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Homework answers / question archive / Identify a minimum of 8 peer-reviewed journal articles for this assignment, and provide annotated notes for each reference

Identify a minimum of 8 peer-reviewed journal articles for this assignment, and provide annotated notes for each reference

Law

Identify a minimum of 8 peer-reviewed journal articles for this assignment, and provide annotated notes for each reference. Create an outline of your paper. The outline should list the major and mino

Running head: OUTLINE AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 0

The Outline

  1. Introduction- Police officers in the past were viewed as keepers of the peace, but currently, they are officers of law enforcement. The majority do their tasks, but they are concerned more about arresting people more than ensuring peace. The biggest problem arising about police officers in the US concerns police brutality, and it looks like police officers are misusing their powers.

  2. Defining brutality of the police

  1. What is referred to as excessive force?

  2. Laws that are against police brutality

  1. What leads to the brutality of police?

  1. Psychological factors.

  2. Corruption by power.

  3. Superiority matters.

  1. Cases of police brutality

  1. The reported cases of police brutality.

  2. What action has been taken to these cases?

  1. the places where police brutality occurs mostly.

  1. The states and cities where it happened

  2. The type of agencies where police brutality happens the most.

 

 

 

Annotated Bibliography

  1. Worden, R. E. (2015). The ‘causes’ of police brutality: theory and evidence on police use of force. Criminal justice theory: Explaining the nature and behavior of criminal justice, 149-204.

According to this source, racism has been a problem in the US, and it has led to a rift between the blacks and the whites. Segregation of race led to inequalities in the society, and this made the blacks to conduct themselves in a different way to prevent them from messing up with the authorities. The inequalities are viewed as a key factor that led to bad relationships between the police and the blacks in the US. African Americans discourage police conduct because of the fear of being brutalized. Racism is a key factor in police brutality.

  1. Skolnick, J. H., & Bayley, D. H. (1986). The new blue line: Police innovation in six American cities. Simon and Schuster.

This source views New York City as a hot spot for police brutality. In New York City, police brutality is not a new thing as it started a long time ago. The use of excessive power by the police in the New York State has been rampant mostly on African Americans. Police brutality happens mostly in areas where the population of blacks is high, and New York State is one of these places. In America, the skin color of a citizen can determine how the police can treat them.

  1. Davis, P. L. (1994). Rodney King and the decriminalization of police brutality in America: Direct and judicial access to the grand jury as remedies for victims of police brutality when the prosecutor declines to prosecute. Md. L. Rev., 53, 271.

According to this source in America, the police kill more people compared to other first world countries. A study in 2015 showed that the police officers harm five blacks for every one Caucasian citizen they brutalize. Police brutality in the US kills the blacks at the rate of 31.17 for everyone million black people and kills the whites at the rate of 1.47 for every million whites. At least 102 black people who are unarmed are killed by the police twice a weak.

  1. Lawrence, R. G. (2000). The politics of force: Media and the construction of police brutality. Univ of California Press.

According to this source, police brutality refers to the violation of the civil rights where police officers apply force against the citizens, which is excess. It can be verbal or physical harassment causing damage to property, injury to individuals, or even death. One of the laws that are against police brutality is Title 6 of the civil rights act, which makes it illegal for police officers to discriminate against citizens on the basis of gender, race, nationality, or religion.

  1. Hymon, D. A. (2020). Use of Force Citizen Complaints, Use of Force Violations, and Early Intervention (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Crime control and due process represent two other perfect cases of criminal justice. One might tell they are extremes on the continuum. The part of crime power is to take the offender off the street and to defend the innocent. This due process framework of criminal justice is like the obstacle way. You have to make going through legal obstacles to guarantee in the long run. You judge the good person. In Canada these police tend toward crime power and that courts tend toward the due process. -the crime control framework and the expected process framework represent two distinct yet similar models. This cost described by Herbert Pecker, and this are used in the criminal justice process. Nevertheless, how valuable are these simulations at the criminal justice process? And is it essential for us to take both models, which to the point perform the same results?

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