 A disorder characterized by increased motor activity and reduced attention span is called __________.

A. amphetamine psychosis

B. narcolepsy

C. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

D. activity-enhanced hypoattentional disorder



104 ADHD generally affects __________.

A. children of lower-than-normal intelligence

B. children in gifted and talented programs

C. more than 70 percent of the general population

D. more boys than girls



105 The two drugs ________ and ________ have been found to be equally effective.

A. Ritalin; Adderall

B. Adderall; Dexedrine

C. Ephedrine; Ritalin

D. Dexedrine; Ephedrine



106 A major side effect of stimulant medication (e.g., Ritalin) treatment for ADHD is __________.

A. suppression of height and weight growth

B. suppression of normal speech

C. paradoxical movements in the fingers

D. nasal congestion



107 Suppression of height and weight gains caused by stimulant medication (e.g., Ritalin) treatment for ADHD can be compensated for __________.

A. by taking a different brand of stimulant medication

B. during “drug holidays” when someone is no longer taking the medication

C. by increasing the dosage of stimulant medication

D. by taking two different kinds of stimulant medication



108 Symptoms such as lethargy, lack of motivation, and, in some cases, depression can occur __________.

A. when children are not taking stimulant medication

B. when children are taking stimulant medication

C. during paradoxical movements in the fingers

D. by increasing dosage of stimulant medication



109 Atomoxetine (Brand Name: Strattera) reduces ADHD symptoms by __________.

A. increasing norepinephrine levels in the brain

B. increasing dopamine levels in the brain

C. increasing serotonin levels in the brain

D. increasing the density of the blood-brain barrier



110 Narcolepsy is __________.

A. similar to insomnia in its behavioral features

B. a symptom of cocaine psychosis

C. a tendency to develop a dependent upon narcotic drugs

D. an unpredictable urge to fall asleep



111 Recently, problems have been observed with the recreational abuse of which of the following prescription medications?

A. heroin

B. cocaine

C. Ritalin

D. penicillin



112 Ritalin and Adderall are ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­_______________ for recreational use.

A. shredded and smoked

B. absorbed through the digestion system

C. inserted anally

D. crushed and snorted


113 Modafinil (brand name: Provigil) is a drug that has been approved for treating __________.

A. narcolepsy

B. cocaine abuse

C. Parkinson’s disease

D. insomnia



114 Which of the following disorders is NOT treated by stimulant drugs?

A. narcolepsy

B. epilepsy


D. nasal decongestion



115 Discontinuation of amphetamine-like drugs used to treat nasal congestion can produce__________.

A. profound nasal decongestion

B. nasal stuffiness

C. repetitive sneezing

D. a “euphoria rebound”



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