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Homework answers / question archive / Question 1)       Kendra is researching the effects of vitamin C on test-taking ability

Question 1)       Kendra is researching the effects of vitamin C on test-taking ability

Sociology

  • Question 1)
   
 

Kendra is researching the effects of vitamin C on test-taking ability. Before the exam, Kendra gives group A orange juice, and group B water. Vitamin C is the ______.

     

Answers:

Experimental group

 

Control group

 

Dependent variable

 

Independent variable

     
  • Question 2
   
 

Émile Durkheim's much lauded study of suicide is important to the field of sociology in many ways. One of the most influential impacts was:

     

Answers:

It defined the differences between sociology and psychology

 

It allowed psychology and sociology to merge into one field.

 

It showed the psychological reasons for suicide to be a lie.

 

It earned Émile Durkheim the title "Father of Sociology" so that other sociologists would have a role model.

     
  • Question 3
   
 

Karl Marx asserted that the means of societal change existed in the tension between:

     

Answers:

The enslaved bourgeois reclaiming power from the controlling proletariat.

 

The bourgeois struggling for the allocation of resources amongst themselves.

 

The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois.

 

The proletariat fighting each other for a position within the bourgeois.

     
  • Question 4
   
 

The United States Government is a form of:

     

Answers:

A bureaucracy

 

A coercive organization

 

A total institution

 

A normative organization

     
  • Question 5
   
 

Joseph and Paula are excited to welcome their child into the world. They cannot wait to pass on all their knowledge, insight, and rich culture. Just as their parents gave them guidance and showed them how to live, Joseph and Paula will continue the chain by handing down their societal values and thus, sustain the society they love so much. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?

     

Answers:

 

Structural Functionalism

 

Conflict

 

Symbolic Interactionism

 

Feminist Theory

     
  • Question 6
   
 

Which of the following is an example of a counterculture?

     

Answers:

The yuppie craze of the 1980's

 

The Kardashian obsession of the 2010's

 

 

The hippie movement of the 1960's

 

The disco invasion of the 1970's

     
  • Question 7
   
 

The term institutionalization can be defined as:

     

Answers:

The idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit.

 

 

The act of implanting a convention or norm into society.

 

A status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income.

 

Responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rank and role in society.

     
  • Question 8
   
 

Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto is based on the ____ perspective.

     

Answers:

Functionalism

 

Symbolic Interactionism

 

Institutionalism

 

 

Conflict Theory

     
  • Question 9
   
 

A hypothesis can be defined as:

     

Answers:

A way to explain different aspects of social interactions

 

 

A testable proposition

 

An attempt to explain large-scale relationships

 

Philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them

     
  • Question 10
   
 

Parents often socialize their children to:

     

Answers:

Understand and follow different norms from what they themselves follow

 

 

Understand and follow the same norms that they themselves follow

 

Ignore society and create their own norms and follow them regardless of consequences

 

Ignore society and live alone without much interaction with other people

     
  • Question 11
   
 

The term interpretive framework can be defined as:

     

Answers:

A basis for which sociologists determine whether their independent and dependent variables reflect the results.

 

 

A sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testing.

 

An established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions.

 

Specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study

     
  • Question 12
   
 

Ivanka Trump is the daughter of business mogul Donald Trump. Her role as heiress to the Trump fortune is an example of ______.

     

Answers:

Achieved status

 

The Thomas Theorem

 

 

Ascribed status

 

The looking-glass self

     
  • Question 13
   
 

Which of the following is an example of an unethical sociological research practice?

     

Answers:

Conducting a literature review prior to conducting an experiment

 

Drawing conclusions from a study which the hypothesis did not predict

 

 

Observing study participants without their consent

 

Using a control group and an experimental group during observation

     
  • Question 14
   
 

Christine is president of her Improvisation Comedy Troupe. When making decisions about booking gigs, rehearsal spaces, and call-times, Christine leaves the troupe to decide for themselves. Christine is a(n) _____ leader.

     

Answers:

Authoritarian

 

Democratic

 

 

Laissez-faire

 

Republican

     
  • Question 15
   
 

A judge and her gavel. A cop and his gun. A lawyer and her power suit. A ____ would be most concerned with the parts these objects play in impression management.

     

Answers:

Functionalist

 

 

Symbolic interactionist

 

Feminist

 

Conflict theorist

     
  • Question 16
   
 

Please place the following societies in chronological order:

     

Answers:

Pastoral; Hunter-gatherer; Horticultural; Agricultural

 

Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Agricultural; Horticultural

 

Pastoral; Agricultural, Hunter-gatherer; Horticultural

 

 

Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Horticultural; Agricultural

     
  • Question 17
   
 

John wants to study whether a larger number of laptops available to students at his school lead to higher grades. Choose the independent and dependent variable.

     

Answers:

Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: Number of laptops

 

Independent variable: John; Dependent variable: Grades

 

Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: John

 

 

Independent variable: Number of laptops; Dependent variable: Grades

     
  • Question 18
   
 

Many Americans pay for haircuts, trips to the dentist, or transportation on the metro and bus systems. These actions support the notion of capitalism, an example of _____.

     

Answers:

 

Non-material culture

 

Material culture

 

A cultural universal

 

The counterculture

     
  • Question 19
   
 

The concept "reference groups" can be defined as:

     

Answers:

Groups which consist of people for whom an individual feels great disdain.

 

Groups a person belongs to and feels are an integral part of his or her identity.

 

People who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way.

 

 

Groups to which an individual compares himself or herself.

     
  • Question 20
   
 

A paradigm can be defined as:

     

Answers:

 

Philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them.

 

The social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, and religion

 

The consequences of a social process that are sought or anticipated

 

Social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society

     
  • Question 21
   
 

Miguel is doing a research paper on New York City's Stone Wall riots of 1969. He visits the scene of the riots, interviews people who were there, reads the police reports of the event, and watches video footage. Miguel is conducting a(n) ______.

     

Answers:

Overview

 

 

Case study

 

Experiment

 

Data analysis

     
  • Question 22
   
 

Reliability is defined by the text as:

     

Answers:

How well the study measures what it was designed to measure.

 

How long a study is expected to remain relevant and influential.

 

How close the study's results come to the experimenter's hypothesis.

 

 

A measure of a study's consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced.

     
  • Question 23
   
 

What is the difference between a primary group and a secondary group?

     

Answers:

 

A primary group is small, consisting of emotional face-to-face relationships; a secondary group is larger and impersonal.

 

A primary group is small and impersonal; a secondary group is large and consists of face-to-face relationships.

 

A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small, consisting of emotional, face-to-face relationships.

 

A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small and purely instrumental in function.

     
  • Question 24
   
 

Which of the following men coined the term positivism, and is widely considered the father of sociology?

     

Answers:

 

Auguste Comte

 

Karl Marx

 

Max Weber

 

Émile Durkheim

     
  • Question 25
   
 

Tyson is researching whether actors on prime-time television and hit movies negatively impact teenagers' body images. He is going undercover at a local high school to observe and participate with the students to better understand the world they live in. Tyson is conducting which research method?

     

Answers:

 

Field research

 

Surveys

 

Experiments

 

Secondary data analysis

     
  • Question 26
   
 

Alienation is defined by the text as:

     

Answers:

 

The condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or sense of self.

 

Social forces considered real which exist outside the individual.

 

The act of defying social norms in favor of group unity

 

The strength of ties that people have to their social groups, was a key factor in social life

     
  • Question 27
   
 

Education is important to society because:

     

Answers:

It teaches children facts about the world in which they live.

 

It teaches children how to interact with their peers and helps them to gain social graces.

 

It teaches children how to react to authority and how to behave in group and one-on-one situations.

 

 

All of the above

     
  • Question 28
   
 

The concept anomie can be defined as:

     

Answers:

 

A situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness.

 

How strongly a person is connected to his or her social group.

 

A person's beliefs and ideology are in conflict with her best interests.

 

When one or more of an individual's roles clash.

     
  • Question 29
   
 

Qualitative sociology can be defined as:

     

Answers:

 

In-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data.

 

Virtual interactivity, online polls, and online gaming.

 

Door to door sales pitches, cold calls, and press conferences.

 

Statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants.

     
  • Question 30
   
 

Eleanor is researching the effect social media has on worldwide political awareness and revolution. Felix is examining the effect World of Warcraft has on the romantic relationships of middle-aged men in his metro area. Eleanor's analysis is _____, while Felix's analysis is _____.

     

Answers:

Micro-level; macro-level

 

 

Macro-level; micro-level

 

They are both macro-level.

 

They are both micro-level.

     
  • Question 31
   
 

Sociology is defined as the:

     

Answers:

Qualitative analysis of human phenomenon.

 

 

Systematic study of society and social interaction.

 

Quantitative analysis of social transgressions.

 

Theoretical examination of life's origins.

     
  • Question 32
   
 

An instrumental leader:

     

Answers:

Promotes emotional strength and health, ensuring that people feel supported.

 

Refers to the main focus or goal of the leader.

 

 

Is goal-oriented and largely concerned with accomplishing set tasks.

 

Rejects gender roles in the name of the feminist movement.

     
  • Question 33
   
 

Durkheim defined ______ as the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society.

     

Answers:

The iron cage

 

 

Collective conscience

 

Bourgeoisie

 

Anomie

     
  • Question 34
   
 

Which of the following is not a step in the scientific method?

     

Answers:

Research existing sources

 

Report results

 

 

Receive corroboration from the field

 

Formulate a hypothesis

     
  • Question 35
   
 

Alona is examining the impact of the 2011 Penn State scandal on student morale and school spirit by distributing number-scaled surveys in her Introduction to Sociology class. Alona is employing a _____ research method.

     

Answers:

Qualitative

 

Pathos

 

Logos

 

 

Quantitative

     
  • Question 36
   
 

Kyle is collecting newspaper clippings from his grandfather about the American public's perception of World War II. This is an example of ______.

     

Answers:

Tertiary data

 

Interactive data

 

Primary data

 

 

Secondary data

     
  • Question 37
   
 

The term language can be defined as:

     

Answers:

Gestures, signs, objects, signals, and words that help people understand the world.

 

 

A symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted.

 

The exchange of gestures and signals for the purpose of reaching a consensus.

 

Communication grounded in ideals, norms, and values.

     
  • Question 38
   
 

_____ view society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals who make up that society.

     

Answers:

Symbolic Interactionists

 

Conflict Theorists

 

 

Structural Functionalists

 

Social Individualists

     
  • Question 39
   
 

Society and culture _____.

     

Answers:

 

Could not exist without each other

 

Are unrelated

 

Are the same thing

 

Could not exist together

     
  • Question 40
   
 

Peer groups are important to adolescents because:

     

Answers:

 

They help to develop a sense of identity separate from adolescents' parents.

 

They provide the second major socialization experience outside the realm of their families.

 

They rank higher in importance to adolescents' than parental influence.

 

They help exert dependence among adolescents.

     
  • Question 41
   
 

In the early 2000's, The L Word and Queer as Folk debuted on Showtime. Both shows depicted the lives of members of the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) community, thus giving viewers a glimpse into a ¬¬______.

     

Answers:

More

 

Formal Sanction

 

 

Subculture

 

Social relativism

     
  • Question 42
   
 

According to Durkheim, which of the following is NOT a social fact?

     

Answers:

A religious belief

 

A law

 

A custom

 

 

All of the above are social facts

     
  • Question 43
   
 

What group defines themselves through a rejection of the mainstream:

     

Answers:

Beatniks

 

Hepcats

 

 

Hipsters

 

Hippies

     
  • Question 44
   
 

Which of the following is an example of an in-group/out-group dynamic:

     

Answers:

Organizations across a college campus come together at a yearly fundraiser to raise money for the local Breast Cancer Awareness chapter.

 

 

Members of sorority Delta Delta Delta advise their pledges not to socialize with members of pledges of rival sorority Sigma Delta Theta.

 

Chorus members of the campus's production of Hairspray practice in Theatre building's first floor, while the cast of God of Carnage practices on the second floor.

 

The Chemistry Club advertises their organization at the local science fair.

     
  • Question 45
   
 

Justin enrolls in a local community college so he can one day become an engineer. Justin is about to become a member of a:

     

Answers:

Voluntary organization

 

Paparazzi organization

 

 

Utilitarian organization

 

Coercive organization

     
  • Question 46
   
 

The term values can be defined as:

     

Answers:

The tenets or convictions that people hold to be true.

 

 

A culture's standard for discerning what's good and just in society.

 

Scripture found within the Bible.

 

Federal laws and regulations.

     
  • Question 47
   
 

Jeremy wrote an essay criticizing the college admissions process, arguing that heavy competition and limited educational resources make admission difficult for the average student. Which perspective would Jeremy's argument fall under?

     

Answers:

Structural Functionalism

 

 

Conflict Theory

 

Symbolic Interactionism

 

Behaviorism

     
  • Question 48
   
 

____ believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production and greatly favored ____.

     

Answers:

Durkheim; Communism

 

Max Weber; Positivism

 

 

Karl Marx; Communism

 

Comte; Antipositivism

     
  • Question 49
   
 

Which theorist claimed that people rise to their proper level in society based solely on personal merit?

     

Answers:

Karl Marx

 

Max Weber

 

Herbert Spencer

 

 

Émile Durkheim

     
  • Question 50
   
 

What is one difference between a more and a folkway?

     

Answers:

Mores encourage social rebellion; folkways do not.

 

Mores are legally acceptable to violate; folkways are not.

 

Mores are constructed based on norms; folkways are not.

 

 

Mores may carry serious consequences if violated; folkways do not.

     
  • Question 51
   
 

Charles Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self hypothesizes that:

     

Answers:

Self-esteem is directly correlated with body image.

 

The media encourages society to base their appearances on visible public figures.

 

 

People base their images on how they think other people see them.

 

Personal identity isn't influenced by outside social forces.

     
  • Question 52
   
 

In 1999, Sean Fanning, John Fanning, and Sean Parker invented Napster, a global, free-of-charge, peer-to-peer music sharing program. Prior to Napster, no such program existed. The three men created _____.

     

Answers:

 

An innovation

 

A discovery

 

A culture lag

 

A cultural universal

     
  • Question 53
   
 

Verstehen is defined by the text as:

     

Answers:

To maintain a moral conscience.

 

To compare and contrast social facts.

 

 

To understand in a deep way.

 

To require proof of interpretation.

     
  • Question 54
   
 

What is the importance of interpretive framework?

     

Answers:

 

It leads to in-depth knowledge of a participant's social world.

 

It eliminates the need for a literature review.

 

It relies on statistics to determine causal relationships.

 

It prevents researchers from making unethical decisions.

     
  • Question 55
   
 

The McDonalidization of Society refers to:

     

Answers:

 

The increasing presence of the fast-food business model in common social institutions.

 

The obesity epidemic that's rapidly sweeping the United States.

 

The country's increasing dependence on fast food as a daily meal.

 

The increasing popularity of McDonalds as a hang-out for youths.

     
  • Question 56
   
 

Mark, whose parents are wealthy, has been socialized to believe that he can be whoever he wants to be. His best friend Matt, whose parents are blue-collar workers, has been socialized to believe that hard work and following instructions is all he needs to support himself. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?

     

Answers:

Structural Functionalism

 

 

Conflict

 

Symbolic Interactionism

 

Feminist Theory

     
  • Question 57
   
 

Max Weber, Georg Simmel, and Karl Marx were all advocates of:

     

Answers:

 

Conflict theory

 

Structural functionalism

 

Capitalism

 

Symbolic interactionism

     
  • Question 58
   
 

Xenocentrism is:

     

Answers:

The opposite of cultural relativism

 

The opposite of cultural universalism

 

The same as cultural imperitivism

 

 

The opposite of ethnocentrism

     
  • Question 59
   
 

The term value neutrality is defined by the text as:

     

Answers:

 

A practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results.

 

The study of evolving ethics and morals in relation to sociological research.

 

A systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand.

 

A study's participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population.

     
  • Question 60
   
 

Janet is visiting her childhood friend in the Hamptons. Janet wears ripped jeans and Chuck Taylors to an infamous "White" party. The majority of party-goers refuse to socialize with her. Janet is experiencing a form of ____.

     

Answers:

Formal sanction

 

Xenocentricism

 

 

Social control

 

Ethnocentricity

     

 

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