Fill This Form To Receive Instant Help

Help in Homework
trustpilot ratings
google ratings

Homework answers / question archive / 1



1. What is the best method for minimizing the risk to the validity of a research study?


         a. Randomization of treatment conditions

         b. Using a homogeneous research sample

         c. Implementing statistical control

         d. Pair matching participants


2. What is the key function of a quantitative research design?

         a. Ruling out possible threats to the validity of the results

         b. Allowing for the presence of confounding participant characteristic

         c. Preventing the unintended existence of a randomizing block design

         d. Implementing a variety of instrumentation models to assure effect data collection


3. What type of validity is best enhanced by the implementation of an intention-to-treat analysis?

         a. External

         b. Internal

         c. Construct

         d. Statistical conclusion


4. What term is used to identify the ability to detect true relationships among a collection of variables?

         a. Compensatory effect

         b. Manipulation check

         c. Statistical control

         d. Statistical power


5. What term is used to denote the inability to show the exactness of the relationships after the confounding variables have been controlled?

         a. Mortality

         b. Maturation

         c. Low precision

         d. High statistical control


6. . What characteristic is associated with a questionnaire?

         a. Timely

         b. Cost-effective

         c. Self-administered

         d. Fosters relationships


7. Which type of analysis focuses on previously gathered data?

         a. Needs

         b. Secondary

         c. Cost utilization

         d. Cost-effectiveness


8. Which type of research examines the effectiveness of nursing services?

         a. Needs

         b. Process

         c. Outcomes

         d. Cost-benefit


9. Experimental testing of a treatment for efficacy is associated with which phase of a clinical trial?

         a. Phase I

         b. Phase II

         c. Phase III

         d. Phase IV


10. What factor is considered when examining the process associated with the outcomes of effective health care delivery?

         a. Nursing decision making

         b. Organizational climate

         c. Nursing skills

         d. Comorbidities


11. What is the process of selecting a portion of a population for the purpose of data collection called?

         a. Sampling

         b. Targeting

         c. Stratifying

         d. Clustering


12. What is the most usual element of a nursing research sample?

         a. An intervention associated with nursing care

         b. A patient receiving nursing care

         c. The evaluation of nursing care

         d. A nursing-related outcome


13. What characteristic is basic to determining who will eventually participate in a research study?

         a. Being a member of the identified target population

         b. Ability of researcher to avoid sampling bias

         c. Meeting the eligibility criteria

         d. Demonstrating accessibility


14. What exists when information is gathered from a sampling that demonstrates an underrepresentation of some segment of the target population?

         a. Bias sampling

         b. Quota sampling

         c. Snowball sampling

         d. Convenience sampling


15. What type of sampling uses a case list from which every fifth case is selected for inclusion in the study?

         a. Systematic

         b. Consecutive

         c. Simple random

         d. Multistage random


16. What term is used to identify a tool used to conduct formal data collection that provides constraints on both those collecting and those providing the information?

         a. Interview schedule

         b. Questionnaire

         c. Instrument

         d. Checklist


17. Narrative responses are appropriate for which type of questions?

         a. Dichotomous

         b. Rank-order

         c. Open-ended

         d. Rating


18. Which type of closed-ended questioning format is used to measure pain?

         a. Multiple choice

         b. Forced choice

         c. Visual analog

         d. Rank order


19. Which evaluation scale provides responses that range from strongly agree to strongly disagree?

         a. Likert

         b. Checklist

         c. Event sampling

         d. Semantic differential


20. What phenomenon is likely to occur when an observer is influenced by one characteristic when judging other, unrelated characteristics?

         a. Halo effect

         b. Contrast effect

         c. Error of leniency

         d. Response set bias


21. What term is used to identify the assigning of numbers to objects, using a specified set of rules, in order to represent the amount of a specific quality or characteristic that is present?

         a. Measurement

         b. Psychometrics

         c. Reflective scale

         d. Formative index


22. Obtained scores are features used in which psychometric theory of measurement?

         a. Item response

         b. Classical test

         c. Test-retest

         d. Change


23. Which tool can be used as a criteria for assessing change associated with the measurement of responsiveness?

         a. Reflective scales

         b. Area under the curve

         c. Reliable change index

         d. Health transition ratings


24. What index is used to determine whether a change in a person's score over time is reliable?

         a. Smallest detectable change (SDC)

         b. Reliability of a change score

         c. Test-retest reliability

         d. Interrater reliability


25. What term is associated with the degree to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure?

         a. Internal consistency

         b. Sensitivity

         c. Specificity

         d. Validity


26. Early in the development of a scale, the construct or latent trait should be measured for which characteristic?

         a. Simplicity

         b. Relevance

         c. Readability

         d. Dimensionality


27. In addition to clarity, scale items should be inspected for what negative characteristic?

         a. Negative stems

         b. References to time

         c. Inclusion in other scales

         d. Inappropriate use of jargon


28. What scale characteristic is strengthened by the inclusion of a calculation of quantitative index?

         a. Readability

         b. Good wording

         c. Item relevance

         d. Content validity


29. Typically, how many respondents of the target population should a development sample of the scale be administered to?

         a. 100

         b. 200

         c. 300

         d. 400


30. Structural validity of a scale is achieved through application of which validation technique?

         a. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)

         b. Principal axis factor analysis

         c. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)

         d. Inter-item correlations


31. Which level of measurement classifies characteristics into mutually exclusive categories?

         a. Nominal

         b. Ordinal

         c. Interval

         d. Ratio


32. Which type of measurement imposes order to raw data by assigning numeric values and ordering these values from lowest to highest?

         a. Descriptive statistics

         b. Modality distribution

         c. Ordinal measurement

         d. Frequency distributions


33. What term is used to describe a distribution that has one tail longer than the other?

         a. Symmetric

         b. Unimodal

         c. Skewed

         d. Normal


34. What term is used to describe the most commonly observed value in a distribution?

         a. Mean

         b. Mode

         c. Medium

         d. Central tendency


35. What graphic tool can be used to display the relationship between two continuous variables?

         a. Spearman rho coefficient

         b. Pearson's r coefficient

         c. Crosstabs table

         d. Scatter plot

36. What form of statistics can predict whether a sampling error is too great to be reliable?

         a. Inferential

         b. Point estimation

         c. Interval estimation

         d. Confidence interval (CI)


37. When a null hypothesis is incorrectly rejected, what type of error exists?

         a. Sampling

         b. Standard

         c. Type II

         d. Type I


38. Most hypothesis testing involves which form of testing?

         a. One-tailed

         b. Two-tailed

         c. Nonparametric

         d. Statistically significant


39. Which test is used to determine the significance of difference between three or more groups being studies?

         a. One-way ANOVA

         b. Two-way ANOVA

         c. Chi-square

         d. Cramér's V


40. What term is used to identify the tendency for statistics to vary from one sampling to another?

         a. Sampling error

         b. Standard error of the mean

         c. Standard error of the difference

         d. Sampling distribution of the mean


41. What method is being used by nursing researchers to address the complex relationships among three or more variables?

         a. Least-squares estimation

         b. Likelihood ration testing

         c. Maximum likelihood estimation

         d. Multivariate statistical procedures


42. What is a regression analysis used for?

         a. Selecting the most predictive combination of variables

         b. Association of variations among variables

         c. Probability of a null hypothesis

         d. Prediction of outcomes


43. Which statistic is used to predict the probability of an outcome?

         a. Survival analysis

         b. Logistic regression

         c. Causal modeling

         d. Goodness-of-fit chi-square


44. What test can be used when attempting to determine how close a model is to the perfect model?

         a. Pseudo R2

         b. Nagelkerke R2

         c. Hosmer-Lemeshow

         d. Structural equations modeling


45. What analysis would be appropriate when the dependent variable of interest is a time interval?

         a. Path analysis

         b. Wald statistic

         c. Cox regression

         d. Multivariate analysis of variance


46. Besides legitimate data, what is a focus for the development of codes when considering quantitative data?

         a. Data cleaning

         b. Missing values

         c. Pair imputation

         d. Consistency checks


47. Which is an example of an imputation strategy?

         a. Listwise deletion

         b. Pairwise deletion

         c. Variable deletion

         d. Mean substitution


48. Which term is used to describe a variable with a value that is restricted at the upper end of a continuum?


         a. Extreme outlier

         b. Floor effect

         c. Ceiling effect

         d. Table shell


49. What is the focus of data transformation?

         a. Estimating missing values

         b. Deleting unsupported variables

         c. Analyzing the direction of biases

         d. Transforming data to meet statistical assumptions


50. What type of design randomly assigned participants to different treatment-order groups?

         a. Cohort

         b. Pooling

         c. Crossover

         d. Statistical

Purchase A New Answer

Custom new solution created by our subject matter experts