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Homework answers / question archive / QUESTION 1Which of the following would be considered a 'Primary' source?a

QUESTION 1Which of the following would be considered a 'Primary' source?a


QUESTION 1Which of the following would be considered a 'Primary' source?a.A textbook

  4. b.A peer reviewed study in an academic journal
  6. c.A Wikipedia entry
  7. d.A business magazine (e.g., Fortune or Forbes)

1 points  


  1. Science, as described in Chapter 5 of the text, has a number of limitations. Taken as a whole, these limitations ______________________________________________.
  2. a.severely curtail the applicability of most scientific studies. All studies are prone to these limitations.
  3. b.serve as useful checks to identify the relative validity of scientific studies. That is, we know what to check for.
  4. c.are manipulated by unethical researchers when they seek to convince readers of self-serving conclusions.
  5. d.treated by research methodologists as a test for what should and should not be considered factual information.

1 points  


  1. What sets Influencing Outcomes (Rosenzweig's 'Second Field') apart from the other decision types? 
  2. a.The complexity of the process involves multiple moving parts (competitors, suppliers, business environments, etc.) making it more difficult to understand.
  3. b.Unlike the Routine types of decisions, Actions the decision maker take can alter the outcome.
  4. c.Success is measured relative to the success of others (basic competition).
  5. d. Control and Performance are balanced when one can influence a decision.

1 points  


  1. The term Conventional Wisdom is used to refer to the rationale used by some organizations to make decisions, relying on organizational or industry experience from the past to inform present day decisions. What is likely true about the practice?
  2. a.Conventional Wisdom is tried and true and if didn't lead to better decisions, then organizations wouldn't use it.
  3. b.Conventional Wisdom is only valid for Strategic DecisConventional Wisdom is only valid for Strategic Decisions, Tactical Decisions require direct observation.ions, Tactical Decisions require direct observation.
  4. c.Conventional Wisdom may represent plausible theory, but, until tested with up-to-date data, should be treated with healthy skepticism. 
  5. d.All of the above.

1 points  


  1. The text has some concerns about 'truth' or 'proof', at least as they are employed in the world of evidence-based decision making. What are these concerns?
  2. a.Only a very few studies are of sufficient quality and rigor to establish 'truth' in a general manner.
  3. b.The practice of evidence-based decision making is the only way to establish proof. Other methods do not meet basic deductive reasoning requirements.
  4. c.Given the complexities of most decisions and the probabilistic nature of the world, finding universal truths is impractical (if not impossible).
  5. d.Given the nature of how we perceive reality, there can be no such thing as a 'truth.'

1 points  


  1. What is the purpose of the PICOP (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Context) conceptual tool in evidence-based management? 
  2. a.To provide a method for specifying the nature of the needed evidence. To help formulate the problem to be solved.
  3. b.To help broaden the context of the experiment to be conducted.
  4. c.It provides detailed representation of the entire decision model. This provides a template for Stakeholder assessment.
  5. d.It helps to place the research on the Pyramid of Evidence.

1 points  


  1. The term "Saticficing," as coined by Herbert Simon (and for which, in part, he earned a Noble Prize in Economics), refers to which of the following?
  2. a.The most inclusive decision style.
  3. b.A process for adding "structure" to unstructured decision types.
  4. c.Having a satisfactory conclusion to a decision process.
  5. d.Ending the "Search" process when an acceptable, but likely sub-optimal, solution is found.

1 points  


  1. Which of the following is NOT a source used to inform an evidence-based decision practice? 
  2. a.Public opinion
  3. b.Practitioners
  4. c.Scientific literature
  5. d.Stakeholders

1 points  


  1. Which of the following must be present before a decision maker should conclude that a cause-and-effect relationship exists between two things (e.g. that X causes Y)?
  2. a.There must be a plausible theory to explain the relationship.
  3. b.If X causes Y, then X must occur (change) before Y.
  4. c.There must be concomitant variation. When X changes, Y must change in a predictable manner.
  5. d.There can be no other more practical explanation of why Y changes (through either intervening or background variables)
  6. e.All of the above

2 points  


  1. The Rational Model describes a logical path to making optimal decisions. Why are there competing theories?
  2. a.These other theories outline more details of the deductive reasoning (i.e., logical) process specifically for business decisions.
  3. b.While nice in theory, the rational model does not describe the way that people actually make decisions, so more descriptive models were needed.
  4. c.The Rational Model doesn't help in routine or tactical situations.
  5. d.It not true that people aren't rational and, therefore, they actually do use this model. The other theories only explain very specific decisions.

1 points  


  1. What characterizes the differences in the various levels of the "Pyramid of Evidence"? 
  2. a.The Authority of the authors.
  3. b.Whether or not the research is "longitudinal."
  4. c.The size of the sample used for the inference.
  5. d.The extent to which any relationship between the variables can be established.

1 points  


  1. Despite recommending that readers skim the Introduction (Theory) and Middle (Hypothesis Development) and Results (Outcomes) parts of a research article, the authors of the text suggest that the Methodology section be read in its entirety. Why?
  2. a.Learning about the methods employed will help the reader establish the extent to which the conclusions should be trusted.
  3. b.How things are studied are more important than what things are studied.
  4. c.Peer reviewed research assumes that the reader has a good understanding of the theory and hypotheses, but methods vary.
  5. d.The Results section is usually full of incomprehensible statistical formulas.

2 points  


  1. Which model of decision-making views decisions based upon the perceived urgency of action?
  3. a.The Rational Model
  4. b.The Garbage Can Model
  5. c.Simon's Bounded Rationality
  6. d.System I & System II Thinking

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