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Homework answers / question archive / Chapter 7: Conception and Development of the Embryo and Fetus MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) A faculty member explains the Human Genome Project to a class of nursing students

Chapter 7: Conception and Development of the Embryo and Fetus MULTIPLE CHOICE 1) A faculty member explains the Human Genome Project to a class of nursing students


Chapter 7: Conception and Development of the Embryo and Fetus


1) A faculty member explains the Human Genome Project to a class of nursing students. Which information about this project is correct?

A.        It began in the 1980s to find the basic building blocks of human proteins.

B.        The findings will be used to create better matches for

animal-to-human transplants.

C.        The goal is to identify exact DNA sequences and genes occurring in humans.

D.        Information from the project is being used to find preventative measures for diseases.


2.         A nurse is interested in studying the functions and interactions of the genes in the human genome. What branch of science should this nurse pursue?

A.        Biology

B.        Genetics

C.        Genomics

D.        Inheritance


3.         A nursing instructor is explaining genetic concepts to a class of students. Where in the cell does the instructor tell the students that each persons genes can be found?

A.        Golgi body

B.        Lysosome

C.        Mitochondria

D.        Nucleus


4.         A couple wishes to determine the chances of having a blue-eyed baby. Both parents have brown eyes, but have heterozygous gene pairs for eye color. Calculate the odds of their having a child with blue eyes.

A. 10%

B. 20%

C. 25%

D. 50%


5.         A nurse reads in a patients chart that the patient has a condition caused by monosomy X. What can the nurse conclude about this patient?

A.        Female with one missing X chromosome

B.        Female with very feminine features

C.        Male with one extra X chromosome

D.        Male with very feminine features


6.         A nurse has completed a family pedigree on a patient with a known autosomal dominant inheritance disorder. No one else in the family has been affected by this disorder. How does the nurse explain this finding to the patient?

A.        Genetic variation occurred via a mutation.

B.        Information about the family is incorrect.

C.        The patient is not biologically related to the family.

D.        The patients diagnosis must be incorrect.


7.         A nurse is counseling a couple whose child has been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. They understand that this is an inherited disease, but dont know how the child got it, as neither of them is affected. What response by the nurse is best?

A.        Are you certain that you (points to man) are the biological father?

B.        Maybe each of you has a mild case that hasnt been diagnosed yet.

C.        Something in your environment must have altered one of the genes.

D.        This is a recessive disorder, meaning that each of you is just a carrier.


8.         A couple wishes to know the chances of passing on an X-linked dominant heritable disorder to their four sons. The fathers family has the disorder. The sons appear healthy, but the couple wants to be prepared for possible future events related to the disease. What information does the nurse give them?

A.        All of them will be affected.

B.        Half of them will be affected.

C.        None of your sons will be affected.

D.        One of the four will be affected.


9.         A nursing faculty member is explaining the process of fertilization to a class of students. One student asks the instructor to clarify the term secondary oocyte. What description is best?

A.        An oocyte in the secondary position during transportation

B.        An oocyte in which the first meiotic division has occurred

C.        The second egg released by the ovary during ovulation

D.        The second egg to reach its place in the fallopian tube


10.       The perinatal nurse understands that 4 days after fertilization, the morula now contains how many cells?

A.        2

B.        4

C.        8

D.        16


11.       The nursing faculty member explains to a class that embryonic stem cells have a special feature. Which feature is the instructor describing?

A.        Ability to develop into any type of human cell

B.        Able to nourish the blastocyst as it develops

C.        Gives rise to the embryo and placenta

D.        Secretes a mixture of lipids and other liquids


12.       A student asks the faculty member to explain the term nidation. Which explanation is best?

A.        Blood vessel development

B.        Degradation of the zona pellucida

C.        Implantation of the fertilized ovum

D.        Sperm washing


13.       The experienced perinatal nurse explains hormone function to a new graduate. Which hormone does the nurse describe as being responsible for regulating glucose availability for the fetus?

A.        Estrogen

B.        Human chorionic gonadotropin

C.        Human placental lactogen

D.        Progesterone


14.       The perinatal nurse understands that maternal antibodies pass through the placenta by which mechanism?

A.        Active transport

B.        Facilitated diffusion

C.        Osmosis

D.        Pinocytosis


15.       A student has read that hematopoiesis occurring in the wall of the yolk sac declines after the eighth week of gestation and asks the instructor for clarification. What statement by the faculty member is most accurate?

A.        All of the blood needed is transported across the placenta.

B.        Bone marrow production of blood begins in week 8.

C.        The fetal liver takes over that function then.

D.        You must have misread that information.


16.       The nurse assessing a newborns umbilical cord stump would document which finding as normal anatomy?

A.        One artery, one vein

B.        One artery, two veins

C.        Two veins, two arteries

D.        One vein, two arteries


17.       The perinatal nurse explains the function of Whartons jelly to a class of expectant parents. What description is most accurate?

A.        Collection of blood from the maternal circulation

B.        Gooey uterine substance that cushions the fetus

C.        Precursor cells from which blood cells originate

D.        Protects the umbilical cord from compression


18.       The perinatal nurse is explaining blood transport though fetal circulation to the new nurse. How does the perinatal nurse describe the foramen ovale?

A.        Opening in the hearts septum between the right and left atria

B.        Vascular channel between the pulmonary artery and the descending aorta

C.        Vascular channel connecting the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava

D.        Vascular route connecting the heart to the extremities


19.       A couple has been told that there is a problem with their pregnancy. They only remember the term ductus venosus. The nurse explains that there is a problem in the circulation between which two structures?

A.        Pulmonary artery and descending aorta

B.        Pulmonary vein and pulmonary artery

C.        Right and left atria in the heart

D.        Umbilical cord and inferior vena cava



20.       A student reviewing the anatomy and physiology of fetal circulation learns that fetal blood enters the aorta through which structure?

A.        Ductus arteriosus

B.        Ductus venosus

C.        Foramen ovale

D.        Portal circulation


21.       A student reviewing the anatomy and physiology of the fetal circulatory system learns that the highest concentration of oxygen in fetal blood is measured at what level?

A.        1020 mm Hg

B.        2025 mm Hg

C.        3035 mm Hg

D.        4050 mm Hg


22.       A student asks the faculty member to explain why the fetus has such a low PO2. What explanation by the faculty member is most accurate?

A.        Blood from the mother is deoxygenated.

B.        It keeps the ductus arteriosus open.

C.        It maintains the maternal circulation.

D.        It supports the foramen ovale.


23.       The nurse discussing fetal development describes the hormone responsible for suppressing the maternal immunological response to the fetus, thereby facilitating physiological acceptance of the pregnancy. Which hormone is the nurse describing?

A.        Estrogen

B.        Human chorionic gonadotropin

C.        Human placental lactogen

D.        Progesterone


24.       A clinic nurse explains to a pregnant woman that the amount of amniotic fluid present at 7 or 8 months gestation is approximately what volume?

A.        500 mL

B.        750 mL

C.        800 mL

D.        1,000 mL


25.       A pregnant woman is confused about the terms embryo and fetus. How does the nurse explain the difference?

A.        The baby cant be called a fetus until the limbs and organs have formed.

B.        The baby is an embryo until 8 weeks gestation; then it is called a fetus.

C.        There really isnt any difference between the terms; they are interchangeable.

D.        Your baby is a fetus until the kidneys are matured and he makes urine.


26.       A nurse teaching a prenatal class instructs the participants that early organ system development occurs during which period of time?

A.        Embryonic period

B.        Fetal period

C.        Pre-embryonic period

D.        Post-embryonic period


27.       A woman is starting on birth control, but tells the nurse she wants to become pregnant next year. What action by the nurse is most important?

A.        Ask the woman to describe how her life will be different in the next year.

B.        Educate the woman about the need for folic acid supplementation before conceiving.

C.        Have the woman make a pre-pregnancy appointment for next year before she leaves.


D.        Tell the woman that it is difficult to get pregnant right after stopping birth control.


28.       A newborn has rachischisis. What action by the nurse takes priority?

A.        Contact the palliative care team for interventions.

B.        Discourage the family from seeing the infant.

C.        Obtain informed consent for immediate surgery.

D.        Prepare to provide the baby total parenteral nutrition.


29.       A woman in her 26th week of pregnancy is in preterm labor. What can the nurse conclude about this babys ability to survive?

A.        Cannot survive, as all organ systems are too immature

B.        Might survive, as lungs can breathe air with rhythmic breathing

C.        Probably will not survive, as all organ systems have not formed

D.        Will survive, because all body systems are completely mature


30.       A baby is born with several congenital anomalies. The parents are distraught and begin questioning each other about what they did wrong during the pregnancy. What response by the nurse is best?

A.        Chances are you did everything right; we may never know why this happened.

B.        Usually these types of issues result from toxic environmental exposures.

C.        You are lucky you did not have a miscarriage and instead have a wonderful baby.

D.        You cant worry about that now; you have a baby who needs you.


31.       A nurse is assessing a pregnant woman who says she drinks 5 to 7 alcoholic drinks per week. What action by the nurse is best?

A.        Advise the woman to decrease her drinking to 3 to 4 drinks per week.

B.        Explain that during pregnancy, alcohol in any amount can harm the fetus.

C.        Teach her that for women, the safe alcohol limit is 1 drink in an hour.

D.        Tell the woman to substitute caffeinated beverages for the alcohol.


32.       A preterm infant is jittery and has an oxygen saturation of 88%. After stabilizing the newborn, what action by the nurse is most important?

A.        Assess the mother for caffeine use during pregnancy.

B.        Assess the mother for opioid use during pregnancy.

C.        Call Child Protective Services (CPS) to take the child away.

D.        Question the father about maternal drug abuse.


33.       A neonate whose mother is a drug addict is listless and sweating. What action by the nurse takes priority?

A.        Check the babys blood sugar.

B.        Have the mother hold the baby to her skin.

C.        Obtain an oxygen saturation.

D.        Place the baby on a cardiac monitor.


34.       A pregnant woman tells the perinatal nurse that she stopped abusing other drugs when she learned that she was pregnant but kept using marijuana because it is so harmless. What response by the nurse is best?

A.        Agree with the patient that marijuana is less dangerous than other drugs.

B.        Ask the patient what other drugs she used before discovering she was pregnant.

C.        Inform the mother that the child may have withdrawal syndrome after birth.

D.        Tell the mother that marijuana use can affect language and cognitive development.


35.       A male baby is born with undescended testes. After caring for the newborn, what question by the nurse is most important?

A.        Did your other children have this problem?

B.        Do you have cats and litter boxes at home?

C.        Have you been exposed to measles?

D.        How old is the house in which you live?


36.       The prenatal clinic nurse is providing information to a pregnant woman who is at 15 weeks gestation. The patient asks when she should expect to feel fetal movement. Which of the following is the most appropriate answer by the nurse?

A.        15 to 18 weeks

B.        17 to 20 weeks

C.        18 to 21 weeks

D.        20 to 24 weeks


37.       During preconception counseling, the nurse explains that the fetus is most vulnerable to the effects of teratogens during which time period?

A.        2 to 8 weeks

B.        4 to 12 weeks

C.        5 to 10 weeks

D.        6 to 15 weeks


38.       During prenatal classes for expectant parents, the perinatal nurse explains that fetal brain development is most critical during which gestational weeks?

A.        2 to 8

B.        3 to 16

C.        5 to 24

D.        6 to 14


39.       The birthing center nurse caring for a 21-year-old laboring woman is given a report about the patients cocaine use throughout pregnancy. This history prompts the labor nurse to assess for which condition?

A.        Abruptio placentae

B.        Cephalopelvic disproportion

C.        Hypotension

D.        Placenta previa


40.       The birthing center nurse is assisting with pain management for a laboring woman at 18 weeks gestation. The fetus is born and the weight is 450 gm. The nurse would document this birth as which of the following?

A.        Abortion

B.        Fetal loss

C.        Neonatal death

D.        Stillbirth


41.       A 26-year-old woman has come for preconception counseling and asks about caring for her cat, because she has heard that she should not touch the cat during pregnancy. Which of the following is the nurses best response?

A.        If someone else changes the litter box you should be okay.

B.        It is more important to avoid eating raw vegetables now.

C.        That is correct; in fact, you should give the cat away.

D.        You probably already have had toxoplasmosis from the cat.


42.       A couple has undergone prenatal testing and their fetus has an identified congenital anomaly. What action by the nurse is best?

A.        I know how you feel; my daughter has a cleft lip.

B.        Im sure you will come to love your baby anyway.

C.        It is normal for both of you to be afraid, sad, or angry.

D.        You are lucky you found out now and can prepare.


43.       A baby is born with trisomy 18. What action by the nurse is most appropriate?

A.        Allow the family members to express their grief and anger.

B.        Call the hospital chaplain to counsel the parents.

C.        Make a referral to a home health agency for home visits.

D.        Prepare the parents for the babys imminent death.


44.       An obstetrical nurse is taking a medication history from a pregnant woman. One of the womans medications is classified as category D. What action by the nurse is best?

A.        Advise her to stop the medication right away.

B.        Encourage her to find herbal substitutions.

C.        Have her call her primary care provider immediately.

D.        Tell her to cut the medication dose in half until she gives birth.


45.       A parent wonders why his baby needs all the blood samples to test for different diseases. What response by the nurse is best?

A.        Many serious disorders can be found before they cause damage or death.

B.        This is a hospital policy; if you want to opt out you need to sign a waiver.

C.        We see a lot of these diseases in our community so we screen for them.

D.        Your baby doesnt need the blood tests if you dont want them.


46.       A woman is admitted with rubella. What action by the nurse manager is best?

A.        Place the woman on droplet precautions.

B.        Put the woman in contact isolation.

C.        Tell the nurses to use good hand-washing techniques.

D.        Use standard precautions only.


47.       A newborn nursery nurse is arranging genetic screening for several newborns. The nurse should educate the parents of which baby about screening for Tay-Sachs disease?

A.        African American baby

B.        Asian baby

C.        Caucasian baby

D.        Jewish baby

48.       A pediatric nurse is reviewing the chart of a new school-age patient. The chart notes the child is on a phenylalanine-free diet. What does the nurse conclude about this patient?

A.        Has Canavan disease

B.        Has familial dysautonomia

C.        Has phenylketonuria (PKU)

D.        Has Tay-Sachs disease


49.       A student has read that fetal development progresses in a cephalocaudal fashion and asks the faculty member for clarification. What explanation by the faculty member is best?

A.        From feet to head

B.        From head to feet

C.        Inward to outward

D.        Outward to inward


50.       A nursing student asks the faculty member to define lanugo. Which description is best?

A.        Fine, downy hair on the fetus

B.        Immune complexes in the amniotic fluid

C.        Initial scalp hair on the fetus

D.        Outer layer of pale, wrinkled skin



1.         The perinatal nurse explains to a childbirth class that which of the following are the primary functions of the placenta? (Select all that apply.)

A.        Creates blood vessels in the fetus

B.        Protects the fetus from pathogens

C.        Provides hormones that maintain the pregnancy

D.        Removes waste products from the fetus

E.        Transfers nutrients to the fetus


2.         The perinatal nurse explains to a student the different mechanisms by which substances are transported across the placenta. Which mechanisms are included? (Select all that apply.)

A.        Active diffusion

B.        Bulk flow

C.        Endocytosis

D.        Osmosis

E.        Pinocytosis


3.         The nursing instructor is explaining mechanisms of substance transport across the placenta. Which substances require facilitated diffusion? (Select all that apply.)

A.        Carbon dioxide

B.        Fatty acids

C.        Globulins

D.        Glucose

E.        Oxygen


4.         The nursing instructor is explaining the function of the placenta in hormone production. Which hormones does the instructor include in this discussion? (Select all that apply.)

A.        Estrogens

B.        Human chorionic gonadotropin

C.        Human placental lactogen

D.        Luteinizing hormone

E.        Progesterone


5.         During prenatal class, the nurse teaches expectant couples about the importance of the amniotic fluid and its functions. What functions does the nurse describe? (Select all that apply.)

A.        Cushions the fetus from mechanical injury

B.        Facilitates symmetrical growth of fetal limbs

C.        Helps regulate fetal body temperature

D.        Provides nourishment to the fetus

E.        Prevents the amnion from adhering to the fetus


6.         The nurse explaining fetal growth and development to a class of expectant parents describes events that occur during weeks 9 to 12 as which of the following? (Select all that apply.)

A.        External genitalia are distinguishable.

B.        Hair appears on the eyebrows and head.

C.        Intestines become visible in the abdomen.

D.        Ossification centers appear in the skeleton.

E.        Rapid eye movements occur and fingernails form.


7.         A perinatal nurse is assessing a woman who is approximately 10 weeks pregnant. The woman smells like cigarette smoke. What actions by the nurse are best? (Select all that apply.)

A.        Advise her to stop smoking now so that the baby can be of normal weight.

B.        Ask the woman if either she or her partner smokes.

C.        Determine how many cigarettes she smokes a day.

D.        Describe the behavior problems her child may develop.

E.        Explain that nicotine deprives the fetus of oxygen.


8.         A nurse is assessing a woman for TORCH infections. What diseases are included in this acronym? (Select all that apply.)

A.        Cytomegalovirus

B.        Hepatitis B

C.        Roseola

D.        Toxoplasmosis

E.        Varicella zoster




1.         Match each term with its definition or description.


a.         Autosome 1.  Large female chromosome

b.         X chromosome 2.     Gene pair in which the gene pairs are different

c.         Y chromosome 3.     Genetic makeup of an individual

d.         Homozygous 4.        Observable expression of a persons genotype

e.         Heterozygous 5.       Non-sex chromosome common to both males and females

f.          Genotype 6.  Smaller male chromosome

g.         Genome 7.    Gene pair in which both genes are identical

h.         Phenotype 8.            Complete set of genes present in a person


2.         Match each TORCH disease with its possible effects on the newborn or characteristics. Diseases may be used more than once or not at all.

a.         Toxoplasmosis 1.     Without intervention, maternal transmission to the fetus is about 25%

b.         Rubella 2.      The most common viral infection in the fetus

c.         Cytomegalovirus 3.  Bullae, microcephaly, hydrencephaly, and encephalitis can occur

d.         Herpes simplex virus 4.      No known risks if infection occurs after 20 weeks gestation

e.         Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 5.            Late manifestations include keratitis, snuffles, deafness, and bowing of the shins

f.          Varicella zoster virus 6.       Symptoms in the mother seem to be flu-like

g.         Syphilis 7.     Maternal infection in the first trimester can lead to spontaneous abortion

8.         Maternal infection during the first trimester leads to a 20% chance of fetal infection



3. Trace a drop of blood through the fetal circulation using the structures provided.

            1 Aorta

            2 Ductus arteriosus

            3 Ductus venosus

            4 Foramen ovale

            5 Head and extremities

             6 Left ventricle

            7  Right atrium

            8  Superior vena cava








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