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# How many calories are needed to raise 500 grams of water from 25 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius?

1. Define the following terms:

a)Internal energy

b)Specific heat

c)Entropy

d)Temperature

3. Suppose a 1 meter long bar expands 0.5 centimeters when heated. By how much will a 100 meter long bar of the same material expand when similarly heated?

4. State how much energy is transferred in each of the following cases:

a)2 grams of steam at 100 degrees Celsius condenses to water at 100 degrees Celsius.

b)2 grams of boiling water at 100 degrees Celsius cools to ice water at 0 degrees Celsius.

c)2 grams of ice water at 0 degrees Celsius freezes to ice at 0 degrees Celsius.

d)2 grams of steam at 100 degrees Celsius turns to ice at 0 degrees Celsius.

5. State and explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

6. Calculate the change in internal energy for each of the following systems:

a)100 joules of energy is added to a system that does 40 joules of external work.

b)75 joules of energy is removed from a system that has 50 joules of work done on it.

c)150 joules of energy is added to a system that has 75 joules of work done on it.

7. Explain why a body of water freezes from the top down rather than from the bottom up.