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Homework answers / question archive / Question 1)       Kendra is researching the effects of vitamin C on test-taking ability

Question 1)       Kendra is researching the effects of vitamin C on test-taking ability


  • Question 1)

Kendra is researching the effects of vitamin C on test-taking ability. Before the exam, Kendra gives group A orange juice, and group B water. Vitamin C is the ______.



Experimental group


Control group


Dependent variable


Independent variable

  • Question 2

Émile Durkheim's much lauded study of suicide is important to the field of sociology in many ways. One of the most influential impacts was:



It defined the differences between sociology and psychology


It allowed psychology and sociology to merge into one field.


It showed the psychological reasons for suicide to be a lie.


It earned Émile Durkheim the title "Father of Sociology" so that other sociologists would have a role model.

  • Question 3

Karl Marx asserted that the means of societal change existed in the tension between:



The enslaved bourgeois reclaiming power from the controlling proletariat.


The bourgeois struggling for the allocation of resources amongst themselves.


The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois.


The proletariat fighting each other for a position within the bourgeois.

  • Question 4

The United States Government is a form of:



A bureaucracy


A coercive organization


A total institution


A normative organization

  • Question 5

Joseph and Paula are excited to welcome their child into the world. They cannot wait to pass on all their knowledge, insight, and rich culture. Just as their parents gave them guidance and showed them how to live, Joseph and Paula will continue the chain by handing down their societal values and thus, sustain the society they love so much. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?




Structural Functionalism




Symbolic Interactionism


Feminist Theory

  • Question 6

Which of the following is an example of a counterculture?



The yuppie craze of the 1980's


The Kardashian obsession of the 2010's



The hippie movement of the 1960's


The disco invasion of the 1970's

  • Question 7

The term institutionalization can be defined as:



The idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit.



The act of implanting a convention or norm into society.


A status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income.


Responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rank and role in society.

  • Question 8

Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto is based on the ____ perspective.





Symbolic Interactionism





Conflict Theory

  • Question 9

A hypothesis can be defined as:



A way to explain different aspects of social interactions



A testable proposition


An attempt to explain large-scale relationships


Philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them

  • Question 10

Parents often socialize their children to:



Understand and follow different norms from what they themselves follow



Understand and follow the same norms that they themselves follow


Ignore society and create their own norms and follow them regardless of consequences


Ignore society and live alone without much interaction with other people

  • Question 11

The term interpretive framework can be defined as:



A basis for which sociologists determine whether their independent and dependent variables reflect the results.



A sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testing.


An established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions.


Specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study

  • Question 12

Ivanka Trump is the daughter of business mogul Donald Trump. Her role as heiress to the Trump fortune is an example of ______.



Achieved status


The Thomas Theorem



Ascribed status


The looking-glass self

  • Question 13

Which of the following is an example of an unethical sociological research practice?



Conducting a literature review prior to conducting an experiment


Drawing conclusions from a study which the hypothesis did not predict



Observing study participants without their consent


Using a control group and an experimental group during observation

  • Question 14

Christine is president of her Improvisation Comedy Troupe. When making decisions about booking gigs, rehearsal spaces, and call-times, Christine leaves the troupe to decide for themselves. Christine is a(n) _____ leader.











  • Question 15

A judge and her gavel. A cop and his gun. A lawyer and her power suit. A ____ would be most concerned with the parts these objects play in impression management.






Symbolic interactionist




Conflict theorist

  • Question 16

Please place the following societies in chronological order:



Pastoral; Hunter-gatherer; Horticultural; Agricultural


Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Agricultural; Horticultural


Pastoral; Agricultural, Hunter-gatherer; Horticultural



Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Horticultural; Agricultural

  • Question 17

John wants to study whether a larger number of laptops available to students at his school lead to higher grades. Choose the independent and dependent variable.



Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: Number of laptops


Independent variable: John; Dependent variable: Grades


Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: John



Independent variable: Number of laptops; Dependent variable: Grades

  • Question 18

Many Americans pay for haircuts, trips to the dentist, or transportation on the metro and bus systems. These actions support the notion of capitalism, an example of _____.




Non-material culture


Material culture


A cultural universal


The counterculture

  • Question 19

The concept "reference groups" can be defined as:



Groups which consist of people for whom an individual feels great disdain.


Groups a person belongs to and feels are an integral part of his or her identity.


People who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way.



Groups to which an individual compares himself or herself.

  • Question 20

A paradigm can be defined as:




Philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them.


The social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared location, and religion


The consequences of a social process that are sought or anticipated


Social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society

  • Question 21

Miguel is doing a research paper on New York City's Stone Wall riots of 1969. He visits the scene of the riots, interviews people who were there, reads the police reports of the event, and watches video footage. Miguel is conducting a(n) ______.






Case study




Data analysis

  • Question 22

Reliability is defined by the text as:



How well the study measures what it was designed to measure.


How long a study is expected to remain relevant and influential.


How close the study's results come to the experimenter's hypothesis.



A measure of a study's consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced.

  • Question 23

What is the difference between a primary group and a secondary group?




A primary group is small, consisting of emotional face-to-face relationships; a secondary group is larger and impersonal.


A primary group is small and impersonal; a secondary group is large and consists of face-to-face relationships.


A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small, consisting of emotional, face-to-face relationships.


A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small and purely instrumental in function.

  • Question 24

Which of the following men coined the term positivism, and is widely considered the father of sociology?




Auguste Comte


Karl Marx


Max Weber


Émile Durkheim

  • Question 25

Tyson is researching whether actors on prime-time television and hit movies negatively impact teenagers' body images. He is going undercover at a local high school to observe and participate with the students to better understand the world they live in. Tyson is conducting which research method?




Field research






Secondary data analysis

  • Question 26

Alienation is defined by the text as:




The condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or sense of self.


Social forces considered real which exist outside the individual.


The act of defying social norms in favor of group unity


The strength of ties that people have to their social groups, was a key factor in social life

  • Question 27

Education is important to society because:



It teaches children facts about the world in which they live.


It teaches children how to interact with their peers and helps them to gain social graces.


It teaches children how to react to authority and how to behave in group and one-on-one situations.



All of the above

  • Question 28

The concept anomie can be defined as:




A situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness.


How strongly a person is connected to his or her social group.


A person's beliefs and ideology are in conflict with her best interests.


When one or more of an individual's roles clash.

  • Question 29

Qualitative sociology can be defined as:




In-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as the source of its data.


Virtual interactivity, online polls, and online gaming.


Door to door sales pitches, cold calls, and press conferences.


Statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants.

  • Question 30

Eleanor is researching the effect social media has on worldwide political awareness and revolution. Felix is examining the effect World of Warcraft has on the romantic relationships of middle-aged men in his metro area. Eleanor's analysis is _____, while Felix's analysis is _____.



Micro-level; macro-level



Macro-level; micro-level


They are both macro-level.


They are both micro-level.

  • Question 31

Sociology is defined as the:



Qualitative analysis of human phenomenon.



Systematic study of society and social interaction.


Quantitative analysis of social transgressions.


Theoretical examination of life's origins.

  • Question 32

An instrumental leader:



Promotes emotional strength and health, ensuring that people feel supported.


Refers to the main focus or goal of the leader.



Is goal-oriented and largely concerned with accomplishing set tasks.


Rejects gender roles in the name of the feminist movement.

  • Question 33

Durkheim defined ______ as the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society.



The iron cage



Collective conscience





  • Question 34

Which of the following is not a step in the scientific method?



Research existing sources


Report results



Receive corroboration from the field


Formulate a hypothesis

  • Question 35

Alona is examining the impact of the 2011 Penn State scandal on student morale and school spirit by distributing number-scaled surveys in her Introduction to Sociology class. Alona is employing a _____ research method.











  • Question 36

Kyle is collecting newspaper clippings from his grandfather about the American public's perception of World War II. This is an example of ______.



Tertiary data


Interactive data


Primary data



Secondary data

  • Question 37

The term language can be defined as:



Gestures, signs, objects, signals, and words that help people understand the world.



A symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted.


The exchange of gestures and signals for the purpose of reaching a consensus.


Communication grounded in ideals, norms, and values.

  • Question 38

_____ view society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals who make up that society.



Symbolic Interactionists


Conflict Theorists



Structural Functionalists


Social Individualists

  • Question 39

Society and culture _____.




Could not exist without each other


Are unrelated


Are the same thing


Could not exist together

  • Question 40

Peer groups are important to adolescents because:




They help to develop a sense of identity separate from adolescents' parents.


They provide the second major socialization experience outside the realm of their families.


They rank higher in importance to adolescents' than parental influence.


They help exert dependence among adolescents.

  • Question 41

In the early 2000's, The L Word and Queer as Folk debuted on Showtime. Both shows depicted the lives of members of the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) community, thus giving viewers a glimpse into a ¬¬______.





Formal Sanction





Social relativism

  • Question 42

According to Durkheim, which of the following is NOT a social fact?



A religious belief


A law


A custom



All of the above are social facts

  • Question 43

What group defines themselves through a rejection of the mainstream:











  • Question 44

Which of the following is an example of an in-group/out-group dynamic:



Organizations across a college campus come together at a yearly fundraiser to raise money for the local Breast Cancer Awareness chapter.



Members of sorority Delta Delta Delta advise their pledges not to socialize with members of pledges of rival sorority Sigma Delta Theta.


Chorus members of the campus's production of Hairspray practice in Theatre building's first floor, while the cast of God of Carnage practices on the second floor.


The Chemistry Club advertises their organization at the local science fair.

  • Question 45

Justin enrolls in a local community college so he can one day become an engineer. Justin is about to become a member of a:



Voluntary organization


Paparazzi organization



Utilitarian organization


Coercive organization

  • Question 46

The term values can be defined as:



The tenets or convictions that people hold to be true.



A culture's standard for discerning what's good and just in society.


Scripture found within the Bible.


Federal laws and regulations.

  • Question 47

Jeremy wrote an essay criticizing the college admissions process, arguing that heavy competition and limited educational resources make admission difficult for the average student. Which perspective would Jeremy's argument fall under?



Structural Functionalism



Conflict Theory


Symbolic Interactionism



  • Question 48

____ believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production and greatly favored ____.



Durkheim; Communism


Max Weber; Positivism



Karl Marx; Communism


Comte; Antipositivism

  • Question 49

Which theorist claimed that people rise to their proper level in society based solely on personal merit?



Karl Marx


Max Weber


Herbert Spencer



Émile Durkheim

  • Question 50

What is one difference between a more and a folkway?



Mores encourage social rebellion; folkways do not.


Mores are legally acceptable to violate; folkways are not.


Mores are constructed based on norms; folkways are not.



Mores may carry serious consequences if violated; folkways do not.

  • Question 51

Charles Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self hypothesizes that:



Self-esteem is directly correlated with body image.


The media encourages society to base their appearances on visible public figures.



People base their images on how they think other people see them.


Personal identity isn't influenced by outside social forces.

  • Question 52

In 1999, Sean Fanning, John Fanning, and Sean Parker invented Napster, a global, free-of-charge, peer-to-peer music sharing program. Prior to Napster, no such program existed. The three men created _____.




An innovation


A discovery


A culture lag


A cultural universal

  • Question 53

Verstehen is defined by the text as:



To maintain a moral conscience.


To compare and contrast social facts.



To understand in a deep way.


To require proof of interpretation.

  • Question 54

What is the importance of interpretive framework?




It leads to in-depth knowledge of a participant's social world.


It eliminates the need for a literature review.


It relies on statistics to determine causal relationships.


It prevents researchers from making unethical decisions.

  • Question 55

The McDonalidization of Society refers to:




The increasing presence of the fast-food business model in common social institutions.


The obesity epidemic that's rapidly sweeping the United States.


The country's increasing dependence on fast food as a daily meal.


The increasing popularity of McDonalds as a hang-out for youths.

  • Question 56

Mark, whose parents are wealthy, has been socialized to believe that he can be whoever he wants to be. His best friend Matt, whose parents are blue-collar workers, has been socialized to believe that hard work and following instructions is all he needs to support himself. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?



Structural Functionalism





Symbolic Interactionism


Feminist Theory

  • Question 57

Max Weber, Georg Simmel, and Karl Marx were all advocates of:




Conflict theory


Structural functionalism




Symbolic interactionism

  • Question 58

Xenocentrism is:



The opposite of cultural relativism


The opposite of cultural universalism


The same as cultural imperitivism



The opposite of ethnocentrism

  • Question 59

The term value neutrality is defined by the text as:




A practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results.


The study of evolving ethics and morals in relation to sociological research.


A systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand.


A study's participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population.

  • Question 60

Janet is visiting her childhood friend in the Hamptons. Janet wears ripped jeans and Chuck Taylors to an infamous "White" party. The majority of party-goers refuse to socialize with her. Janet is experiencing a form of ____.



Formal sanction





Social control





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