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Homework answers / question archive / 1

a. Randomization of treatment conditions

b. Using a homogeneous research sample

c. Implementing statistical control

d. Pair matching participants

2. What is the key function of a quantitative research design?

a. Ruling out possible threats to the validity of the results

b. Allowing for the presence of confounding participant characteristic

c. Preventing the unintended existence of a randomizing block design

d. Implementing a variety of instrumentation models to assure effect data collection

3. What type of validity is best enhanced by the implementation of an intention-to-treat analysis?

a. External

b. Internal

c. Construct

d. Statistical conclusion

4. What term is used to identify the ability to detect true relationships among a collection of variables?

a. Compensatory effect

b. Manipulation check

c. Statistical control

d. Statistical power

5. What term is used to denote the inability to show the exactness of the relationships after the confounding variables have been controlled?

a. Mortality

b. Maturation

c. Low precision

d. High statistical control

6. . What characteristic is associated with a questionnaire?

a. Timely

b. Cost-effective

c. Self-administered

d. Fosters relationships

7. Which type of analysis focuses on previously gathered data?

a. Needs

b. Secondary

c. Cost utilization

d. Cost-effectiveness

8. Which type of research examines the effectiveness of nursing services?

a. Needs

b. Process

c. Outcomes

d. Cost-benefit

9. Experimental testing of a treatment for efficacy is associated with which phase of a clinical trial?

a. Phase I

b. Phase II

c. Phase III

d. Phase IV

10. What factor is considered when examining the process associated with the outcomes of effective health care delivery?

a. Nursing decision making

b. Organizational climate

c. Nursing skills

d. Comorbidities

11. What is the process of selecting a portion of a population for the purpose of data collection called?

a. Sampling

b. Targeting

c. Stratifying

d. Clustering

12. What is the most usual element of a nursing research sample?

a. An intervention associated with nursing care

b. A patient receiving nursing care

c. The evaluation of nursing care

d. A nursing-related outcome

13. What characteristic is basic to determining who will eventually participate in a research study?

a. Being a member of the identified target population

b. Ability of researcher to avoid sampling bias

c. Meeting the eligibility criteria

d. Demonstrating accessibility

14. What exists when information is gathered from a sampling that demonstrates an underrepresentation of some segment of the target population?

a. Bias sampling

b. Quota sampling

c. Snowball sampling

d. Convenience sampling

15. What type of sampling uses a case list from which every fifth case is selected for inclusion in the study?

a. Systematic

b. Consecutive

c. Simple random

d. Multistage random

16. What term is used to identify a tool used to conduct formal data collection that provides constraints on both those collecting and those providing the information?

a. Interview schedule

b. Questionnaire

c. Instrument

d. Checklist

17. Narrative responses are appropriate for which type of questions?

a. Dichotomous

b. Rank-order

c. Open-ended

d. Rating

18. Which type of closed-ended questioning format is used to measure pain?

a. Multiple choice

b. Forced choice

c. Visual analog

d. Rank order

19. Which evaluation scale provides responses that range from strongly agree to strongly disagree?

a. Likert

b. Checklist

c. Event sampling

d. Semantic differential

20. What phenomenon is likely to occur when an observer is influenced by one characteristic when judging other, unrelated characteristics?

a. Halo effect

b. Contrast effect

c. Error of leniency

d. Response set bias

21. What term is used to identify the assigning of numbers to objects, using a specified set of rules, in order to represent the amount of a specific quality or characteristic that is present?

a. Measurement

b. Psychometrics

c. Reflective scale

d. Formative index

22. Obtained scores are features used in which psychometric theory of measurement?

a. Item response

b. Classical test

c. Test-retest

d. Change

23. Which tool can be used as a criteria for assessing change associated with the measurement of responsiveness?

a. Reflective scales

b. Area under the curve

c. Reliable change index

d. Health transition ratings

24. What index is used to determine whether a change in a person's score over time is reliable?

a. Smallest detectable change (SDC)

b. Reliability of a change score

c. Test-retest reliability

d. Interrater reliability

25. What term is associated with the degree to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure?

a. Internal consistency

b. Sensitivity

c. Specificity

d. Validity

26. Early in the development of a scale, the construct or latent trait should be measured for which characteristic?

a. Simplicity

b. Relevance

c. Readability

d. Dimensionality

27. In addition to clarity, scale items should be inspected for what negative characteristic?

a. Negative stems

b. References to time

c. Inclusion in other scales

d. Inappropriate use of jargon

28. What scale characteristic is strengthened by the inclusion of a calculation of quantitative index?

a. Readability

b. Good wording

c. Item relevance

d. Content validity

29. Typically, how many respondents of the target population should a development sample of the scale be administered to?

a. 100

b. 200

c. 300

d. 400

30. Structural validity of a scale is achieved through application of which validation technique?

a. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)

b. Principal axis factor analysis

c. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)

d. Inter-item correlations

31. Which level of measurement classifies characteristics into mutually exclusive categories?

a. Nominal

b. Ordinal

c. Interval

d. Ratio

32. Which type of measurement imposes order to raw data by assigning numeric values and ordering these values from lowest to highest?

a. Descriptive statistics

b. Modality distribution

c. Ordinal measurement

d. Frequency distributions

33. What term is used to describe a distribution that has one tail longer than the other?

a. Symmetric

b. Unimodal

c. Skewed

d. Normal

34. What term is used to describe the most commonly observed value in a distribution?

a. Mean

b. Mode

c. Medium

d. Central tendency

35. What graphic tool can be used to display the relationship between two continuous variables?

a. Spearman rho coefficient

b. Pearson's r coefficient

c. Crosstabs table

d. Scatter plot

36. What form of statistics can predict whether a sampling error is too great to be reliable?

a. Inferential

b. Point estimation

c. Interval estimation

d. Confidence interval (CI)

37. When a null hypothesis is incorrectly rejected, what type of error exists?

a. Sampling

b. Standard

c. Type II

d. Type I

38. Most hypothesis testing involves which form of testing?

a. One-tailed

b. Two-tailed

c. Nonparametric

d. Statistically significant

39. Which test is used to determine the significance of difference between three or more groups being studies?

a. One-way ANOVA

b. Two-way ANOVA

c. Chi-square

d. Cramér's V

40. What term is used to identify the tendency for statistics to vary from one sampling to another?

a. Sampling error

b. Standard error of the mean

c. Standard error of the difference

d. Sampling distribution of the mean

41. What method is being used by nursing researchers to address the complex relationships among three or more variables?

a. Least-squares estimation

b. Likelihood ration testing

c. Maximum likelihood estimation

d. Multivariate statistical procedures

42. What is a regression analysis used for?

a. Selecting the most predictive combination of variables

b. Association of variations among variables

c. Probability of a null hypothesis

d. Prediction of outcomes

43. Which statistic is used to predict the probability of an outcome?

a. Survival analysis

b. Logistic regression

c. Causal modeling

d. Goodness-of-fit chi-square

44. What test can be used when attempting to determine how close a model is to the perfect model?

a. Pseudo R2

b. Nagelkerke R2

c. Hosmer-Lemeshow

d. Structural equations modeling

45. What analysis would be appropriate when the dependent variable of interest is a time interval?

a. Path analysis

b. Wald statistic

c. Cox regression

d. Multivariate analysis of variance

46. Besides legitimate data, what is a focus for the development of codes when considering quantitative data?

a. Data cleaning

b. Missing values

c. Pair imputation

d. Consistency checks

47. Which is an example of an imputation strategy?

a. Listwise deletion

b. Pairwise deletion

c. Variable deletion

d. Mean substitution

48. Which term is used to describe a variable with a value that is restricted at the upper end of a continuum?

a. Extreme outlier

b. Floor effect

c. Ceiling effect

d. Table shell

49. What is the focus of data transformation?

a. Estimating missing values

b. Deleting unsupported variables

c. Analyzing the direction of biases

d. Transforming data to meet statistical assumptions

50. What type of design randomly assigned participants to different treatment-order groups?

a. Cohort

b. Pooling

c. Crossover

d. Statistical