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1)The EROEI must be ____________ for any fuel to be worth harvesting

Economics

1)The EROEI must be ____________ for any fuel to be worth harvesting.

               

A. positive

B. negative

C. zero

D. flexible

E. unchangeable

 

  1. What makes solar energy an unreliable energy source?

               

A. Photovoltaic cells have a lot of moving parts that produce noise.

B. Sunlight is intermittent, especially in high latitude locations.

C. It is still very expensive in terms of start-up costs.

D. Both B and C

E. All of the above

 

  1. How is a pressure water reactor different from a boiling water reactor?

               

A. In a boiling water reactor, the water heated by fuel rods is never exposed to the turbine.

B. In a boiling water reactor, steam is produced outside the reactor core.

C. In a pressure water reactor, only the turbine is exposed to radiation during electricity production.

D. In a pressure water reactor, steam is produced in the reactor core itself.

E. In a pressure water reactor, the steam that turns the turbine is not exposed to radiation.

 

  1. What is the definition of “unconventional oil reserves”?

               

A. recoverable oil that is found in rock, sand, or clay whose extraction is cheap and environmentally sound

B. recoverable oil that is found in rock, sand, or clay whose extraction is expensive and environmentally costly

C. unrecoverable oil that is found in rock below natural gas deposits

D. unrecoverable oil that is found in rock, sand, or clay whose extraction is cheap and environmentally sound

E. unrecoverable oil that is found in deep below the ocean floor

 

  1. Peat, the precursor to coal formation, is typically formed in areas ____________.

               

A. with low temperatures

B. in areas with highly oxygenated sediments

C. with low rates of decomposition

D. of rapid decomposition

E. with little vegetation

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Where are spent fuel rods currently stored?

               

A. in military waste disposal sites

B. in underground in emptied magma chambers

C. in on-site in steel-lined pools

D. in developing countries

E. in long-term storage locations

 

  1. Petrochemicals create the raw materials used to produce which of the following?

               

A. pesticides

B. plastics

C. soaps

D. medicines

E. all of the above

 

  1. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies are described in the Interactive Activity 19.7 in Chapter 19.  These technologies are going to be used in Saskatchewan as part of the approach for dealing with climate change.  Which of the following is false about CCS?

               

A.CCS technologies are still being developed but show promise as a way to continue to use coal as a source of electricity while reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere.

B. CCS takes CO2 from the coal burning emissions using solvents before purification for industrial and commercial purposes.

C. CCS collects CO2 from the emissions from coal burning and buries it in old or unminable coal seams.

D. CCS concentrates CO2 from the coal burning emissions using solvents that allow more efficient release to the surrounding air.

E. CCS removes CO2 from the emissions from coal burning and injects it into depleted oil and gas reservoirs or deep underground saline formations.

 

  1. Natural gas is composed mainly of ________________.

               

A. methane

B. carbon monoxide

C. carbon dioxide

D. pyrosomes

E. liquefied petroleum gas

 

  1. A massive tidal turbine went into operation in the Bay of Fundy on Tuesday November 22, 2016. It is expected to provide electricity for up to 500 homes in Nova Scotia. While this could be a significant source of renewable energy in the future especially if additional turbines are installed, there have been a variety concerns expressed over the installation of such large tidal turbines.  Which of the following is a major concern in the Bay of Fundy?

               

A. the potentially significant damage to lobster and other fisheries

B. the discrimination within local communities for access to renewable energy

C. the impact of decreased electricity rates to local municipalities

D. the likelihood of increased competition from other forms of renewable energy

E. the involvement of more multinational corporations

 

  1. Although it is clear that alternative energy sources such as bioethanol and biodiesel are reducing fossil fuel usage, ___________ is also a key strategy to reducing our dependence on fossil fuels.

               

A. offshore exploration

B. desalination

C. development of vertical farming

D. conservation

E. space exploration

 

  1. All of the following are environmental drawbacks to the mining of coal except

               

A. the water and soil contamination by acid drainage

B. the damage to forests caused by mountain top removal

C. soil compaction causing increased storm water runoff and flooding

D. the release of tons of toxic ash from incinerators

E. the burial and damage to streams caused by the dumping of overburden

 

  1. Acid mine drainage is formed when water flows past exposed rocks that leach out ________________ that react with water and oxygen to form _______________.

               

A. methane; acid

B. carbonates; bases

C. nitrates; acids

D. arsenic; bases

E. sulfates; acids

 

  1. What factors make wind energy imperfect as energy source?

               

A. Wind is intermittent.

B. Wind turbines are expensive to build.

C. Wind turbines can create noise.

D. Some people think turbines are an eyesore.

E. All of the above

 

  1. ________________ energy is the heat stored underground, contained in either rocks or fluids.

               

A. Geothermal

B. Wind

C. Hydroelectric

D. Solar

E. Biomass

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is probably the most compelling reason to use unconventional sources of oil here in Canada and the United States?

               

A. They have a higher EROEI than conventional sources.

B. There are abundant reserves in North America.

C. They are easier and cheaper to extract than conventional sources.

D. Their extraction is more environmentally friendly than conventional extraction.

E. They are cleaner to extract and burn than conventional sources.

 

  1. _____________ is a term used to explain one problem arising from the use of both forests and grasslands as a source of biofuels.

               

A. Over-producing

B. Over-hauling

C. Over-growing

D. Over-grazing

E. Over-harvesting

 

  1. _______________ involves removing the dirt and rock that overlays a mineral deposit close to the surface in order to access that deposit.

               

A. Hydraulic mining

B. Deep mining

C. Surface strip mining

D. Fracking

E. Subsurface underground mining

 

  1. ___________________ energy is replenished over short time scales or is perpetually available.

               

A. Renewable

B. Sustainable

C. Non-renewable

D. Fossil fuel

E. Reusable

 

  1. Which of the following choices is not true about coal?

               

A. It is a renewable resource.

B. It has a high-energy content.

C. Mining coal causes environmental damage.

D. Burning coal creates pollution.

E. It is formed over time by the compression and heating of peat.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following are documented negative impacts of hydroelectric dams?

               

A. alteration of river salinity and changes in pH

B. altered water flow and reduced issues with sedimentation and erosion

C. habitat destruction and alteration of river sediment deposition

D. acid deposition and damage to fish breeding areas

E. increased water flow and decreased rainfall

 

  1. What does it mean if a country is “energy independent”?

               

A. A country can pay to have all of its energy imported from other countries without having to borrow money.

B. A country uses a hybrid plan of energy production and energy imports to provide a stable supply of electricity for its citizens.

C. A country has access to enough reliable and affordable energy resources to meet its needs.

D. A country can meet of all of its energy needs without importing any fuel.

E. None of the above

 

  1. The greatest environmental impact of burning fossil fuels is ________.

               

A. the resulting carbonic acid, which leads to acid rain in areas downwind from power plants

B. the land damage from extraction

C. that we release carbon back into the carbon cycle, increasing the amount available for plant growth

D. on the ozone layer

E. the increase in greenhouse gases

 

  1. Which of the following is/are predicted to generate the most oil per acre in biodiesel production?

               

A. oil palms

B. switchgrass

C. soybean

D. algae

E. poplar trees

 

  1. Which renewable resource supplies more electricity to the Canadian population than any other single renewable resource?

               

A. biomass

B. solar

C. geothermal

D. hydroelectric

E. wind

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Globally, food crops are being displaced by biofuel crops. Crops that normally were grown for either human or animal consumption are instead being grown for fuel. This switch has resulted in price increases and food riots. Which of the following crops has caused the most issues when switched from a food crop to a biofuel crop?

               

A. corn

B. wheat

C. soybean

D. potato

E. rice

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the oil sands is not true?

               

A. The oil sands trap a heavy, black oil called bitumen.

B. Oil sands mining is more efficient than harvesting conventional sources of oil.

C. Oil sands can be mined and processed to produce a substitute for petroleum.

D. Canada has the world’s largest bitumen reservoir, but much of it is trapped in oil sands.

E. All of the above

 

  1. During fracking what is extracted from deep unconventional reserves?

               

A. bitumen

B. coal

C. tar

D. uranium

E. natural gas

 

  1. Nuclear energy is considered to be a “clean energy” because of all but which of the following?

               

A. Sulfur dioxide is not produced.

B. Less hot water is produced than by conventional power plants.

C. Much less CO2 (therefore, fewer greenhouse gases) are released.

D. NOx compounds are not released.

E. Particulates are not released.

 

  1. Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed when plant material is buried in _______________ conditions and subjected to _________________ over a long time.

               

A. oxygen-rich; high heat and pressure

B. oxygen-poor; high heat and pressure

C. oxygen-poor; low heat and pressure

D. oxygen-rich; low heat and pressure

E. none of the above describe the appropriate conditions

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